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How do non-Western societies envisage the relationship between the body and ageing? The present work aimed to shed light on this question by exploring how adult men and women of different ages living in Dakar, Senegal, view their bodies. A quantitative methodology was selected, and this study was carried out on a sample of 1,000 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 20 and older. This sample was constructed using the quota method in order to strive for representativeness. Results indicate that appearance was highly important for Senegalese women and men, and for younger and older adults alike. As in Western cultures, beauty and youth were strongly connected. The large majority of Senegalese women and men were satisfied with their looks across the lifespan. However, older women were slightly less satisfied, consistent with the double standard hypothesis. Little discrepancy was found between felt age and chronological age throughout the entire lifecourse, arguing against an ageless self hypothesis in this African population. The mask of ageing hypothesis was also rejected, as men's and women's identification with their body did not diminish significantly across age. These observations from an African perspective call for greater attention to the ageing process in non-Western societies in order to challenge hypotheses developed in Western societies and understand more broadly the role of culture.
Contact precautions are a traditional strategy to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Chlorhexidine bathing is increasingly used to decrease MRSA burden and transmission in intensive care units (ICUs). We sought to evaluate a hospital policy change from routine contact precautions for MRSA compared with universal chlorhexidine bathing, without contact precautions. We measured new MRSA acquisition in ICU patients and surveyed for MRSA environmental contamination in common areas and non-MRSA patient rooms before and after the policy change. During the baseline and chlorhexidine bathing periods, the number of patients (453 vs. 417), ICU days (1999 vs. 1703) and MRSA days/1000 ICU days (109 vs. 102) were similar. MRSA acquisition (2/453 vs. 2/457, P = 0·93) and environmental MRSA contamination (9/474 vs. 7/500, P = 0·53) were not significantly different between time periods. There were 58% fewer contact precaution days in the ICU during the chlorhexidine period (241/1993 vs. 102/1730, P < 0·01). We found no evidence that discontinuation of contact precautions for patients with MRSA in conjunction with adoption of daily chlorhexidine bathing in ICUs is associated with increased MRSA acquisition among ICU patients or increased MRSA contamination of ICU fomites. Although underpowered, our findings suggest this strategy, which has the potential to reduce costs and improve patient safety, should be assessed in similar but larger studies.
This paper presents results obtained with the Jodrell Bank - IAC two-element 33 GHz interferometer, located at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife, which is designed to measure the level of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations on angular scales of 1° and 2°. The result from a maximum likelihood analysis of observations taken at Dec +41° of δTl = 63+7-6μK at l = 208 ± 18 is comparable with those of Boomerang and Maxima. The contribution of possible foreground contaminants are considered.
Cosmic Microwave Observations at 1° scales are extremely important on the understanding of modern Cosmology. At those angular scales the CMB power spectrum presents the first Doppler Peak. The position and amplitude of this peak provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters as H0 and Ω0. The JBO-IAC interferometer has observed those angular scales as well as the BOOMERANG and MAXIMA teams. The results from these groups show the existence of the first Doppler Peak. We present a detailed estimate of the galactic contribution to the JBO-IAC interferometer data set using data from the Tenerife and COSMOSOMAS experiments.
Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.
In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.
The pelagic stingray Pteroplatytrygon violacea is known to be a frequent by-catch in longline fisheries worldwide. This study analysed the eco-geographic, technical and temporal parameters that affect pelagic stingray by-catch by the Spanish surface drifting longline fleet that operates in the Mediterranean Sea. Between 2000 and 2013, 3007 longline fishing operations were monitored. Over this period, we recorded 57 574 pelagic stingray by-catches by this fleet. Two gear types were involved in 96.05% of the pelagic stingray by-catch observed: traditional surface longliners targeting swordfish (LLHB) and surface drifting longliners targeting albacore (LLALB). We obtained two statistically significant explanatory models for the two types of gear. In both cases, two of the most important variables were fisheries being sited over the continental shelf and fishing during the summer season. The LLHB explanatory model included the following variables: number of hooks, latitude where setting started, distance between the ends of the longline, and the spring season. Regarding the LLHB, we found an association between the Capture per Unit Effort of pelagic stingray from favourable sets per year and the North Atlantic Oscillation in the previous year.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1–4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.
