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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that was first identified in Brazil in 2014. It causes a febrile illness characterised by severe arthralgia and rash. Our group investigated a suspected CHIKV outbreak in Governador Valadares, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil and from 25 acute-phase patients, 10 had qRT-PCR positive sera samples and had E1 partial sequence amplified and Sanger sequenced. Samples were identified as East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype by phylogenetic analysis and clustered with CHIKV sequences isolated in the neighbour state of Bahia. Our findings confirm previous predictions that ECSA genotype would spread through northeast and southeast of Brazil.
The objective of this study was to examine temporal trends in mental health visits to the emergency department (ED) and to determine differences in length of stay (LOS) between mental health visits and visits for non-mental health conditions.
A population-based retrospective study was conducted for patients who visited the ED of an academic hospital located in Toronto, ON, between fiscal years 2012 and 2016. Trends in the number of visits and descriptive statistics were calculated for both mental health and non-mental health groups. Quantile regression was used to compare the median and 90th percentile LOS.
In five years, the absolute increase in the number of mental health visits to the ED was 55.7%. The 90th percentile LOS was similar for mental and non-mental health visits that were internally transferred (10.7 hours v. 8.3 hours) but significantly higher for those who were discharged (11.4 hours v. 7.3 hours), admitted (52.6 hours v. 29.3 hours), and externally transferred (21.9 hours v. 10.0 hours). After adjusting for other variables, the 90th percentile LOS was 3.3 hours longer for mental health visits resulting in discharge (p<0.001), 24.5 hours longer for those admitted (p<0.001), and 12.7 hours longer for those externally transferred (p<0.001).
The number of mental health visits to the ED is linearly increasing over time, and the LOS in the ED is significantly longer for mental health visits for almost all discharge dispositions. Thus, systematic changes are needed to address the ED capacity to provide care for the growing mental health population.
We analyze the data from the 6 gravitational waves signals detected by LIGO through the lens of multifractal formalism using the MFDMA method, as well as shuffled and surrogate procedures. We identified two regimes of multifractality in the strain measure of the time series by examining long memory and the presence of nonlinearities. The moment used to divide the series into two parts separates these two regimes and can be interpreted as the moment of collision between the black holes. An empirical relationship between the variation in left side diversity and the chirp mass of each event was also determined.
Minerals are limiting factors in animal production, and the knowledge of mineral requirements for livestock is crucial to the success of a commercial enterprise. Hair sheep may have different mineral requirements than those presents by the international committees. A study was carried to evaluate the net calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) requirements for the growth and maintenance of Brazilian Somali lambs. A total of 48 hair lambs (13.5±1.8 kg) aged 60±15 days were allocated to individual pens. Eight animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to serve as a reference group to estimate initial empty BW (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining lambs (n=40) were assigned to a completely randomized design with eight replications in five levels of metabolizable energy (ME; 4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg DM). When the lambs of a given treatment reached an average BW of 28 kg, they were slaughtered. Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. Mineral body composition was fit using a logarithmic equation in the form of a nonlinear model. The maintenance requirements were estimated from regressions of mineral retention in the empty body on mineral intake. The body mineral concentration decreased in lambs with a BW ranging from 15 to 30 kg. The net mineral requirements (100 g/day of average daily gain (ADG)) decreased from 0.52 to 0.51 g for Ca, 0.28 to 0.23 g for P, 0.02 to 0.02 g for Mg, 0.09 to 0.08 g for Na, 0.11 to 0.09 g for K, 1.30 to 1.08 mg for Zn, 3.77 to 3.22 mg for Fe, 0.08 to 0.06 mg for Mn and 0.09 to 0.08 mg for Cu when BW increased from 15 to 30 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 30.13 mg of Ca, 27.58 mg of P, 1.26 mg of Mg, 4.12 mg of Na, 8.11 mg of K, 0.133 mg of Zn, 0.271 mg of Fe, 0.002 mg of Mn and 0.014 mg of Cu. The results of this study indicate that the net mineral requirements for weight gain and maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs are different than the values that are commonly recommended by the main evaluation systems for feed and nutritional requirements for sheep. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to optimize mineral supply for hair sheep.
Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae), popularly known as arnica, is a plant species subjected to non-timber forest products extraction. Evidence is mounting that some local populations are on the brink of extinction. However, demographic studies of Lychnophora ericoides are rare. Therefore, as a step towards conservation, a remnant population of Lychnophora ericoides located in an area of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) in Central Brazil was evaluated from 2010 through 2014. Disturbances such as wildfires and harvesting of Lychnophora ericoides were randomly distributed throughout the study period in this area. Four annual transition matrices (A1, A2, A3 and A4) were constructed, based on life stages. The main results of studies of population dynamics for this species are as follows: 1) population growth rates (λ) with 95% confidence intervals indicated a declining population in all periods from 2010 to 2014; 2) stochastic population growth rate considering the four matrices was < 1 with value λ = 0.358 and CI95% = (0.354–0.362); 3) survival with permanence at the same stage of reproductive adult individuals (46–80%) contributed most to population growth rate, based on elasticity analysis; 4) the population is much less likely to have increases in density, compared with reduction, for all intervals from 2010 to 2014, based on transient indices; 5) the low value of λ in the high-mortality year was caused by lower stasis of individuals in the seedling or sapling and juvenile life stages, as well as fecundity in the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 intervals, as shown by a life table response experiment; and 6) 100% of the population will probably be extinct within 15 years. There is evidence that the main cause for local extinction of Lychnophora ericoides could be the effects of frequent wildfires. Based on these results, it is suggested that the time has come for significant conservation efforts to rescue this population, including monitoring, protection and education as the first steps towards protection of this vulnerable plant species.
Endothelial function is a key mechanism in the development of CVD. Arginine and exercise are important non-pharmacological strategies for mitigating the impact of metabolic changes in the metabolic syndrome, but the effect of their combined administration is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the isolated and combined effects of aerobic training and arginine supplementation on metabolic variables and vascular reactivity in rats at high risk for developing the metabolic syndrome. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and fructose (F – water with 10 % fructose). After 2 weeks, the F group was divided into four groups: F, fructose+arginine (FA, 880 mg/kg per d of l-arginine), fructose+training (FT) and fructose+arginine+training (FTA); treatments lasted for 8 weeks, and no difference was observed in body mass gain. Arginine did not improve the body protein content, and both the FA and FT groups show a reversal of the increase in adipose tissue. Insulin increase was prevented by training and arginine, without additive effect, and the increase in serum TAG was prevented only by training. The F group showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and hyperreactivity to phenylephrine, but arginine and training were capable of preventing these effects, even separately. Higher nitric oxide level was observed in the FA and FT groups, and no potentiating effect was detected. Thus, only training was able to prevent the increase in TAG and improve the protein mass, and training and arginine exert similar effects on fat content, insulin and endothelial function, but these effects are not additive.
The influence of a single roughness element on the evolution of two-dimensional (2-D) Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves is investigated experimentally. Experiments are carried out in a region of zero pressure gradient of an airfoil section. Downstream from the disturbance source, TS waves interact with a cylindrical roughness element with a slowly oscillating height. The oscillation frequency of the roughness was approximately 1500 times lower than the wave frequency and approximately 250 times slower than the characteristic time of flow passing the region of transition development. Therefore, the roughness behaved as a quasi-steady disturbance. The set-up enabled us to perform hot-wire measurements phase locked to the waves and to the roughness movement. Experimental results show a scattering of the 2-D waves into oblique ones and a relatively weak distortion of the mean flow for roughness heights as large as 0.2 times the boundary layer displacement thickness (
). Transfer functions for TS wave scattering at the roughness are obtained. Results show an unexpected coincidence in shape with acoustic receptivity functions found in Würz et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 478, 2003, pp. 135–163) for the problem of excitation of TS waves by scattering of acoustic waves at surface roughness. In the present work, the ratio between the incoming 2-D wave amplitude to the amplitude of the scattered oblique waves scaled linearly with the roughness height only for very shallow roughness. For roughness elements higher than
, the wave scattering exhibited a quadratic variation with respect to the roughness height. In addition, this feature did not vary significantly with respect to TS wave frequency. An analysis of the weakly nonlinear interactions triggered by the roughness element is also carried out, assisted by numerical solution of nonlinear parabolized stability equations, performed for a two-dimensional Blasius boundary layer. A comparison between experiments and simulations reveals that the weakly nonlinear interactions observed are not substantially affected by mean flow distortions that could be produced in the wake of the small and medium sized roughness elements (
). From a practical perspective, results suggest that scattering coefficients might be employed to include the effect of isolated and medium sized roughness elements in transition prediction tools developed for smooth surfaces.
