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The relevance of the episodic memory in the prediction of brain aging is well known. The Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) is a valued associative memory measure related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, such as amyloid-β deposition preclinical AD individuals. Previous validation of the Spanish version of the FNAME test (S-FNAME) provided normative data and psychometric characteristics. The study was limited to subjects attending a memory clinic and included a reduced sample with gender inequality distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess S-FNAME psychometric properties and provide normative data in a larger independent sample of cognitively healthy individuals.
S-FNAME was administered to 511 cognitively healthy volunteers (242 women, aged 41–65 years) participating in the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative cohort study.
Factor analysis supported construct validity revealing two underlying components: face-name and face-occupation and explaining 95.34% of the total variance, with satisfactory goodness of fit. Correlations between S-FNAME and Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were statistically significant and confirmed its convergent validity. We also found weak correlations with non-memory tests supporting divergent validity. Women showed better scores, and S-FNAME was positively correlated with education and negatively with age. Finally, we generated normative data.
The S-FNAME test exhibits good psychometric properties, consistent with previous findings, resulting in a valid and reliable tool to assess episodic memory in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. It is a promising test for the early detection of subtle memory dysfunction associated with abnormal brain aging.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
Several neuroimaging studies have reported associations between brain white matter microstructure and chronotype. However, it is unclear whether those phenotypic relationships are causal or underlined by genetic factors. In the present study, we use genetic data to examine the genetic overlap and infer causal relationships between chronotype and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures. We identify 29 significant pairwise genetic correlations, of which 13 also show evidence for a causal association. Genetic correlations were identified between chronotype and brain-wide mean, axial and radial diffusivities. When exploring individual tracts, 10 genetic correlations were observed with mean diffusivity, 10 with axial diffusivity, 4 with radial diffusivity and 2 with mode of anisotropy. We found evidence for a possible causal association of eveningness with white matter microstructure measures in individual tracts including the posterior limb and the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule; the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the posterior, superior and anterior regions of the corona radiata. Our findings contribute to the understanding of how genes influence circadian preference and brain white matter and provide a new avenue for investigating the role of chronotype in health and disease.
Recent simulations indicate that streamwise-preferential porous materials have the potential to reduce drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows (Gómez-de-Segura & García-Mayoral, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 875, 2019, pp. 124–172). This paper extends the resolvent formulation to study the effect of such anisotropic permeable substrates on turbulent channel flow. Under the resolvent formulation, the Fourier-transformed Navier–Stokes equations are interpreted as a linear forcing–response system. The nonlinear terms are considered the endogenous forcing in the system that gives rise to a velocity and pressure response. A gain-based decomposition of the forcing–response transfer function – the resolvent operator – identifies response modes (resolvent modes) that are known to reproduce important structural and statistical features of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The effect of permeable substrates is introduced in this framework using the volume-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and a generalized form of Darcy's law. Substrates with high streamwise permeability and low spanwise permeability are found to suppress the forcing–response gain for the resolvent mode that serves as a surrogate for the energetic near-wall cycle. This reduction in mode gain is shown to be consistent with the drag reduction trends predicted by theory and observed in numerical simulations. Simulation results indicate that drag reduction is limited by the emergence of spanwise rollers resembling Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices beyond a threshold value of wall-normal permeability. The resolvent framework also predicts the conditions in which such energetic spanwise-coherent rollers emerge. These findings suggest that a limited set of resolvent modes can serve as the building blocks for computationally efficient models that enable the design and optimization of permeable substrates for passive turbulence control.
HCWs not fulfilling COVID-19 case definition underwent SARS-CoV-2 screening. Risk of exposure, PPE adherence and symptoms were assessed. Two thousand HCWs were screened: 5.5% were PCR+. There were no differences in PPE use between PCR+ and PCR- HCWs (adherence >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with PCR+.
To estimate dietary fluoride intake (F) over the course of pregnancy and the overall adjusted difference in dietary F intake by pregnancy stages and levels of compliance with dietary recommendations.
Secondary data analysis from a longitudinal pregnancy cohort study in a population exposed to fluoridated salt. Women were followed during the early, middle and late stages of their pregnancy (n 568). The dietary intake of recommended prenatal nutrients according to Mexican dietary guidelines and F intake (mg/d) was estimated with a validated FFQ. Data were summarised with descriptive statistics. Levels of F intake were compared with the USA’s Institute of Medicine adequate intake (AI) of 3 mg/d for pregnancy. Adjusted differences in F intake by pregnancy stages and levels of compliance with recommendations were estimated using random effects models.
Women participating in the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to ENvironmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) project, from 2001 to 2003.
Median dietary F intake throughout pregnancy ranged from 0·64 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·38) in the early to 0·70 (IQR 0·42) in the middle, and 0·72 (IQR 0·44) mg/d in the late stage (0·01 mg F/kg per d). Corresponding adjusted intakes of F were 0·72 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·74), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·77) and 0·80 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·82) mg/d. Women who were moderately and highly compliant with Mexican dietary recommendations ingested, on average, 0·04 and 0·14 mg F/d more than non-compliant women (P < 0·005).
