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To determine the association between food insecurity and HIV-infection with depression and anxiety among new tuberculosis patients.
Our cross-sectional study assessed depression, anxiety, and food insecurity with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), Zung Anxiety Self-Assessment Scale (ZUNG), and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, respectively. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine correlates of depression (PHQ9 ≥ 10) and anxiety (ZUNG ≥ 36).
Patients who were newly diagnosed with tuberculosis.
Between January and December 2019, we enrolled 180 TB patients from primary health clinics in Botswana. Overall, 99 (55.0%) were HIV-positive, 47 (26.1%), 85 (47.2%), and 69 (38.5%) indicated depression, anxiety, and moderate to severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, food insecurity was associated with a higher prevalence of depression (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.78) and anxiety (aPR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.91). Prevalence of depression and anxiety were similar between HIV-infected and -uninfected participants. Estimates remained comparable when restricted to HIV-infected participants.
Mental disorders may be affected by food insecurity among new tuberculosis patients, regardless of HIV status.
We report key learning from the public health management of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 identified in the UK. The first case imported, and the second associated with probable person-to-person transmission within the UK. Contact tracing was complex and fast-moving. Potential exposures for both cases were reviewed, and 52 contacts were identified. No further confirmed COVID-19 cases have been linked epidemiologically to these two cases. As steps are made to enhance contact tracing across the UK, the lessons learned from earlier contact tracing during the country's containment phase are particularly important and timely.
Previous research failed to uncover a replicable structure of dimensions or subtypes underlying the symptoms of depression. One reason might be that research failed to separate co-variation between symptoms due to overall depression severity vs. due to specific symptom profiles.
Objectives and Aims
The study tested the hypothesis that a replicable dimensional structure of depression would be uncovered when depression severity is eliminated from symptom scores. Additionally, the study explored differences in the dimensional structure in general population vs. depressed people-only samples.
The cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF), a large cohort of young Swiss men, and young men from the national health and nutrition survey in the US (NHANES 2009-2012) were analyzed. DSM-IV symptoms of depression were assessed via the Major Depressive Inventory (WHO-MDI) in C-SURF and via the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) in NHANES. Dimensionality was examined using principal component analysis in full samples vs. samples of participants with a current depressive episode for raw vs. severity-adjusted symptom scores.
When using severity-adjusted symptom scores, correlations between depressive symptoms largely disappeared and there were no replicable dimensions. When using raw scores in the full samples, one single dimension of depression consistently emerged. When using raw scores in depressed participants, only rudiments of dimensions were found across samples.
It is unlikely that there are stable dimensions underlying the DSM-IV symptoms of depression. The set of symptoms capture the disorder in the general population, but the disorder's manifestation is highly individual.
Before October 2012 there was no service level agreement for psychiatry cover in Whiston Hospital, an acute trust in the UK. The Crisis team would visit on goodwill to assess patients. This changed when a Liaison Psychiatry (LP) service was commissioned to provide 24 hour cover, Monday to Sunday for the Emergency Department (ED) for adults.
To quantify waiting times to be assessed by psychiatry, comparing the new LP Service (intervention group) to its predecessor (control). The null hypothesis being that the waiting time for the control and intervention group are the same.
The authors prospectively collected data on all referrals received by the LP service in the first three months of operation n=305 and retrospectively collected data on a random sample of 50 patients referred from ED in the same months 2011 (control).
The median time from referral to the time of psychiatric assessment in the control group was 162.5 minutes [IQR 130–330], the mean time was 246.16 [95% CI 180 to 312]. The median time from referral to the time of psychiatric assessment following the introduction of the LP service was 30 minutes [IQR 15-90], the mean time was 79.63 [95% CI 65 to 93]. When the two samples were compared using an independent t test they were significantly different p<0.002.
The new LP service has decreased the median wait for a psychiatry assessment by 132 minutes. The team currently seeS 82% of referrals within 60 minutes. This improves patient safety and encourages appropriate and timely discharge.
