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Investigation of personality traits and pathology in large, generalizable clinical cohorts has been hindered by inconsistent assessment and failure to consider a range of personality disorders (PDs) simultaneously.
We applied natural language processing (NLP) of electronic health record notes to characterize a psychiatric inpatient cohort. A set of terms reflecting personality trait domains were derived, expanded, and then refined based on expert consensus. Latent Dirichlet allocation was used to score notes to estimate the extent to which any given note reflected PD topics. Regression models were used to examine the relationship of these estimates with sociodemographic features and length of stay.
Among 3623 patients with 4702 admissions, being male, non-white, having a low burden of medical comorbidity, being admitted through the emergency department, and having public insurance were independently associated with greater levels of disinhibition, detachment, and psychoticism. Being female, white, and having private insurance were independently associated with greater levels of negative affectivity. The presence of disinhibition, psychoticism, and negative affectivity were each significantly associated with a longer stay, while detachment was associated with a shorter stay.
Personality features can be systematically and scalably measured using NLP in the inpatient setting, and some of these features associate with length of stay. Developing treatment strategies for patients scoring high in certain personality dimensions may facilitate more efficient, targeted interventions, and may help reduce the impact of personality features on mental health service utilization.
In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.
We conducted this study to determine what sample volume, concentration, and limit of detection (LOD) are adequate for environmental validation of Legionella control. We also sought to determine whether time required to obtain culture results can be reduced compared to spread-plate culture method. We also assessed whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-field total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB) counts are reliable indicators of Legionella in water samples from buildings.
Comparative Legionella screening and diagnostics study for environmental validation of a healthcare building water system.
Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility water system in central Texas.
We analyzed 50 water samples (26 hot, 24 cold) from 40 sinks and 10 showers using spread-plate cultures (International Standards Organization [ISO] 11731) on samples shipped overnight to the analytical lab. In-field, on-site cultures were obtained using the PVT (Phigenics Validation Test) culture dipslide-format sampler. A PCR assay for genus-level Legionella was performed on every sample.
No practical differences regardless of sample volume filtered were observed. Larger sample volumes yielded more detections of Legionella. No statistically significant differences at the 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL or 10 CFU/mL LOD were observed. Approximately 75% less time was required when cultures were started in the field. The PCR results provided an early warning, which was confirmed by spread-plate cultures. The THAB results did not correlate with Legionella status.
For environmental validation at this facility, we confirmed that (1) 100 mL sample volumes were adequate, (2) 10× concentrations were adequate, (3) 10 CFU/mL LOD was adequate, (4) in-field cultures reliably reduced time to get results by 75%, (5) PCR provided a reliable early warning, and (6) THAB was not predictive of Legionella results.
Using a rigorously collected data set of antimicrobial use among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, antimicrobial use was calculated using 3 different methodologies: daily defined dose, days of therapy, and start–stop days. Estimates of antimicrobial use varied by as much as 10-fold, depending on the type of antimicrobial.
Previous findings have been mixed regarding the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development. The objective of this study was to systematically review relevant literature and to perform a meta-analysis.
Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO) were searched. Initial screening was conducted independently by two reviewers. Studies selected for detailed review were read in full and included based on a set of criteria. Data from selected studies were abstracted onto a standardized form. Meta-analysis using the inverse variance approach and random-effects models was conducted.
The univariate analysis of 14 studies revealed that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores among children aged ⩽56 months (Cohen's d = −0.25, 95% CI −0.39 to −0.12). The synthesis of studies controlling for confounding variables showed that the mean cognitive score for children 6–8 weeks post-partum whose mothers had high depressive symptoms during the first few weeks postpartum was approximately 4.2 units lower on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) compared with children with non-symptomatic mothers (B̂ = −4.17, 95% CI −8.01 to −0.32).
The results indicated that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores in early infancy, after adjusting for confounding factors. An integrated approach for supporting child cognitive development may include program efforts that promote maternal mental health in addition to family economic wellbeing, responsive caregiving, and child nutrition.
