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An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) greater than 100, and that various processing methods will increase standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and DIAAS. Nine ileal-cannulated gilts were randomly allotted to a 9 × 8 Youden square design with 9 diets and eight 7 d periods. Values for SID of AA and DIAAS for 2 reference patterns were calculated for salami, bologna, beef jerky, raw ground beef, cooked ground beef, and ribeye roast heated to 56, 64, or 72oC. The SID for most AA was not different among salami, bologna, beef jerky, and cooked ground beef, but was less (P < 0.05) than values for raw ground beef. The SID of AA for 56oC ribeye roast was not different from values for raw ground beef and 72oC ribeye roast, but greater (P < 0.05) than for 64oC ribeye roast. For older children, adolescents, and adults, the DIAAS for all proteins, except cooked ground beef, were greater than 100, and bologna and 64oC ribeye roast had the greatest (P < 0.05) DIAAS. The limiting AA for this age group were sulfur AA (beef jerky), Leucine (bologna, raw ground beef, and cooked ground beef), and Valine (salami and the 3 ribeye roasts). In conclusion, meat products generally provide high quality protein with DIAAS greater than 100 regardless of processing. However, overcooking meat may reduce AA digestibility and DIAAS.
Research on producer willingness to adopt individual best pasture management practices (BMPs) is extensive, but less attention has been paid to producers simultaneously adopting multiple, complementary BMPs. Applications linking primary survey data on BMP adoption to water quality biophysical models are also limited. A choice-experiment survey of livestock producers is analyzed to determine willingness to adopt pasture BMPs. Sediment abatement curves are derived by linking estimates of producer responsiveness to incentives to adopt rotational grazing with a biophysical simulation model. Current cost share rates of $24/acre should yield a 12% decrease in sediment loading from pastures.
Whole apples are a source of pectin and polyphenols, both of which show potential to modulate postprandial lipaemia (PPL). The present study aimed to explore the effects of whole apple consumption on PPL, as a risk factor for CVD, in generally healthy but overweight and obese adults. A randomised, crossover acute meal trial was conducted with seventeen women and nine men (mean BMI of 34·1 (sem 0·2) kg/m2). Blood samples were collected for 6 h after participants consumed an oral fat tolerance test meal that provided 1 g fat/kg body weight and 1500 mg acetaminophen per meal for estimating gastric emptying, with and without three whole raw Gala apples (approximately 200 g). Plasma TAG (with peak postprandial concentration as the primary outcome), apoB48, chylomicron-rich fraction particle size and fatty acid composition, glucose, insulin and acetaminophen were analysed. Differences between with and without apples were identified by ANCOVA. Apple consumption did not alter postprandial TAG response, chylomicron properties, glucose or acetaminophen (P > 0·05), but did lead to a higher apoB48 peak concentration and exaggerated insulin between 20 and 180 min (P < 0·05). Overall, as a complex food matrix, apples did not modulate postprandial TAG when consumed with a high-fat meal in overweight and obese adults, but did stimulate insulin secretion, potentially contributing to an increased TAG-rich lipoprotein production.
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.
Smoking prevalence is higher amongst individuals with schizophrenia and depression compared with the general population. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can examine whether this association is causal using genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We conducted two-sample MR to explore the bi-directional effects of smoking on schizophrenia and depression. For smoking behaviour, we used (1) smoking initiation GWAS from the GSCAN consortium and (2) we conducted our own GWAS of lifetime smoking behaviour (which captures smoking duration, heaviness and cessation) in a sample of 462690 individuals from the UK Biobank. We validated this instrument using positive control outcomes (e.g. lung cancer). For schizophrenia and depression we used GWAS from the PGC consortium.
There was strong evidence to suggest smoking is a risk factor for both schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67–3.08, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71–2.32, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across both lifetime smoking and smoking initiation. We found some evidence that genetic liability to depression increases smoking (β = 0.091, 95% CI 0.027–0.155, p = 0.005) but evidence was mixed for schizophrenia (β = 0.022, 95% CI 0.005–0.038, p = 0.009) with very weak evidence for an effect on smoking initiation.
These findings suggest that the association between smoking, schizophrenia and depression is due, at least in part, to a causal effect of smoking, providing further evidence for the detrimental consequences of smoking on mental health.
How do views about national identity shape support for multiculturalism? In this paper, we argue that individuals who view national ingroup belonging as “achievable” are more likely to support multiculturalism than individuals who view belonging as “ascriptive.” Using data from the 1995, 2003, and 2013 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) Nationality Identity survey waves across 35 advanced democracies, we find achievable national identities correspond with support for multicultural principles but not for programmatic aspects involving government intervention. Robust analyses reveal these patterns are specific to the content, rather than the strength, of one's national identity. Our findings underline the role of both national belonging and outgroup attitudes on building support for policies of inclusion—and therefore social solidarity—in diverse democracies.