The Department of Health in the UK wants the National Health Service to make £20 Billion worth of efficiency savings by 2015 to reinvest.
In the UK the General Hospitals use paper records which are then scanned to create electronic records while Psychiatric Hospitals require that information to be typed on to their electronic records and these electronic records are not available to each other.
Therefore liaison psychiatry assessments require a written entry to be made in the Medical notes and a second entry typed on to the psychiatric electronic patient record which requires a full psychiatric history.
This duplication in typing information was consuming a considerable amount of this Teams time and resources which could have instead been spent with patients.
To identify how much time is spent by Staff typing information on to the psychiatric electronic patient records.
We electronically checked for the preceding three months the amount of time spent typing information on to the electronic records after every liaison psychiatry assessment.
We were then able to obtain the average for every week.
On average about 36 to 40 hours were spent every week typing information on to the electronic records.
Liaison Psychiatry should dispense with the requirement for information to be duplicated on to the electronic patient records and should instead scan the written entry made in the Medical notes.
This should lead to a saving of about £50,000, enough to employ an additional member of Staff every week.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness, requiring antipsychotic treatment. Relapses are associated with poor prognosis and treatment adherence is a major factor in relapse. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics increase adherence, can reduce relapse and improve long-term outcomes.
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP) in terms of hospital admissions.
Patients were included in the study if they had been treated with PP for at least one year. The number of days during hospital admissions before and after initiation of PP was assessed in a mirror image design.
61 patients in the study had been treated for at least 1 year. The mean age of patients was 44 years old and 61% were male (n=37). The commonest diagnosis was schizophrenia (n=51).
In the year before initiation of PP, there were 64 admissions totalling 6089 days for all the patients, with an average of 99.8 days per patient in hospital. During the first year of treatment with PP, there were 22 admissions totalling 1412 days, with an average of 23 days per patient in hospital. 69% of patients had no admissions on PP.
In this naturalistic audit looking at admission data, treatment with PP resulted in a reduction in the number of hospital days by 76.8%. More than two-thirds of patients experienced no admissions during treatment with PP. This suggests that Paliperidone Palmitate can be effective in treating Schizophrenia as well as cost-effective treatment by reducing hospital admissions.
In the United Kingdom, compliance with guidelines on physical health monitoring of patients prescribed clozapine is poor. Our community team established a ‘clozapine clinic’, led by junior doctors, to monitor the physical health of this population.
The aims of this audit were:
– to ascertain levels of compliance with guidelines on the physical health monitoring of patients taking clozapine;
– to compare the current level of compliance with that prior to the establishment of the clinic.
Eleven standards were drawn from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry.
Three audit cycles were conducted: two prior to the establishment of the clinic and one after. In each cycle, searches of patient records were conducted and blood results were reviewed. This was supplemented by telephone calls to general practitioners to ensure a complete data set.
Analysis was conducted in Microsoft Excel™ and changes between the cycles were analysed using a two-tailed Z-score.
Each audit cycle included 28–30 patients. In the current cycle compliance levels varied between 66% (annual ECG recording) and 100% (monthly full blood count). The average compliance level was 73% across all standards. This represents an overall improvement on previous audit cycles. Since the clinic was established there has been a statistically significant improvement in compliance with annual monitoring of weight (P = 0.147), body mass index (P = 0.0178), and ECG monitoring (P = 0.0244).
Improvements in the care of a vulnerable population may be achieved through setting clear standards, regular audit, and harnessing the leadership and enthusiasm of junior doctors.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To date, nearly 10,000 World Trade Center (WTC) responders have been diagnosed with at least one type of WTC-related cancer, and over 70 types of cancer have been related to WTC occupational exposure. Due to the observed latency period for malignancies, the WTC Health Program anticipates increases in rates of new cancer diagnoses. Given the growing number of cancer diagnoses in this population, there is an urgent need to develop a novel intervention to address the psychosocial needs of WTC responders with cancer. Meaning-centered psychotherapy (MCP) is a structured psychotherapeutic intervention originally developed to help patients with advanced cancer find and sustain meaning in life despite illness-related limitations. Existential distress and loss of meaning are critical and understudied elements of psychological health that have been widely overlooked among WTC responders with cancer.