Dietary F intake was below current AI, was greater with the progression of pregnancy and in women who were moderately and highly compliant with dietary recommendations.
A study of turbulent impurity transport by means of quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is presented for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). The calculations have been carried out with the recently developed gyrokinetic code stella. Different impurity species are considered in the presence of various types of background instabilities: ion temperature gradient (ITG), trapped electron mode (TEM) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes for the quasilinear part of the work; ITG and TEM for the nonlinear results. While the quasilinear approach allows one to draw qualitative conclusions about the sign or relative importance of the various contributions to the flux, the nonlinear simulations quantitatively determine the size of the turbulent flux and check the extent to which the quasilinear conclusions hold. Although the bulk of the nonlinear simulations are performed at trace impurity concentration, nonlinear simulations are also carried out at realistic effective charge values, in order to know to what degree the conclusions based on the simulations performed for trace impurities can be extrapolated to realistic impurity concentrations. The presented results conclude that the turbulent radial impurity transport in W7-X is mainly dominated by ordinary diffusion, which is close to that measured during the recent W7-X experimental campaigns. It is also confirmed that thermodiffusion adds a weak inward flux contribution and that, in the absence of impurity temperature and density gradients, ITG- and TEM-driven turbulence push the impurities inwards and outwards, respectively.
The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Spanish validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in a Paraguayan population.
Participants were recruited through an Internet-based survey. All participants whose scores in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and The Fear Questionnaire (FQ) were greater than zero were included. 1245 subjects responded voluntarily: 1077 subjects, scoring >0, were considered.
To establish construct validity of the FCV-19S, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using the KMO test, which was adequate, and the Bartlett sphericity test, which was significant (p <.0001). The CFI, NFI, GFI, TLI and RMSEA indices were used to evaluate the model and showed good adjustment. Cronbach’s α showed valid internal consistency (α = 0.86). This validation was supported by significant correlation (p <.001) with the HADS scale for anxiety and depression and with the FQ scale for specific phobia.
The Spanish version of the FCV-19S is a 7-item scale with two dimensions, psychological symptoms and physiological symptoms, which demonstrated robust psychometric properties in a Paraguayan population.
The number of adults requiring surgeries for CHD is increasing. We sought to evaluate the utility of the vasoactive-ventilation-renal (VVR) score as a predictor of prolonged length of stay in adults following CHD surgery.
This is a retrospective review of 158 adult patients who underwent CHD surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass. VVR score was calculated upon arrival to ICU and every 6 hours for the first 48 hours post-operatively. Our primary outcome was prolonged length of stay defined as hospital length of stay greater than 75th percentile for the cohort (≥8 days).
The study cohort had a median age of 25.6 years (18–60 years), and 83 (52.5%) were male. The groups with and without prolonged length of stay were comparable in age, gender, race, and surgical severity score. VVR score was significantly higher at all time points in the group with prolonged length of stay. The first post-operative day peak VVR score ≥13 had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 75% for predicting prolonged length of stay (p = 0.0001). On regression analysis, peak VVR score during the first day was independently associated with prolonged length of stay.
Peak VVR score during the first post-operative day was a strong predictor of prolonged length of stay in adults following CHD surgery.
This article argues that a holistic approach to documenting and understanding the physical evidence for individual cities would enhance our ability to address major questions about urbanisation, urbanism, cultural identities and economic processes. At the same time we suggest that providing more comprehensive data-sets concerning Greek cities would represent an important contribution to cross-cultural studies of urban development and urbanism, which have often overlooked relevant evidence from Classical Greece. As an example of the approach we are advocating, we offer detailed discussion of data from the Archaic and Classical city of Olynthos, in the Halkidiki. Six seasons of fieldwork here by the Olynthos Project, together with legacy data from earlier projects by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and by the Greek Archaeological Service, combine to make this one of the best-documented urban centres surviving from the Greek world. We suggest that the material from the site offers the potential to build up a detailed ‘urban profile’, consisting of an overview of the early development of the community as well as an in-depth picture of the organisation of the Classical settlement. Some aspects of the urban infrastructure can also be quantified, allowing a new assessment of (for example) its demography. This article offers a sample of the kinds of data available and the sorts of questions that can be addressed in constructing such a profile, based on a brief summary of the interim results of fieldwork and data analysis carried out by the Olynthos Project, with a focus on research undertaken during the 2017, 2018 and 2019 seasons.