Dynamic mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) and grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) composites reinforced with acetylated wheat straw fibers (WSF) is reported in this work. The materials were prepared with different fiber particle sizes (40, 80 and 140 U.S. mesh) and at different fiber contents (5, 10 and 15 wt.%). The PP and PP-g-MA composites, where anhydride maleic (MA) was used as coupling agent, were obtained using a twin-screw extruder; whereas an injection-molding machine molded the composite pellets into testing specimens. To observe the morphology of the composites, micrographs were taken with an optical microscope. The Dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed using a torsional rheometer. The morphological analysis showed a high porous structure somehow similar to foamed materials. The storage modulus (G′) increased by increasing the fiber content, and decreased with fiber particle sizes for the PP composites. Meanwhile, the use of the coupling agent additive promoted a modulus increase due to higher fiber-polymer interaction, from better adhesion and chemical bonds formation between the fibers-coupling agent-PP.
Blood vessel expansion and reduction in the corpus luteum (CL) is regulated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system and linked to the maintenance of the CL. The VEGF system has both angiogenic and antiangiogenic ligands and receptors. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between the mRNA expression of angiogenic and antiangiogenic members of the VEGF system in the CL, throughout the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in cows. The CL of 18 cows were collected by transvaginal surgery on days 4, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 of the oestrous cycle and the mRNA expression of VEGF system components was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA expression of VEGF ligands and receptors increased (P<0.05) from the early- and mid-luteal phase (days 4 to 12) reaching its maximum expression on day 15 of the cycle. We found no expression of VEGF164b throughout the cycle. Expression of sVEGFR1 did not change during the oestrous cycle and exceeded that of the VEGFR1 by 100 times. Nonetheless, as VEGFR1 increased, the relationship between the soluble and membrane receptor decreased (P<0.01). In contrast, the expression of VEGFR2 was higher than that of its soluble isoform for all days studied, however, the ratio between the membrane-bound and its soluble counterpart decreased continuously throughout the cycle (P<0.01). Our results show that the expression levels for VEGF ligands, receptors and their antagonistic counterparts are adjusted during CL development and regression, to upregulate angiogenesis early in the oestrous cycle and restrict it at the time of luteolysis.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of pyrazole-containing macrocyclic polyamines 1–4 was assayed on Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis species. Compounds 1–4 were more active and less toxic than glucantime and both infection rates and ultrastructural alterations confirmed that 1 and 2 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications in the excretion products of parasites treated with 1–3 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasm alterations. Compound 2 was highlighted as a potent inhibitor of Fe-SOD in both species, whereas its effect on human CuZn-SOD was poor. Molecular modelling suggested that 2 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the enzyme`s antioxidant features.
The detection of hydrogen peroxide has been shown to be very important in recent years due to its role in many industrial applications, as well as in biological reactions. Previously, a commercial silver flake-based ink (PF-410, Acheson®), when screen-printed as films to substrate and subsequently coated with surfactant and salt (sodium dodecylbenezene sulphonate (SDBS) and KCl), have been shown to significantly enhance the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide – up to 80-fold over non-modified films. In this study, an attempt to understand the effect of the silver material within the ink on the catalytic behaviour of the films, as well as the distinct change in behaviour upon modification with surfactant/salt are examined. Factors including Ag morphology, presence of dispersant and Ag material supplier are all investigated to assess their effects on the electrocatalytic breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. To do this, a range of inks were formulated from various Ag materials, e.g., flakes and nanoparticles of various sizes. These inks were then cast as coatings onto conventional glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, and their electrocatalytic behaviours, both as modified and non-modified films were studied.
Discerning dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common and challenging differential diagnoses at the memory clinic. Although the neuropsychiatric manifestations have been widely reported as one of the main key points in the differential diagnosis between these two diseases, to date no neuropsychiatric questionnaire has been specifically devised for this purpose.
