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Cognitive impairment is strongly linked with persistent disability in people with mood disorders, but the factors that explain cognitive impairment in this population are unclear.
To estimate the total effect of (a) bipolar disorder and (b) major depression on cognitive function, and the magnitude of the effect that is explained by potentially modifiable intermediate factors.
Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort. Participants were categorised as having bipolar disorder (n = 2709), major depression (n = 50 975) or no mood disorder (n = 102 931 and n = 105 284). The outcomes were computerised tests of reasoning, reaction time and memory. The potential mediators were cardiometabolic disease and psychotropic medication. Analyses were informed by graphical methods and controlled for confounding using regression, propensity score-based methods and G-computation.
Group differences of small magnitude were found on a visuospatial memory test. Z-score differences for the bipolar disorder group were in the range −0.23 to −0.17 (95% CI −0.39 to −0.03) across different estimation methods, and for the major depression group they were approximately −0.07 (95% CI −0.10 to −0.03). One-quarter of the effect was mediated via psychotropic medication in the bipolar disorder group (−0.05; 95% CI −0.09 to −0.01). No evidence was found for mediation via cardiometabolic disease.
In a large community-based sample in middle to early old age, bipolar disorder and depression were associated with lower visuospatial memory performance, in part potentially due to psychotropic medication use. Mood disorders and their treatments will have increasing importance for population cognitive health as the proportion of older adults continues to grow.
Declaration of interest
I.J.D. is a UK Biobank participant. J.P.P. is a member of the UK Biobank Steering Committee.
Although early life adversity (ELA) increases risk for psychopathology, mechanisms linking ELA with the onset of psychopathology remain poorly understood. Conceptual models have argued that ELA accelerates development. It is unknown whether all forms of ELA are associated with accelerated development or whether early maturation is a potential mechanism linking ELA with psychopathology. We examine whether two distinct dimensions of ELA – threat and deprivation – have differential associations with pubertal timing in girls, and evaluate whether accelerated pubertal timing is a mechanism linking ELA with the onset of adolescent psychopathology.
Data were drawn from a large, nationally representative sample of 4937 adolescent girls. Multiple forms of ELA characterized by threat and deprivation were assessed along with age at menarche (AAM) and the onset of DSM-IV fear, distress, externalizing, and eating disorders.
Greater exposure to threat was associated with earlier AAM (B = −0.1, p = 0.001). Each 1-year increase in AAM was associated with reduced odds of fear, distress, and externalizing disorders post-menarche (ORs = 0.74–0.85). Earlier AAM significantly mediated the association between exposure to threat and post-menarche onset of distress (proportion mediated = 6.2%), fear (proportion mediated = 16.3%), and externalizing disorders (proportion mediated = 2.9%).
Accelerated pubertal development in girls may be one transdiagnostic pathway through which threat-related experiences confer risk for the adolescent onset of mental disorders. Early pubertal maturation is a marker that could be used in both medical and mental health settings to identify trauma-exposed youth that are at risk for developing a mental disorder during adolescence in order to better target early interventions.
Environmental economics has made it possible to estimate prices for air pollution externalities. However, these values are rarely observed in emissions trading markets. Moreover, market outcomes show prices persistently remain below expectations and frequently fall over time. Low allowance prices may appear virtuous, but often reflect poor market design that does not anticipate interaction with other policies, and may undermine confidence in market-based approaches to environmental policy. This paper surveys emissions markets and factors influencing prices, and concludes with a discussion of how market design can anticipate and remedy the strong tendency for low prices.
Most research on the prevalence, distribution, and psychiatric comorbidity of intellectual disability (ID) relies on clinical samples, limiting the generalizability and utility of ID assessment in a legal context. This study assessed ID prevalence in a population-representative sample of US adolescents and examined associations of ID with socio-demographic factors and mental disorders.
Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (N = 6256). ID was defined as: (1) IQ ⩽ 76, measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test; (2) an adaptive behavior score ⩽76, and (3) age of onset ⩽18 measured using a validated scale. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed 15 lifetime mental disorders. The Sheehan disability scale assessed disorder severity. We used logistic regression models to estimate differences in lifetime disorders for adolescents with and without ID.
ID prevalence was 3.2%. Among adolescents with ID, 65.1% met lifetime criteria for a mental disorder. ID status was associated with specific phobia, agoraphobia, and bipolar disorder, but not behavior disorders after adjustment for socio-demographics. Adolescents with ID and mental disorders were significantly more likely to exhibit severe impairment than those without ID.