We have adapted MCP for WTC responders (MCP-WTC) for the treatment of WTC responders who have been diagnosed with WTC-certified cancers. MCP-WTC aims to target the complex crisis in meaning faced by those responders who responded to the 9/11 attacks and subsequently were diagnosed with cancer as a result of their service.
We describe the adaptation of MCP-WTC and the application of this intervention to meet the unique needs of those exposed to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), participated in the rescue, recovery, and clean-up effort at Ground Zero, and were diagnosed with WTC-related cancer. We highlight the novel aspects of this intervention which have been designed to facilitate meaning-making in the context of the patient's response to 9/11 and subsequent diagnosis of cancer.
Significance of results
This work provides a rationale for MCP-WTC and the potential for this intervention to improve the quality of life of WTC responders and help these patients navigate life after 9/11 and cancer.
We conducted a large-scale, multiple-year study in harvested areas of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) forests in western Washington, examining the effectiveness of control methods on the widespread invasive shrub Scotch broom [Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link]. We tested both chemical and physical control methods, using three different approaches that are management relevant: (1) triclopyr, a POST herbicide, at different times of year and on different-sized plants; (2) cutting (or brushcutting) of mature individuals; and (3) scarification of soil surface to remove seedlings once versus multiple times. We measured initial mortality, seed germination, and percent cover of C. scoparius in plots for 3 yr following treatments. Triclopyr treatment resulted in greater mortality and reduced percent cover compared with all other treatments with the effect persisting for 2 yr after spraying. Further, triclopyr had the same effect on C. scoparius cover and mortality irrespective of time of year applied. Similar to soil scarification, triclopyr treatments resulted in a flush of seedlings, suggesting that removal of conspecific competitors and not soil disturbance per se promotes seed germination. Brushcutting was generally effective in reducing C. scoparius cover in the short term, but effects did not persist as long as triclopyr treatments, in part due to large differences in stump resprouting rates across sites. Soil scarification to remove seedlings, even over multiple years, did not result in reduced C. scoparius cover. Triclopyr is an effective approach for controlling both emerging and established stands of C. scoparius.
An ongoing challenge in understanding and treating personality disorders (PDs) is a significant heterogeneity in disorder expression, stemming from variability in underlying dynamic processes. These processes are commonly discussed in clinical settings, but are rarely empirically studied due to their personalized, temporal nature. The goal of the current study was to combine intensive longitudinal data collection with person-specific temporal network models to produce individualized symptom-level structures of personality pathology. These structures were then linked to traditional PD diagnoses and stress (to index daily functioning).
Using about 100 daily assessments of internalizing and externalizing domains underlying PDs (i.e. negative affect, detachment, impulsivity, hostility), a temporal network mapping approach (i.e. group iterative multiple model estimation) was used to create person-specific networks of the temporal relations among domains for 91 individuals (62.6% female) with a PD. Network characteristics were then associated with traditional PD symptomatology (controlling for mean domain levels) and with daily variation in clinically-relevant phenomena (i.e. stress).
Features of the person-specific networks predicted paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, and obsessive-PD symptom counts above average levels of the domains, in ways that align with clinical conceptualizations. They also predicted between-person variation in stress across days.
Relations among behavioral domains thought to underlie heterogeneity in PDs were indeed associated with traditional diagnostic constructs and with daily functioning (i.e. stress) in person-specific networks. Findings highlight the importance of leveraging data and models that capture person-specific, dynamic processes, and suggest that person-specific networks may have implications for precision medicine.