Wave modulation is an unavoidable ingredient of natural transition and wavepackets composed of a continuous range of frequencies and wavenumbers are considered as a good model for it. Conclusions regarding wavepacket nonlinear regimes are essentially based on comparison of the dominant mode in the modulated signal nonlinear bands with predictions of the most unstable mode in the corresponding unmodulated cases. The modulated signal bands are very broad and establishing the dominant mode is difficult. If the Reynolds number changes along the packet evolution, the bands also change to adapt to local conditions, which further hinders data interpretation and weakens the conclusions. In view of this, a study at a constant Reynolds number is proposed, the Poiseuille plane flow being chosen as the base flow. The flow choice also allowed an investigation of the phenomenon at different positions in the stability loop, an aspect that has never been addressed before. The work was numerical. Only spanwise modulation was considered and two different regimes were observed. Close to the first branch of the instability loop the packet splits into two patches. Oblique transition was the dominant nonlinear mechanism, which required spanwise interaction of packets. Elsewhere the dominant mechanism was fundamental instability (or
-type), which was fed by a previous nonlinear phenomenon and led to a subsequent one. The analysis involved comparison of growth rates, threshold amplitudes and amplitude scalings among other aspects, for modulated and corresponding unmodulated cases. Perfect agreement was found if appropriate variables were used, which enabled firm conclusions to be drawn about the phenomena investigated. This level of agreement was only possible because of the constant Reynolds number character of the flow, but the main conclusions are applicable to other wall shear flows.
Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages. We used molecular methods to screen 1343 individuals of 30 manakin species for the presence of parasites. We found no significant correlations between manakin parasite lineage turnover and both manakin species turnover and geographic distance. Climate differences, species turnover in the larger bird community and parasite lineage turnover in non-manakin hosts did not correlate with manakin parasite lineage turnover. We also found no evidence that manakin parasite lineage turnover among host species correlates with range overlap and genetic divergence among hosts. Our analyses indicate that host switching (turnover among host species) and dispersal (turnover among locations) of haemosporidian parasites in manakins are not constrained at this scale.
Although Brazil is the centre with the third highest diversity of Cactaceae, the distribution of species at the local scale in Brazil remains largely unknown. This article describes the distribution patterns of the Cactaceae communities in the protected area of the Contendas do Sincorá National Forest (CSNF) in a semiarid region in the north-east of Brazil. Trails were distributed between the altitudes of 290 and 596 m, along which 91 plots (1.8 ha) were established for quantitative surveys. The floristic data were also recorded separately on these trails. With the floristic survey, 18 taxa were recorded, and the quantitative surveys within the plots identified 10 species, represented by 1135 individuals. The distribution patterns of the species of Cactaceae were intermittent, which provided a likely explanation for the differences between the floristic survey and the species composition of the plots. The largest fraction of the floristic variation was not explained by environment or space, and this may be related to climatic alterations in the past, evolutionary processes, natural and anthropic disturbances and other unmeasured environmental variables. The recorded endemic, vulnerable and endangered species of the caatingas of Bahia indicate that broader protection areas for the Cactaceae species in the region of the CSNF are necessary.