These findings highlight how sample selection and overlap between ID and psychopathology symptoms might bias understanding of the mental health consequences of ID. For example, associations between ID and behavior disorders widely reported in clinical samples were not observed in a population-representative sample after adjustment for socio-demographic confounders. Valid assessment and understanding of these constructs may prove influential in the legal system by influencing treatment referrals and capital punishment decisions.
General Scientific Summary
Current definitions of intellectual disability (ID) are based on three criteria: formal designation of low intelligence through artificial problem-solving tasks, impairment in one's ability to function in his/her social environment, and early age of onset. In a national population sample of adolescents, the majority of those with ID met criteria for a lifetime mental disorder. Phobias and bipolar disorder, but not behavior disorders, were elevated in adolescents with ID. Findings highlight the need to consider how behavioral problems are conceptualized and classified in people with ID.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Educate the general public, investigators, and institutional leadership on the importance of clinical trial registration and results reporting. Share success as a means to develop national best practices. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Developed a Project Charter; Spoke to several peer institutions; Update institutional policy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since launching the Program in June 2016, the number of records submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov has increased 14% (852–971). At the same time, compliance with late results has increased by over 92% (111–9). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Clinical Trial registration and results reporting is sub-par at many institutions. We have established a successful program that others can emulate. Institutions can increase transparency of clinical trials as well as prevent civil monetary penalties ($11,569/d/study) and loss of grant funding.
There are three ways to conceive of mental health. The pathogenic approach views mental health as the absence of mental illness. The salutogenic approach views mental health as the presence of positive emotional states and positive functioning. The third approach is the complete state model, which derives from the ancient word for health as being hale, meaning whole. This approach is exemplified in the World Health Organization's definition of health as a complete state, where mental health consists of the absence of mental illness and the presence of positive emotional states and positive functioning. This chapter reviews evidence supporting the complete state model, showing strong empirical support for the two continua model at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Studies are reviewed making the case for promoting and protecting positive mental health to prevent mental illness and to improve overall psychosocial functioning of individuals and population health. So, is illness more serious than health? Is it enough to seek cures, treatment, and protection from disease and illness as the way toward achieving better mental health? The complete state model would answer “no” to both questions – why? What would it mean to focus on increasing population mental health, as opposed to reducing mental illness?
Mental illness has always been a problem, but never serious enough to be considered a public health issue until 1996, when the World Health Organization published the results of the first Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study (Murray & Lopez, 1996). The GBD study estimated the total contribution of 107 acute and chronic medical conditions and illnesses by including disability in the equation to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALY). The DALY reflects the total number of years in a population that were either lived with disability or abbreviated prematurely due to death that is attributable to specific physical or mental conditions. Depression was the fourth leading cause of disease burden, accounting for 3.7 percent of DALY in 1990, 4.4 percent in 2000, and projected to be 15 percent of DALY by 2020 (Üstün, 1999; Üstün, Ayuso-Mateos, Chatterji, Mathers, & Murray, 2004).
The debate is no longer about whether mental illness, and depression in particular, are a public health issue. Rather, the next debate is what can be done to reduce the number of cases of mental illness and those suffering from it.
Objective Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Venoplasty has been proposed as a treatment for CCSVI. The aim of our study was to gain a better understanding of the “real-world” safety and longitudinal effectiveness of venoplasty Methods: British Columbia residents who self-reported having had venoplasty and consented to participate in the study were interviewed and followed for up to 24 months post-therapy using standardized structured questionnaires Results: Participants reported procedure-related complications (11.5%) and complications within the first month after the procedure (17.3%). Initially, more than 40% of participants perceived that the venoplasty had had positive effects on their health conditions, such as fatigue, numbness, balance, concentration/memory and mobility. However, this improvement was not maintained over time Conclusions: Follow-up patient-reported outcomes indicated that the initial perception of the positive impact of venoplasty on the health conditions of MS patients was not sustained over time. In addition, venoplasty was not without associated morbidity.
Gene × Environment interaction contributes to externalizing disorders in childhood and adolescence, but little is known about whether such effects are long lasting or present in adulthood. We examined gene–environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use disorders) at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. The sample included 1,382 same-sex twin pairs participating in the Minnesota Twin Family Study. We detected a Gene × Environment interaction at age 17, such that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior and substance use disorders were greater in the context of greater antisocial peer affiliation. This Gene × Environment interaction was not present for antisocial behavior symptoms after age 17, but it was for substance use disorder symptoms through age 29 (though effect sizes were largest at age 17). The results suggest adolescence is a critical period for the development of externalizing disorders wherein exposure to greater environmental adversity is associated with a greater expression of genetic risk. This form of Gene × Environment interaction may persist through young adulthood for substance use disorders, but it appears to be limited to adolescence for antisocial behavior.
Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene–environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent–child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25 years.
The sample included 1382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 years (mean = 17.8, s.d. = 0.69 years) and 25 years (mean = 25.0, s.d. = 0.90 years). Perceptions of parent–child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence.
We detected a gene–environment interaction at age 18 years, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent–child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25 years, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 years moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25 years. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association.
Gene–environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent–child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene–environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent–child relationship problems at age 18 years and EXT at age 25 years. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene–environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood.
The relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure and hyperactivity remains controversial. To mitigate limitations of prior studies, we used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a historical sample where smoking during pregnancy was common.
Data were drawn from a longitudinally followed subsample of the Child Health and Development Study (n = 1752), a population-based pregnancy cohort ascertained in 1961–1963 in California. Maternal prenatal smoking was common (33.4%). Maternal and paternal smoking patterns were assessed at three time points by mother report. Hyperactivity was assessed at the mean of age of 10 years based on mother report to a personality inventory.
Unadjusted, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with offspring hyperactivity [β = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.33] and, to a similar degree, when the father smoked (β = 0.18, 95% CI 0.07–0.30). After adjustment, maternal smoking remained robustly predictive of offspring hyperactivity (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09–0.40) but father smoking was not (β = 0.02, 95% CI −0.20 to 0.24). When examined among the pairs matched on propensity score, mother smoking was robustly related to offspring hyperactivity whether the father smoked (β = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03–0.49) or did not smoke (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.04–0.57). By number of cigarettes, associations with hyperactivity were present for 10–19 and 20+ cigarettes per day among mothers.
In a pregnancy cohort recruited in a time period in which smoking during pregnancy was common, we document associations between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring hyperactivity. Novel approaches to inferring causality continue to be necessary in describing the potential adverse consequences of prenatal smoking exposure later in life.
Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder.
Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes.
As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results underscore the potential utility of conceptualizing patient treatment needs using an approach targeting psychopathological systems underlying meta-structural classification rubrics.
Studies of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol dependence have not controlled comprehensively for potential confounding by co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma, or determined whether parental history of alcohol disorders operates synergistically with gender and maltreatment to produce alcohol dependence. We addressed these issues using national data.
Face-to-face surveys of 27 712 adult participants in a national survey.
Childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical neglect were associated with alcohol dependence (p<0.001), controlling for demographics, co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma. Attributable proportions (APs) due to interaction between each maltreatment and parental history revealed significant synergistic relationships for physical abuse in the entire sample, and for sexual abuse and emotional neglect in women (APs, 0.21, 0.31, 0.26 respectively), indicating that the odds of alcohol dependence given both parental history and these maltreatments were significantly higher than the additive effect of each alone (p<0.05).
Childhood maltreatments independently increased the risk of alcohol dependence. Importantly, results suggest a synergistic role of parental alcoholism: the effect of physical abuse on alcohol dependence may depend on parental history, while the effects of sexual abuse and emotional neglect may depend on parental history among women. Findings underscore the importance of early identification and prevention, particularly among those with a family history, and could guide genetic research and intervention development, e.g. programs to reduce the burden of childhood maltreatment may benefit from addressing the negative long-term effects of maltreatments, including potential alcohol problems, across a broad range of childhood environments.
Previous research suggests that various types of childhood maltreatment frequently co-occur and confer risk for multiple psychiatric diagnoses. This non-specific pattern of risk may mean that childhood maltreatment increases vulnerability to numerous specific psychiatric disorders through diverse, specific mechanisms or that childhood maltreatment engenders a generalised liability to dimensions of psychopathology. Although these competing explanations have different implications for intervention, they have never been evaluated empirically.
We used a latent variable approach to estimate the associations of childhood maltreatment with underlying dimensions of internalising and externalising psychopathology and with specific disorders after accounting for the latent dimensions. We also examined gender differences in these associations.
Data were drawn from a nationally representative survey of 34 653 US adults. Lifetime DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed using the AUDADIS-IV. Physical, sexual and emotional abuse and neglect were assessed using validated measures. Analyses controlled for other childhood adversities and sociodemographics.
The effects were fully mediated through the latent liability dimensions, with an impact on underlying liability levels to internalising and externalising psychopathology rather than specific psychiatric disorders. Important gender differences emerged with physical abuse associated only with externalising liability in men, and only with internalising liability in women. Neglect was not significantly associated with latent liability levels.