Most of the existing prediction models for COVID-19 lack validation, are inadequately reported or are at high risk of bias, a reason which has led to discourage their use. Few existing models have the potential to be extensively used by healthcare providers in low-resource settings since many require laboratory and imaging predictors. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a multivariable prediction model of death in Mexican patients with COVID-19, by using demographic and patient history predictors. We conducted a national retrospective cohort study in two different sets of patients from the Mexican COVID-19 Epidemiologic Surveillance Study. Patients with a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and complete unduplicated data were eligible. In total, 83 779 patients were included to develop the scoring system through a multivariable Cox regression model; 100 000, to validate the model. Eight predictors (age, sex, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppression, hypertension, obesity and chronic kidney disease) were included in the scoring system called PH-Covid19 (range of values: −2 to 25 points). The predictive model has a discrimination of death of 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.796–0.804). The PH-Covid19 scoring system was developed and validated in Mexican patients to aid clinicians to stratify patients with COVID-19 at risk of fatal outcomes, allowing for better and efficient use of resources.
The aim was to analyse invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes in children aged ⩽17 years according to clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility. We conducted a prospective study (January 2012–June 2016). IPD cases were diagnosed by culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, microbiological and clinical data were analysed. Associations were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 253 cases, 34.4% were aged <2 years, 38.7% 2–4 years and 26.9% 5–17 years. Over 64% were 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes. 48% of the cases were diagnosed only by real-time PCR. Serotypes 3 and 1 were associated with complicated pneumonia (P < 0.05) and non-PCV13 serotypes with meningitis (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.33–22.99) and occult bacteraemia (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.56–8.76). Serotype 19A was more frequent in children aged <2 years and serotypes 3 and 1 in children aged 2–4 years and 5–17 years, respectively. 36.1% of cases were not susceptible to penicillin and 16.4% were also non-susceptible to cefotaxime. Serotypes 14, 24F and 23B were associated with non-susceptibility to penicillin (P < 0.05) and serotypes 11, 14 and 19A to cefotaxime (P < 0.05). Serotype 19A showed resistance to penicillin (P = 0.002). In conclusion, PCV13 serotypes were most frequent in children aged ⩽17 years, mainly serotypes 3, 1 and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes were associated with meningitis and occult bacteraemia and PCV13 serotypes with pneumonia. Non-susceptibility to antibiotics of non-PCV13 serotypes should be monitored.
We evaluated the host suitability and related traits of Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chrysodeixis chalcites Esper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is nonnative in North America, for the native parasitoids Campoletis sonorensis Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and the nonnative parasitoid Cotesia vanessae Reinhard (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). For the larval parasitoid C. sonorensis and C. vanessae trials, three-day-old larvae of both hosts were used, whereas one-day-old eggs of both hosts were used for the egg–larval parasitoid C. floridanum trial. For suitability parameters on each host exposed separately to each of the three parasitoid species, we measured parasitoid emergence (parasitoid success), parasitoids that did not emerge (parasitoid cocoon mortality), the proportion of male offspring (parasitoid sex ratio), hosts that developed into moths (host success), hosts that died without developing into moths or producing a parasitoid (host mortality), parasitoids emerging from cocoon masses (brood size), and the developmental times of parasitoids and hosts. For C. sonorensis, the native host and the nonnative host were found to be similarly suitable. For C. vanessae, the native host was more suitable than the nonnative host. For C. floridanum, the native host was suitable, whereas the nonnative host was not; however, sublethal effects on both the native and nonnative hosts were observed. The differential suitability of the hosts observed in this study contributes to the understanding of this measure as a dynamic factor in the expansion of parasitoids into novel host species.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
In this chapter, we examine the theoretical underpinnings of bullying behavior and link bullying to related but distinct forms of aggression. Bullying prevention and intervention strategies are reviewed and the connection between school climate and bullying is reinforced. Prevention and intervention programs that address improving the school climate are necessary but insufficient to effectively reduce bullying. Given that bullying and targeted violence are typically seen as distinct behaviors, the authors suggest that promoting a holistic violence prevention model should replace the individual and often independent approaches for dealing with various forms of aggression and violence. Instead, a comprehensive and coordinated system of assessment, prevention, and intervention will lead to reductions in bullying and other forms of targeted violence. This will require students, teachers, parents, and community stakeholders (i.e., law enforcement, community leaders, politicians) to work together for the holistic health of schools and communities.
In this work, the first nonlinear particle-in-cell simulations carried out in a stellarator with the global gyrokinetic code EUTERPE using adiabatic electrons and realistic plasma parameters are reported. Several studies are conducted with the aim of enabling reliable nonlinear simulations in stellarators with this code. First, EUTERPE is benchmarked against ORB5 in both linear and nonlinear settings in a tokamak configuration. Next, the use of noise control and stabilization tools, a Krook-type collision operator, markers’ weight smoothing and heating sources is investigated. It is studied in detail how these tools influence the linear growth rate of instabilities in both tokamak and stellarator geometries, and their influence on the linear zonal flow evolution in a stellarator. Then, it is studied how these tools allow improvement of the quality of the results in a set of nonlinear simulations of electrostatic turbulence in a stellarator configuration. Finally, these tools are applied to a W7-X magnetic configuration using experimental plasma parameters.