The sodium in synthetic faujasite, commercial zeolite-X, was exchanged with copper cations at room temperature. A maximum number of 70 out of 86 Na cations were replaced with 35 copper cations (1). The copper exchanged zeolite was divided in six equal parts. Five of them were calcined at 43, 73, 112, 150 and 195 deg C. After calcination the samples were eluted with saturated solution of ammonium chloride to remove copper cations from open sites (super-cages) of the zeolite (Fig 1). The remaining copper cations were in locked sites (sodalite-cages or hexagonal-prisms). Using XAS edge-jump as a measure of quantitative analysis, we found that 9.0, 11.5, 12.7, 13.3 and 20.0 copper cations were locked at calcination temperatures of 43, 73, 112, 150 and 195 deg C respectively. The analysis of the first shell Fourier Transformed radial distribution shows that cations at site I in the hexagonal-prism and site I ‘ and II ’ in the sodalite-cages, adjacent to site I, are distributed at equal proportion, independent of temperature.
Metal organic framework (MOF) materials are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic crystalline materials whose pore structures and chemical properties can be tailored by the selection of component chemical moieties. Many MOFs have extraordinary intrinsic surface areas, capable of adsorbing large quantities of other chemicals, such as volatile organic compounds or moisture. Upon absorption of guest molecules, many MOFs undergo reversible changes in the dimensions of their unit cells. These properties suggest several routes to chemical sensing in which the transduction mechanisms are: 1) the stress induced at an interface between a flexible MOF layer and a static microcantilever fabricated with a built-in piezoresistive stress sensor; 2) the change in the resonant frequency of an oscillating microcantilever induced by mass adsorption; and 3) the change in the resonant frequency of a acoustic sensor, such as a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor through changes in mass loading and film moduli. This paper focuses on humidity sensing by SAWs coated with Cu3(BTC)2 (HKUST-1) over a very broad concentration range.
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
The oxygen isotopic composition of land-snail shells may provide insight into the source region and trajectory of precipitation. Last glacial maximum (LGM) gastropod shells were sampled from loess from Belgium to Serbia and modern land-snail shells both record δ18O values between 0‰ and − 5‰. There are significant differences in mean fossil shell δ18O between sites but not among genera at a single location. Therefore, we group δ18O values from different genera together to map the spatial distribution of δ18O in shell carbonate. Shell δ18O values reflect the spatial variation in the isotopic composition of precipitation and incorporate the snails' preferential sampling of precipitation during the warm season. Modern shell δ18O decreases in Europe along a N–S gradient from the North Sea inland toward the Alps. Modern observed data of isotopes in precipitation (GNIP) demonstrate a similar trend for low-altitude sites. LGM shell δ18O data show a different gradient with δ18O declining toward the ENE, implying a mid-Atlantic source due to increased sea ice and a possible southern displacement of the westerly jet stream. Balkan LGM samples show the influence of a Mediterranean source, with δ18O values decreasing northward.
This experiment examined the long-term effects of offering diets containing low levels of dietary phosphorus (P) on dairy cow health, fertility and bone composition, and the effect of dietary P level on nutrient utilisation. One hundred winter-calving Holstein–Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either ‘high’ or ‘low’ levels of dietary P over a 4-year period. Rations offered during the winter included grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM, respectively) and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P winter diets, respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P summer diets, respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations from 1 to 4, respectively. Neither the incidence of lameness or mastitis, or milk somatic cell count, were affected by dietary P level (P > 0.05), while none of the fertility parameters recorded in any of lactations from 1 to 4 was affected by the dietary P level (P > 0.05). Dietary P level had no effect on the specific gravity, ash or calcium content of rib cortical bone cores (n = 78 cows), while the P content of cortical bone (g/kg fresh, g/kg DM and mg/ml fresh bone) was lower with cows offered low P diets (P < 0.05). Dietary P level had no significant effect on the digestibility of either the DM, nitrogen, energy or acid detergent fibre fraction of the diet (P > 0.05), while faecal P excretions were reduced by a mean of 27 g/cow per day with cows offered the low P diets during the winter period. The results of this study indicate that dietary P levels can be reduced to proportionately 0.8 (approximately) of current UK feeding standards (Agricultural and Food Research Council, 1991), with no detrimental effect on dairy cow health or fertility, while having only minor effects on bone composition.