We describe the design and deployment of GREENBURST, a commensal Fast Radio Burst (FRB) search system at the Green Bank Telescope. GREENBURST uses the dedicated L-band receiver tap to search over the 960–1 920 MHz frequency range for pulses with dispersion measures out to
. Due to its unique design, GREENBURST is capable of conducting searches for FRBs when the L-band receiver is not being used for scheduled observing. This makes it a sensitive single pixel detector capable of reaching deeper in the radio sky. While single pulses from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients will be detectable in our observations, and will form part of the database we archive, the primary goal is to detect and study FRBs. Based on recent determinations of the all-sky rate, we predict that the system will detect approximately one FRB for every 2–3 months of continuous operation. The high sensitivity of GREENBURST means that it will also be able to probe the slope of the FRB fluence distribution, which is currently uncertain in this observing band.
Following publication, errors were discovered in the y-axis labels of the electron and hole concentration plots in the following figure panels: figure 4c, figure 4d, figure 5c, figure 5d, figure 6c, figure 6d, figure 8c and figure 8d. The error does not affect the description, analysis or conclusions. The correct representation of the figure panels are shown here.
During the summer of 2016, the Hawaii Department of Health responded to the second-largest domestic foodborne hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in the post-vaccine era. The epidemiological investigation included case finding and investigation, sequencing of RNA positive clinical specimens, product trace-back and virologic testing and sequencing of HAV RNA from the product. Additionally, an online survey open to all Hawaii residents was conducted to estimate baseline commercial food consumption. We identified 292 confirmed HAV cases, of whom 11 (4%) were possible secondary cases. Seventy-four (25%) were hospitalised and there were two deaths. Among all cases, 94% reported eating at Oahu or Kauai Island branches of Restaurant Chain A, with 86% of those cases reporting raw scallop consumption. In contrast, a food consumption survey conducted during the outbreak indicated 25% of Oahu residents patronised Restaurant Chain A in the 7 weeks before the survey. Product trace-back revealed a single distributor that supplied scallops imported from the Philippines to Restaurant Chain A. Recovery, amplification and sequence comparison of HAV recovered from scallops revealed viral sequences matching those from case-patients. Removal of product from implicated restaurants and vaccination of those potentially exposed led to the cessation of the outbreak. This outbreak further highlights the need for improved imported food safety.
This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
A total of 592 people reported gastrointestinal illness following attendance at Street Spice, a food festival held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North East England in February/March 2013. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken to identify the source and prevent further cases. Several epidemiological analyses were conducted; a cohort study; a follow-up survey of cases and capture re-capture to estimate the true burden of cases. Indistinguishable isolates of Salmonella Agona phage type 40 were identified in cases and on fresh curry leaves used in one of the accompaniments served at the event. Molecular testing indicated entero-aggregative Escherichia coli and Shigella also contributed to the burden of illness. Analytical studies found strong associations between illness and eating food from a particular stall and with food items including coconut chutney which contained fresh curry leaves. Further investigation of the food supply chain and food preparation techniques identified a lack of clear instruction on the use of fresh uncooked curry leaves in finished dishes and uncertainty about their status as a ready-to-eat product. We describe the investigation of one of the largest outbreaks of food poisoning in England, involving several gastrointestinal pathogens including a strain of Salmonella Agona not previously seen in the UK.
Increasing evidence suggests that the presence of mobile ions in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can cause a current–voltage curve hysteresis. Steady state and transient current–voltage characteristics of a planar metal halide CH3NH3PbI3 PSC are analysed with a drift-diffusion model that accounts for both charge transport and ion vacancy motion. The high ion vacancy density within the perovskite layer gives rise to narrow Debye layers (typical width ~2 nm), adjacent to the interfaces with the transport layers, over which large drops in the electric potential occur and in which significant charge is stored. Large disparities between (I) the width of the Debye layers and that of the perovskite layer (~600 nm) and (II) the ion vacancy density and the charge carrier densities motivate an asymptotic approach to solving the model, while the stiffness of the equations renders standard solution methods unreliable. We derive a simplified surface polarisation model in which the slow ion dynamics are replaced by interfacial (non-linear) capacitances at the perovskite interfaces. Favourable comparison is made between the results of the asymptotic approach and numerical solutions for a realistic cell over a wide range of operating conditions of practical interest.