Implementing a photoperiod during incubation has been shown to be a potential next step to removing one more stressor for newly hatched poultry species. The distribution of hatch over time is a parameter that may be influenced by photoperiod that could benefit from a photoperiod but has not been studied at this time and is the objective of this paper. The impact on hatch rate for three strains of chicken, Barred Plymouth Rock (BR), Lohmann Brown (LB) and Lohmann Lite (LL), was measured following the provision of a 12L : 12D (12 h light : 12 h dark) photoperiod starting at 0, 9 or 17 days of incubation and compared with incubation in the dark. The cumulative number of chicks hatched eggs at four points in time (489, 498, 507 and 516 h of incubation) was analysed using repeated measures analysis in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Repeated measures analysis was done to determine the main and interaction effects of photoperiod and bird strain, and a regression analysis was used to determine how these effects evolved over time. Lohmann Brown embryos provided a 12L : 12D photoperiod throughout incubation were first to reach 50% of total chicks hatched and rate of hatch from 50% to 75% of total chicks hatched as well. As the LB chicks did not begin to hatch earlier or finish later, the LB strain was the most synchronised when provided a 12L : 12D photoperiod from the beginning of incubation. Similar results were found for LL, but no difference on the percentage hatched over time was found when provided the 12L : 12D photoperiod at the beginning of incubation or at day 9. The BR strain only showed a significant difference in hatch window synchronisation when provided a 12L : 12D photoperiod at day 9 of incubation. These results indicate that the strain of chicken impacts the hatch window, and each strain responds to a photoperiod during incubation differently. This information could be useful for hatchery managers to deal with different strains of chicken for incubation.
There is increasing evidence that smoking is a risk factor for severe mental illness, including bipolar disorder. Conversely, patients with bipolar disorder might smoke more (often) as a result of the psychiatric disorder.
We conducted a bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to investigate the direction and evidence for a causal nature of the relationship between smoking and bipolar disorder.
We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on bipolar disorder, smoking initiation, smoking heaviness, smoking cessation and lifetime smoking (i.e. a compound measure of heaviness, duration and cessation). We applied analytical methods with different, orthogonal assumptions to triangulate results, including inverse-variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger, MR-Egger SIMEX, weighted-median, weighted-mode and Steiger-filtered analyses.
Across different methods of MR, consistent evidence was found for a positive effect of smoking on the odds of bipolar disorder (smoking initiation ORIVW = 1.46, 95% CI 1.28–1.66, P = 1.44 × 10−8, lifetime smoking ORIVW = 1.72, 95% CI 1.29–2.28, P = 1.8 × 10−4). The MR analyses of the effect of liability to bipolar disorder on smoking provided no clear evidence of a strong causal effect (smoking heaviness betaIVW = 0.028, 95% CI 0.003–0.053, P = 2.9 × 10−2).
These findings suggest that smoking initiation and lifetime smoking are likely to be a causal risk factor for developing bipolar disorder. We found some evidence that liability to bipolar disorder increased smoking heaviness. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, these findings further support investment into smoking prevention and treatment in order to reduce mental health problems in future generations.
Declaration of interest
W.v.d.B received fees in the past 3 years from Indivior, C&A Pharma, Opiant and Angelini. G.M.G. is a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Emeritus Senior Investigator, holds shares in P1vital and has served as consultant, advisor or CME speaker in the past 3 years for Allergan, Angelini, Compass Pathways, MSD, Lundbeck (/Otsuka and /Takeda), Medscape, Minervra, P1Vital, Pfizer, Sage, Servier, Shire and Sun Pharma.
Environmental risk factors for dementia are poorly understood. Aluminium and fluorine in drinking water have been linked with dementia but uncertainties remain about this relationship.
In the largest longitudinal study in this context, we set out to explore the individual effect of aluminium and fluoride in drinking water on dementia risk and, as fluorine can increase absorption of aluminium, we also examine any synergistic influence on dementia.
We used Cox models to investigate the association between mean aluminium and fluoride levels in drinking water at their residential location (collected 2005–2012 by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland) with dementia in members of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 cohort who were alive in 2005.
A total of 1972 out of 6990 individuals developed dementia by the linkage date in 2012. Dementia risk was raised with increasing mean aluminium levels in women (hazard ratio per s.d. increase 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.15, P < 0.001) and men (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.21, P = 0.004). A dose-response pattern of association was observed between mean fluoride levels and dementia in women (1.34, 95% CI 1.28–1.41, P < 0.001) and men (1.30, 95% CI 1.22–1.39, P < 0.001), with dementia risk more than doubled in the highest quartile compared with the lowest. There was no statistical interaction between aluminium and fluoride levels in relation with dementia.
Higher levels of aluminium and fluoride were related to dementia risk in a population of men and women who consumed relatively low drinking-water levels of both.