Waterborne illness related to the consumption of contaminated or inadequately treated water is a global public health concern. Although the magnitude of drinking water-related illnesses in developed countries is lower than that observed in developing regions of the world, drinking water is still responsible for a proportion of all cases of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in Canada. The estimated burden of endemic AGI in Canada is 20·5 million cases annually – this estimate accounts for under-reporting and under-diagnosis. About 4 million of these cases are domestically acquired and foodborne, yet the proportion of waterborne cases is unknown. There is evidence that individuals served by private systems and small community systems may be more at risk of waterborne illness than those served by municipal drinking water systems in Canada. However, little is known regarding the contribution of these systems to the overall drinking water-related AGI burden in Canada. Private water supplies serve an estimated 12% of the Canadian population, or ~4·1 million people. An estimated 1·4 million (4·1%) people in Canada are served by small groundwater (2·6%) and surface water (1·5%) supplies. The objective of this research is to estimate the number of AGI cases attributable to water consumption from these supplies in Canada using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. This provides a framework for others to develop burden of waterborne illness estimates for small water supplies. A multi-pathogen QMRA of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, E. coli O157 and norovirus, chosen as index waterborne pathogens, for various source water and treatment combinations was performed. It is estimated that 103 230 AGI cases per year are due to the presence of these five pathogens in drinking water from private and small community water systems in Canada. In addition to providing a mechanism to assess the potential burden of AGI attributed to small systems and private well water in Canada, this research supports the use of QMRA as an effective source attribution tool when there is a lack of randomized controlled trial data to evaluate the public health risk of an exposure source. QMRA is also a powerful tool for identifying existing knowledge gaps on the national scale to inform future surveillance and research efforts.
The estimated burden of endemic acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) annually in Canada is 20·5 million cases. Approximately 4 million of these cases are domestically acquired and foodborne, yet the proportion of waterborne cases is unknown. A number of randomized controlled trials have been completed to estimate the influence of tap water from municipal drinking water plants on the burden of AGI. In Canada, 83% of the population (28 521 761 people) consumes tap water from municipal drinking water plants serving >1000 people. The drinking water-related AGI burden associated with the consumption of water from these systems in Canada is unknown. The objective of this research was to estimate the number of AGI cases attributable to consumption of drinking water from large municipal water supplies in Canada, using data from four household drinking water intervention trials. Canadian municipal water treatment systems were ranked into four categories based on source water type and quality, population size served, and treatment capability and barriers. The water treatment plants studied in the four household drinking water intervention trials were also ranked according to the aforementioned criteria, and the Canadian treatment plants were then scored against these criteria to develop four AGI risk groups. The proportion of illnesses attributed to distribution system events vs. source water quality/treatment failures was also estimated, to inform the focus of future intervention efforts. It is estimated that 334 966 cases (90% probability interval 183 006-501 026) of AGI per year are associated with the consumption of tap water from municipal systems that serve >1000 people in Canada. This study provides a framework for estimating the burden of waterborne illness at a national level and identifying existing knowledge gaps for future research and surveillance efforts, in Canada and abroad.
To evaluate the presence of carotid thickening and its relationship with the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth score.
We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 512 brazilian adolescents. Variables such as sex, body mass index, concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin A1c levels that make up the score, and carotid thickening through the intima-media complex measured by ultrasound were evaluated. We adopted two cut-off points to evaluate carotid thickening, being considered altered for those higher or equal to the z-score 2+ and ⩾75th percentile. The association was assessed using the χ2 test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
High cardiovascular risk was present in 10.2% of the adolescents; carotid thickness was present in 4.3% determined by the z-score 2+ and in 25.0% determined by the 75th percentile. When measured by the z-score, carotid thickening was associated with high systolic blood pressure (p=0.024), high-non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.039), and high cardiovascular risk assessed by the score and by the 75th percentile, with body mass index >30 (p=0.005). In the multivariate analysis, high cardiovascular risk was found to be independently associated with the presence of carotid thickness evaluated by the z-score, with risk four times greater (p=0.010) of presenting with this condition compared with individuals with low risk, and this fact was not observed when factors were analysed alone.
The presence of high cardiovascular risk in adolescents assessed by the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth score was associated with marked thickening of the carotid artery in healthy adolescents.
Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise.
A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration.
Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001).
Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.
The aim of this study was to identify Leptospira in urine samples of cattle by direct sequencing of the secY gene. The validity of this approach was assessed using ten Leptospira strains obtained from cattle in Brazil and 77 DNA samples previously extracted from cattle urine, that were positive by PCR for the genus-specific lipL32 gene of Leptospira. Direct sequencing identified 24 (31·1%) interpretable secY sequences and these were identical to those obtained from direct DNA sequencing of the urine samples from which they were recovered. Phylogenetic analyses identified four species: L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. noguchii, and L. santarosai with the most prevalent genotypes being associated with L. borgpetersenii. While direct sequencing cannot, as yet, replace culturing of leptospires, it is a valid additional tool for epidemiological studies. An unexpected finding from this study was the genetic diversity of Leptospira infecting Brazilian cattle.
A high-resolution study of a marsh sedimentary sequence from the Minho estuary provides a new palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from NW Iberian based on geological proxies supported by historical and instrumental climatic records. A low-salinity tidal flat, dominated by Trochamminita salsa, Haplophragmoides spp. and Cribrostomoides spp., prevailed from AD 140–1360 (Roman Warm Period, Dark Ages, Medieval Climatic Anomaly). This sheltered environment was affected by high hydrodynamic episodes, marked by the increase in silt/clay ratio, decrease of organic matter, and poor and weakly preserved foraminiferal assemblages, suggesting enhanced river runoff. The establishment of low marsh began at AD 1380. This low-salinity environment, marked by colder and wet conditions, persisted from AD 1410–1770 (Little Ice Age), when foraminiferal density increased significantly. Haplophragmoides manilaensis and Trochamminita salsa mark the transition from low to high marsh at AD 1730. Since AD 1780 the abundances of salt marsh species (Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata) increased, accompanied by a decrease in foraminiferal density, reflecting climate instability, when droughts alternate with severe floods. SW Europe marsh foraminifera respond to the hydrological balance, controlled by climatic variability modes (e.g., NAO) and solar activity, thus contributing to the understanding of NE Atlantic climate dynamics.
The Curraleiro, also called Pé-Duro, is the only naturalized bovine breed of Northeastern Brazil. The breed originated via admixture of different Iberian breeds that were introduced during the sixteenth century and the subsequent natural adaptations to the semi-arid environment. The introduction of zebu bovine breeds during the twentieth century led to the replacement of the Curraleiro, which is now on the brink of extinction. With the aim of supporting the establishment of a conservation programme, the present study focused on assessing the management of the existing Curraleiro populations. Data on 2 366 head of cattle were obtained by interviewing 22 owners of Curraleiro herds. The number of animals in the herds varied from 4 to 384. The average herd size was 131.4 (standard deviation = 120.3). All animals were bred under extensive conditions, without any supplementary feed, and in 50 percent of all cases without any specialized technical assistance. Data indicated that breeders maintain the cattle not for economic reasons, but because of tradition. The Curraleiro was characterized by the breeders as being resistant to water stress and parasites. The animals can be bred without feed supplements on all kinds of native-grass pastures. These characteristics, in addition to its low production costs, could make the Curraleiro attractive, especially for low-income families.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the presence of leptospires in equine urine, as evidence for a potential role of horses in transmission of this organism. Thoroughbred horses (aged 2–5 years, n = 276) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. After a severe storm, the premises of the animals remained flooded for 72 h. Blood samples for serology were collected on days 20 and 35 (day of storm = day 0). On day 20, 132 (47·8%) horses were seroreactive (titre ⩾200) and, of these, 23 (31·0%) had increased antibody titres on day 35. Furthermore, 34 urine samples (for PCR and culture) were collected from seroreactive horses on day 35. Copenhageni was the most frequent serovar (88·8% of reactive titres). Although none of the urine samples were culture positive, 12 (35·2%) were PCR positive. This is apparently the first report of evidence of leptospires in urban horses. Furthermore, we suggest that these animals can play a role in the transmission of leptospirosis in urban areas.