We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD) to a memory clinic sample of 80 patients with probable DLB and 85 age- and severity-matched patients with probable AD. Diagnosis of probable DLB was supported with a positive dopamine transporter SPECT scan. We examined the usefulness of these two neuropsychiatric tools designed for AD in the differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. We also investigated the correlations between psychotic symptoms and measures of cognitive and functional decline.
Auditory hallucinations were very specific of DLB and were usually preceded by visual hallucinations. Misinterpretation of real visual stimuli (illusions) was more frequent in DLB. Delusions were both quantitatively and qualitatively different between DLB and AD: delusional misidentifications were significantly more characteristic of DLB, while paranoid delusions did not show specificity for DLB.
Neuropsychiatric tools are useful to discriminate DLB from AD. Hallucinations and delusions are not only more frequent in DLB than in AD but also have distinct qualitative characteristics and patterns of progression that can help clinicians to make a more accurate differential diagnosis.
The objectives of this study in Dakar were twofold: to determine whether the representations of older adults are mainly positive, neutral or negative in the Senegalese capital; and to analyse the emic notions on which these age representations are based. As a first step in understanding how older adults are represented in this contemporary urban African context, a methodology was selected that is both quantitative and qualitative, including closed and open-ended questions to a representative cross-section of the Dakar population aged 20 years and over (N=600). The results indicate that representations of older adults, while heterogeneous, were mainly positive in Dakar: 63.7 per cent reported positive representations of older adults. Conversely, 17.5 per cent believed that older adults were perceived negatively. Lastly, 18.8 per cent reported that they did not perceive positive or negative social views of older adults. Representations of older adults were based on three principal notions: the value of advanced age, social usefulness of older adults and family ties. These results are discussed in the context of Dakar modernity, in comparison to Western modernity. Dakar society appears to depart from modernisation theory, as the experiential wisdom of older adults is still valued (mainly through the importance of oral tradition) and the extended family is upheld (given the permanent economic crisis the country is experiencing).
The stereoselective synthesis of 7-fluoro-2-exo-(2-methylpropen-1-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,4-epoxybenzo[b]azepine was developed by intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the nitrone derived from the corresponding 2-allyl-4-fluoro-N-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)aniline. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern for the new compound was analyzed and found to crystallize in a monoclinic system with space group P21/m (No. 11) and refined unit-cell parameters a = 11.655(5) Å, b = 5.850(2) Å, c = 18.314(4) Å, β = 104.27(3) and V = 1210.1 (6) Å3.
The N-benzyl-6-chloro-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivative (chemical formula: C24H24ClNO) was obtained from cationic imino Diels–Alder reaction catalyzed by BF3.OEt2. Molecular characterization was performed by 1H and 13C NMR, Fourier transform-infrared and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern for the new compound was analyzed and found to be crystallized in an orthorhombic system with space group Fdd2 (No. 43) and refined unit-cell parameters a = 33.053(7) Å, b = 41.558(9) Å, c = 5.841(1) Å and V = 8023(2) Å3.
Two species in the genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol (monochamol), suggesting that other congeners may share the same pheromone. We tested that hypothesis by conducting field bioassays of monochamol, in combination with bark-beetle pheromones and the host plant volatiles ethanol and α-pinene, in southern British Columbia, Canada. We captured 603 Monochamus clamator (LeConte), 63 Monochamus obtusus Casey, 245 Monochamus scutellatus (Say) (tribe Monochamini), and 42 Acanthocinus princeps (Walker) (tribe Acanthocinini). All three Monochamus species were significantly attracted to the combination of monochamol and host plant volatiles, whereas bark-beetle pheromones plus plant volatiles and plant volatiles alone were minimally attractive. Adding bark-beetle pheromones to the monochamol plus plant volatiles treatment synergised attraction of M. clamator, but not the other two Monochamus species. Acanthocinus princeps was most strongly attracted to the combination of bark-beetle pheromones and plant volatiles, and did not appear to be affected by the presence or absence of monochamol in baits. We conclude that monochamol is a likely pheromone component for the three Monochamus species, and that monochamol plus host plant volatiles is an effective attractant for these and perhaps other North American Monochamus species.