Remarkably few attempts have been made to estimate contemporary effective population size (Ne) for parasitic species, despite the valuable perspectives it can offer on the tempo and pace of parasite evolution as well as coevolutionary dynamics of host–parasite interactions. In this study, we utilized multi-locus microsatellite data to derive single-sample and temporal estimates of contemporary Ne for a cestode parasite (Schistocephalus solidus) as well as three-spined stickleback hosts (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lakes across Alaska. Consistent with prior studies, both approaches recovered small and highly variable estimates of parasite and host Ne. We also found that estimates of host Ne and parasite Ne were sensitive to assumptions about population genetic structure and connectivity. And, while prior work on the stickleback–cestode system indicates that physiographic factors external to stickleback hosts largely govern genetic variation in S. solidus, our findings indicate that stickleback host attributes and factors internal to the host – namely body length, genetic diversity and infection – shape contemporary Ne of cestode parasites.
De Dreu and Gross's distinction between attack and defense is complicated in real-world conflicts because competing leaders construe their position as one of defense, and power imbalances place status quo challengers in a defensive position. Their account of defense as vigilant avoidance is incomplete because it avoids a reference to anger which transforms anxious avoidance into collective and unified action.
Despite the well-documented association between smoking and personality traits such as neuroticism and extraversion, little is known about the potential causal nature of these findings. If it were possible to unpick the association between personality and smoking, it may be possible to develop tailored smoking interventions that could lead to both improved uptake and efficacy.
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants robustly associated with both smoking phenotypes and personality traits. Here we use publicly available GWAS summary statistics in addition to individual-level data from UK Biobank to investigate the link between smoking and personality. We first estimate genetic overlap between traits using LD score regression and then use bidirectional Mendelian randomisation methods to unpick the nature of this relationship.
We found clear evidence of a modest genetic correlation between smoking behaviours and both neuroticism and extraversion. We found some evidence that personality traits are causally linked to certain smoking phenotypes: among current smokers each additional neuroticism risk allele was associated with smoking an additional 0.07 cigarettes per day (95% CI 0.02–0.12, p = 0.009), and each additional extraversion effect allele was associated with an elevated odds of smoking initiation (OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.01–1.02, p = 9.6 × 10−7).
We found some evidence for specific causal pathways from personality to smoking phenotypes, and weaker evidence of an association from smoking initiation to personality. These findings could be used to inform future smoking interventions or to tailor existing schemes.
The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment.
This study included 2182 FEP individuals recruited across six countries, as part of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Symptom ratings were analysed using multidimensional item response modelling in Mplus to estimate five theory-based models of psychosis. We used multiple regression models to examine demographic and context factors associated with symptom dimensions.
A bifactor model, composed of one general factor and five specific dimensions of positive, negative, disorganization, manic and depressive symptoms, best-represented associations among ratings of psychotic symptoms. Positive symptoms were more common in ethnic minority groups. Urbanicity was associated with a higher score on the general factor. Men presented with more negative and less depressive symptoms than women. Early age-at-first-contact with psychiatric services was associated with higher scores on negative, disorganized, and manic symptom dimensions.
Our results suggest that the bifactor model of psychopathology holds across diagnostic categories of non-affective and affective psychosis at FEP, and demographic and context determinants map onto general and specific symptom dimensions. These findings have implications for tailoring symptom-specific treatments and inform research into the mood-psychosis spectrum.
In this exploratory case study based on qualitative research, we explore the perspectives and experiences of autistic self-advocates in the Netherlands regarding autism, (self-)advocacy, and consumer-run organizations. The focus of our study is a consumer-run organization by and for adult Persons on the Autism Spectrum in the Netherlands: PAS-Nederland or PAS for short. Our analysis reveals four themes relevant to the acceptance and integration of adults with autism into society and work: (1) invisibility of autistic adults; (2) diversity of the autism spectrum; (3) autistic leadership; and (4) collaboration between people with and without autism. We discuss the practical implications of our findings for the inclusion of people with autism in work and society. Our study underscores the importance of putting autistic people at the center of decision-making processes and solutions aimed at improving their outcomes in society, in general, and in the workplace specifically.
As the US population ages, the number of hip and knee arthroplasties is expected to increase. Because surgical site infections (SSIs) following these procedures contribute substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs, we projected SSIs expected to occur from 2020 through 2030.
We used a stochastic Poisson process to project the number of primary and revision arthroplasties and SSIs. Primary arthroplasty rates were calculated using annual estimates of hip and knee arthroplasty stratified by age and gender from the 2012–2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and standardized by census population data. Revision rates, dependent on time from primary procedure, were obtained from published literature and were uniformly applied for all ages and genders. Stratified complex SSI rates for arthroplasties were obtained from 2012–2015 National Healthcare Safety Network data. To evaluate the possible impact of prevention measures, we recalculated the projections with an SSI rate reduced by 30%, the national target established by the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Without a reduction in SSI rates, we projected an increase in complex SSIs following hip and knee arthroplasty of 14% between 2020 and 2030. We projected a total burden of 77,653 SSIs; however, meeting the 30% rate reduction could prevent 23,297 of these SSIs.
Given current SSI rates, we project that complex SSI burden for primary and revision arthroplasty may increase due to an aging population. Reducing the SSI rate to the national HHS target could prevent 23,000 SSIs and reduce subsequent morbidity, mortality, and Medicare costs.