To understand increasing rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tennessee, we conducted testing, risk factor analysis and a nested case–control study among persons who use drugs. During June–October 2016, HCV testing with risk factor assessment was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics, family planning clinics and an addiction treatment facility in eastern Tennessee; data were analysed by using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case–control study was conducted to assess drug-using risks and behaviours among persons who reported intranasal or injection drug use (IDU). Of 4753 persons tested, 397 (8.4%) were HCV-antibody positive. HCV infection was significantly associated with a history of both intranasal and IDU (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 35.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.1–51.9), IDU alone (aOR 52.7, CI 25.3–109.9), intranasal drug use alone (aOR 2.6, CI 1.8–3.9) and incarceration (aOR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.8). By 4 October 2016, 574 persons with a reported history of drug use; 63 (11%) were interviewed further. Of 31 persons who used both intranasal and injection drugs, 26 (84%) reported previous intranasal drug use, occurring 1–18 years (median 5.5 years) before their first IDU. Our findings provide evidence that reported IDU, intranasal drug use and incarceration are independent indicators of risk for past or present HCV infection in the study population.
There is currently limited experience in the initiation and maintenance of clozapine for treatment-resistant psychosis in adults with established structural heart disease. These complex patients require close supervision and liaison between colleagues. Here we present the successful experience of treating one such patient within our service and describe a monitoring plan to ensure that these treatments can be provided both safely and effectively.
A 36-year-old man with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was admitted to a specialist unit for a trial of clozapine. His psychiatric illness was characterised by multimodal hallucinations and delusions combined with low mood and poor motivation. The diagnosis of HCM was made 3 years previously following a routine electrocardiogram (ECG), and he had remained asymptomatic throughout this time; there were concerns about the risk of initiating clozapine given his pre-existing cardiac condition. Baseline investigations were performed as per local guidelines prior to commencing clozapine; these were within normal limits other than a mildly raised troponin level of 54 ng/L (normal <16 ng/L), which was attributed to the HCM. In addition, baseline transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed which showed no change in the structural heart disease in comparison with previous TTEs.
Clozapine was started at 12.5 mg daily and up-titrated to 150 mg twice daily over 14 days as per our institute's guidelines. The patient was monitored with regular testing of troponins, inflammatory markers and ECG. On day 18, the troponin level increased to 1371 ng/L. Creatine kinase and inflammatory markers remained stable. No changes in ECG or TTE were noted and the patient remained clinically asymptomatic. Cardiology opinion was sought and reported that the finding of an isolated elevated troponin was likely to reflect a ‘troponin leak’ in the context of increased cardiac muscle mass associated with HCM. In the absence of any clinical compromise, it was not felt to be of concern. Clozapine was continued with good effect on mental state. Troponin levels gradually reduced and the patient remained well.
While multiple cases of clozapine-induced cardiotoxicity have been reported in the literature, its implications for pre-existing structural disease are unclear. This case report suggests that clozapine can be safely introduced in pre-existing HCM, explores strategies for monitoring and highlights the importance of liaising with experienced cardiologists.
We have developed high affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline and caffeine. These polymer particles are mixed within the bulk of screen-printed ink allowing masss-producible bulk modified MIP Screen-Printed Electrodes (MIP-SPEs) to be realised. We have explored different SPE supporting surfaces, such as polyester, tracing paper and household-printing paper. The performance of those MIP-SPEs is studied using the Heat-Transfer Method (HTM), a patented thermal method. With the combination of screen-printing techniques and thermal detection, it is possible to develop a portable sensor platform that is capable of low-cost and straightforward detection of biomolecules on-site. In the future, this unique sensor architecture holds great promise for the use in biomedical devices.