Analyses of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of terrestrial leaf waxes and the carbon and nitrogen abundance, ratio, and isotopic composition of bulk sediments from Lake Wandakara, a crater lake in western Uganda, East Africa, document human and climatic controls on the aquatic system and on the surrounding terrestrial vegetation during the past two millennia. Our data indicate that Wandakara was a relatively stable, productive lake surrounded by C3 vegetation from AD 70 to 1000. Abrupt changes in the δ13C of terrestrial leaf waxes indicate a series of abrupt shifts in the relative abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation caused by a combination of climate change and human activities around Wandakara beginning at AD 1000. Abrupt shifts in bulk sediment organic geochemistry, particularly C/N ratios and δ15N, indicate that human activities at this time caused permanent changes in the limnology of Lake Wandakara, including eutrophication. Our results suggest that the biogeochemistry of Lake Wandakara was more sensitive to shifting human impacts than to climate variations during the past millennium, highlighting the importance of understanding the intensity of pre-colonial human impacts on Africa's aquatic ecosystems.
The loss of phosphates from dairy farms contributes to the eutrophication of waterways. Whilst reducing the phosphorus (P) content of dairy cow diets has the potential to help reduce phosphate losses, diets containing inadequate dietary P may have a negative effect on cow health and performance. To address this issue, 100 winter-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either ‘high’ or ‘low’ levels of dietary P. The experiment was conducted over a 4-year period, with 80 primiparous cows commencing the study in year 1, while a further 20 primiparous cows commenced the study in year 2. Rations offered during the winter comprised grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM respectively), and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the ‘high’ and ‘low’ P winter diets respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the ‘high’ and ‘low’ P summer diets respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations 1 to 4 respectively. Dietary P level had no significant effect on food intake, milk output or milk composition (P > 0.05). Plasma P concentrations were significantly lower with cows offered the ‘low’ P diet in each of lactations 1 to 4 (P < 0.05). In each of lactations 3 and 4, cows offered the ‘low’ P diet tended to have lower condition scores and live weights than those offered the ‘high’ P diet. The results of this experiment highlight that the P content of dairy cow diets can be substantially reduced with no detrimental effect on dairy cow performance.
A new salmonella subgenus I serotype is described. Strain C.S. 1608/73, serotype 67: r: 1, 2, was isolated from activated sewage sludge and was assigned the name S. crossness. The serotype is biochemically atypical in its ability to utilize sucrose and this ability appears to be controlled by a transferable plasmid.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of plane of nutrition in early pregnancy (EP) and mid-pregnancy (MP), on the productive performance of 1- and 2-year-old ewes and their offspring. Over 2 successive years, between days 0 and 39 after synchronized mating (EP), 1- (n = 117) and 2- (n = 52) year-old ewes were allowed 60% (low, L-EP), 100% (medium, M-EP) or 200% (high, H-EP) of requirements for maintenance (M). Between days 40 and 90 (MP), 1-year-old ewes were allowed 140% (M-MP) or 200% (H-MP), while 2-year-old ewes were allowed 80% (M-MP) or 140% (H-MP) of their M requirement. After day 90, all ewes were fed to meet requirements for late pregnancy. Increasing the plane of nutrition between days 0 and 39 resulted in increases in live weight (LW) (P < 0.001) and body condition score (BCS) (P < 0.001) during the EP period (H-EP > M-EP > L-EP), differences that in 1-year-old ewes were sustained to lambing (P < 0.05). On day 42 of gestation H-EP ewes had lower plasma progesterone concentrations than L-EP or M-EP ewes in 1- (P < 0.01) and 2- (P < 0.001) year olds. This was concomitant with diet H-EP tending to reduce the number of lambs born per ewe in both age groups (P = 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). Foetuses from 1-year-old L-EP ewes had smaller cranial (P < 0.01) and abdominal (P < 0.05) diameters at day 53 of gestation, with H-EP lambs tending to be heaviest at birth (P = 0.07). Similar findings were recorded for 2-year-old ewes. One-year-old ewes offered diet L-EP presented negative maternal behaviours more frequently (P < 0.05), while the incidence of lamb mortality at 6 weeks tended to be greater for L-EP lambs (P = 0.07). In MP, 1-year-old ewes offered diet M-MP were associated with foetuses with bigger abdominal diameters at day 78 (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in lamb weight or size at term (P > 0.05). These ewes exhibited more positive maternal behaviours (e.g. increased grooming frequency and duration; P < 0.05) than ewes offered diet H-MP, and their offspring were more successful in suckling (P < 0.05). Results suggest that in young ewes, a temporary nutrient restriction in EP resulted in increased prolificacy. However, ewes and their offspring were lighter at birth and ewe maternal behaviour was poorer, resulting in increased lamb mortality. In MP, a medium plane of nutrition offered to 1-year-old ewes led to improved maternal and offspring behaviour.