The association between childhood maltreatment and common psychiatric disorders operates through latent liabilities to experience internalising and externalising psychopathology, indicating that the prevention of maltreatment may have a wide range of benefits in reducing the prevalence of many common mental disorders. Different forms of abuse have gender-specific consequences for the expression of internalising and externalising psychopathology, suggesting gender-specific aetiological pathways between maltreatment and psychopathology.
To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.
A defining feature of the US economic downturn of 2008–2010 was the alarming rate of home foreclosure. Although a substantial number of US households have experienced foreclosure since 2008, the effects of foreclosure on mental health are unknown. We examined the effects of foreclosure on psychiatric symptomatology in a prospective, population-based community survey.
Data were drawn from the Detroit Neighborhoods and Health Study (DNHS), waves 1 and 2 (2008–2010). A probability sample of predominantly African-American adults in Detroit, Michigan participated (n=1547). We examined the association between home foreclosure between waves 1 and 2 and increases in symptoms of DSM-IV major depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
The most common reasons for foreclosure were an increase in monthly payments, an increase in non-medical expenses and a reduction in family income. Exposure to foreclosure between waves 1 and 2 predicted symptoms of major depression and GAD at wave 2, controlling for symptoms at wave 1. Even after adjusting for wave 1 symptoms, sociodemographics, lifetime history of psychiatric disorder at wave 1 and exposure to other financial stressors between waves 1 and 2, foreclosure was associated with an increased rate of symptoms of major depression [incidence density ratio (IDR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.6] and GAD (IDR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6).
We provide the first prospective evidence linking foreclosure to the onset of mental health problems. These results, combined with the high rate of home foreclosure since 2008, suggest that the foreclosure crisis may have adverse effects on the mental health of the US population.
Non-medical use of prescription opioids represents a national public health concern of growing importance. Mood and anxiety disorders are highly associated with non-medical prescription opioid use. The authors examined longitudinal associations between non-medical prescription opioid use and opioid disorder due to non-medical opioid use and mood/anxiety disorders in a national sample, examining evidence for precipitation, self-medication and general shared vulnerability as pathways between disorders.
Data were drawn from face-to-face surveys of 34 653 adult participants in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models explored the temporal sequence and evidence for the hypothesized pathways.
Baseline lifetime non-medical prescription opioid use was associated with incidence of any mood disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, any anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in wave 2, adjusted for baseline demographics, other substance use, and co-morbid mood/anxiety disorders). Lifetime opioid disorder was not associated with any incident mood/anxiety disorders. All baseline lifetime mood disorders and GAD were associated with incident non-medical prescription opioid use at follow-up, adjusted for demographics, co-morbid mood/anxiety disorders, and other substance use. Baseline lifetime mood disorders, MDD, dysthymia and panic disorder were associated with incident opioid disorder due to non-medical prescription opioid use at follow-up, adjusted for the same covariates.
These results suggest that precipitation, self-medication as well as shared vulnerability are all viable pathways between non-medical prescription opioid use and opioid disorder due to non-medical opioid use and mood/anxiety disorders.
We have studied the effect of H dilution on silicon nitride films deposited by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique using SiH4, NH3, and H2 gases. We found that H dilution significantly enhances the properties at silicon nitride films. The N content in the film increases by more than 2 times compared to the film without dilution, based on FTIR measurements. As a result, we can achieve high-quality a-SiNx:H films at low substrate temperature using a much lower gas ratio of NH3/SiH4(∼1) compared to a ratio of about 100 for conventional deposition by HWCVD. We also found that dilution decreases the H content in the films. More importantly, diluted SiNx films are conformal. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show a nearly 100% surface coverage over a sharp object. Electric breakdown measurement shows a well-insulated film with more then a few MV/cm for the breakdown field.
The recent introduction of dual inlaid Cu and oxide based interconnects within sub-0.25μm CMOS technology has delivered higher performance and lower power devices. Further speed improvements and power reduction may be achieved by reducing the interconnect parasitic capacitance through integration of low-k interlevel dielectric (ILD) materials with Cu. This paper demonstrates successful multi-level dual inlaid Cu/low-k interconnects with ILD permittivities ranging from 2.0 to 2.5. Integration challenges specific to inorganic low-k and Cu based structures are discussed. Through advanced CMP process development, multi-level integration of porous oxide materials with moduli less than 0.5 GPa is demonstrated. Parametric data and isothermal annealing of these Cu/ low-k structures show results with yield comparable to Cu/oxide based interconnects.