Nutritional status in early and mid-pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring productivity. For example, plane of nutrition in early and mid-pregnancy has been shown to have a significant effect on carcass characteristics, with male offspring of dams offered a low plane diet in early pregnancy having poorer carcass conformation and greater fat depths over the muscle L. dorsi than lambs of dams offered medium or high plane diets (Muñoz et al. 2008a). Supplementation with selenium (Se) during this period had positive effects on measures of lamb viability and survival (Muñoz et al. 2008b). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of plane of nutrition and selenium supplementation of ewes in early and mid-pregnancy on the meat quality of the male offspring.
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) is the sole animal thus far shown to harbour an intra-mitochondrial bacterium, which has recently been named Midichloria mitochondrii. The objectives of this work were (i) to screen ixodid ticks for Midichloria-related bacteria and (ii) to determine whether these bacteria exploit the intra-mitochondrial niche in other tick species. Our main goal was to discover further models of this peculiar form of symbiosis. We have thus performed a PCR screening for Midichloria-related bacteria in samples of ixodid ticks collected in Italy, North America and Iceland. A total of 7 newly examined species from 5 genera were found positive for bacteria closely related to M. mitochondrii. Samples of the tick species Rhipicephalus bursa, found positive in the PCR screening, were analysed with transmission electron microscopy, which revealed the presence of bacteria both in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria of the oocytes. There is thus evidence that bacteria invade mitochondria in at least 2 tick species. Phylogenetic analysis on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences generated from positive specimens revealed that the bacteria form a monophyletic group within the order Rickettsiales. The phylogeny of Midichloria symbionts and related bacteria does not appear completely congruent with the phylogeny of the hosts.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of plane of nutrition during early and mid-pregnancy on the performance of mature ewes and their offspring. From day 0 to day 39 post mating (early pregnancy, EP), 82 multiparous ewes were fed to provide either 60% (low, L), 100% (medium, M) or 200% (high, H) of predicted metabolisable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance, following a synchronised mating. From day 40 to day 90 (mid-pregnancy, MP), ewes were provided with either 80% (M) or 140% (H) of ME requirements. After 90 days of gestation, all ewes were fed to meet requirements for late pregnancy. During EP, mean live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) change of ewes were −6.3, −0.8 and +6.0 kg and −0.02, +0.10 and +0.22 units in the L-, M- and H-EP treatments, respectively. During MP, mean LW and BCS change were −0.8 and +4.9 kg and −0.09 and +0.09 units in the M- and H-MP treatments, respectively (P < 0.001). Treatments had no effect (P > 0.05) on conception rate, although there tended to be an inverse relationship (P = 0.085) between plane of nutrition in EP and plasma progesterone concentrations at day 42 of gestation. EP nutrition influenced foetal development with lambs from ewes offered diet L-EP being smaller (P < 0.01) at day 56 than M- or H-EP lambs. However, at parturition L-EP lambs were heavier (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher (P = 0.056) immunoglobulin status 24 h after birth. Mortality rates at weaning were reduced (P < 0.05) for lambs born from ewes offered diet L-EP compared with M- or H-EP lambs. Diet M during mid-pregnancy resulted in larger (P < 0.05) foetuses at day 80 of gestation. At parturition, these lambs had longer head and crown-rump lengths than H-MP lambs (P < 0.05). Lambs born to ewes offered diet M-MP tended to progress faster to attempting to suckle than H-MP lambs (P = 0.089). There was an interaction between plane of nutrition in early and mid-pregnancy, whereby the highest number of lambs weaned was a result of diet L-EP followed by diet M-MP. These results indicate that in adult ewes, temporary nutrient restriction during early pregnancy results in better lamb survival; and mild nutrient restriction in mid-pregnancy tends to improve neonatal behaviour and results in lambs with longer skeletal size.
Lameness is a significant problem leading to reduced dairy cow productivity and welfare. Housing and management factors are known to influence lameness levels in dairy cows (Haskell et al., 2006). Furthermore, lameness management strategies are also key factors affecting the incidence of lameness (e.g. early detection of lameness (Whay, 2002) and claw trimming (Manske et al., 2002)). It is likely that knowledge factors influence lameness management strategies (Mill and Ward, 1994). The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between lameness knowledge levels and the incidence of lameness on-farm. This is part of a wider survey aimed at understanding how knowledge, attitude, perception, and management factors affect lameness levels on dairy farms.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of selenium (Se) supplementation of mature ewes in the period from day −14 to day 90 post mating on Se status, productivity and viability of ewes and their offspring. Multiparous crossbred ewes (n = 82) were randomly assigned to receive a standard dried grass-based diet (control) or dried grass diet supplemented with 1 g of selenised yeast (Selplex®), providing 0.5 mg Se per ewe per day. After day 90 post mating, all ewes were offered grass-based diets supplemented with a standard multivitamin and mineral mix, up to lambing. Ewes that were fed additional Se had increased (P < 0.001) activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GPx) and increased plasma Se concentrations throughout the treatment period. At lambing, GPx activity of supplemented ewes was higher (P < 0.001) than that of controls. Twenty-four hours after birth, lambs of ewes given Se had higher (P < 0.001) concentration of Se in plasma, greater (P < 0.001) activity of GPx and better (P < 0.01) immune status. Lambs of ewes that received supplementation showed a faster progression to stand than control lambs (P < 0.05), independent of maternal behaviour which was not affected. Supplementation reduced perinatal lamb mortality (0.04 v. 0.17; P < 0.05). However, overall mortality from birth to weaning was unaffected (P > 0.05). Supplemented ewes weaned lambs on average 2 kg heavier than control ewes, due to the higher (P < 0.05) growth rates achieved by their offspring. In conclusion, for ewes with a marginal Se status, an organic source of Se supplemented throughout pregnancy, compared with supplementation only in the last trimester, positively affected measures of lamb viability and survival.
Low thermal budget annealing approaches, such as millisecond annealing or solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) of amorphized silicon, electrically activate implanted dopants while minimizing diffusion. However, it is also important to anneal damage to the crystal lattice in order to minimize junction leakage. Annealing experiments were performed on low-energy B implants into both crystalline silicon and into wafers pre-amorphized by Ge implantation. Some wafers also received As implants for halo-style doping, and in some cases the halo implants were pre-annealed at 1050°C before the B-doping. The B-implants were annealed by either SPE at 650°C, spike annealing at 1050°C, or by millisecond annealing with flash-assisted RTP™ (fRTP™) at temperatures between 1250°C and 1350°C. Residual damage was characterized by photoluminescence and non-contact junction leakage current measurements, which permit rapid assessment of damage removal efficacy. Damage from the heavy ions used for the halo and pre-amorphization implants dominates the defect annealing behaviour. The halo doping is the critical factor in determining junction leakage current. Millisecond annealing at high temperatures helps to minimize residual damage while limiting diffusion.