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Journals use social media to increase the awareness of their publications. Infographics show research findings in a concise and visually appealing manner, well suited for dissemination on social media platforms. We hypothesized that infographic abstracts promoted on social media would increase the dissemination and online readership of the parent research articles.
Twenty-four articles were chosen from the six issues of CJEM published between July 2016 and June 2017 and randomized to infographic or control groups. All articles were disseminated through the journal’s social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook). Control articles were promoted using a screen capture image of each article’s abstract on the journal’s social media accounts. Infographic articles were promoted similarly using a visual infographic. Infographics were also published and promoted on the CanadiEM.org’s website and social media channels. Abstract views, full-text views, and the change in Altmetric score were compared between groups using unpaired two-tailed t-tests.
There were no significant differences in the groups at baseline. Abstract views (mean, 95% CI) were higher in the infographics (379, 287-471) than the control group (176, 136-215, p<0.001). Mean change in Altmetric scores was higher in the infographics (26, 18-34) than in the control group (3, 2-4, p<0.0001). There was no difference in full-text views between the infographics (50, 0-101) and control groups (25, 18-32).
The promotion of CJEM articles using infographics on social media and the CanadiEM.org website increased Altmetric scores and abstract views. Infographics may have a role in increasing awareness of medical literature.
Propensity score matching is used to estimate treatment effects when data are observational. Results presented in this study demonstrate the use of propensity score matching to evaluate the average treatment effect of unit-based pricing of household trash for reducing municipal solid waste disposal. Average treatment effect of the treated for 34 New Hampshire communities range from an annual reduction of 631 pounds per household to 823 pounds per household. This represents an annual reduction of 42 percent to 54 percent from an average of 1530 pounds per household if a town did not adopt municipal solid waste user fees.
Introduction: With the increasing volume of medical literature published each year, it is difficult for clinicians to translate the latest research into practice. Awareness is the first step of knowledge translation and journals have begun using social media to increase the dissemination and awareness of their publications. Infographics can describe research findings visually, are shared broadly on social media, and may be a more effective way to convey information. We hypothesized that infographic abstracts would increase the social media dissemination and online readership of research articles relative to traditional abstracts. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 24 original research articles were chosen from the six issues of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) published between July 2016 and May 2017 (4 articles per issue). Half were randomized to the infographic and control groups within each issue. Infographic articles were promoted using a visual infographic outlining the findings of the article. Control articles were promoted using a screen capture image of each articles abstract. Both were disseminated through the journals social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook) along with the link to the selected article. Infographics were also published on CanadiEM.org. Abstract views, full text views, and the change in Altmetric score were tracked for 30 days and compared between groups. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests were used to detect significant differences. Results: Abstract views (mean, SD) were significantly higher for infographic articles (378.9, 162.0) than control articles (175.5, 69.2, p<0.001). Mean Altmetric scores were significantly higher for infographic articles (26.4, 13.8) than control articles (3.4, 1.7, p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in full-text views between infographic (49.7, 90.4) and control articles (25.3, 12.3). Conclusion: CJEM articles promoted on social media using infographics had higher abstract viewership and Altmetric scores than those promoted with traditional abstracts. Although there was no difference in full-text readership, our results suggest that infographic abstracts may have a role in increasing the dissemination of medical literature.
The frequency of bioevents is increasing worldwide. In the United States, as elsewhere, control of contagion may require the cooperation of community members with emergency public health measures. The US general public is largely unfamiliar with these measures, and our understanding of factors that influence behaviors in this context is limited. The few previous reviews of research on this topic focused on non-US samples. For this review, we examined published research on the psychosocial influences of adherence in US sample populations. Of 153 articles identified, only 9 met the inclusion criteria. Adherence behaviors were categorized into 2 groups: self-protective behaviors (personal hygiene, social distancing, face mask use, seeking out health care advice, and vaccination) and protecting others (isolation, temperature screening, and quarantine). A lack of uniformity across studies regarding definitions and measures was noted. Only 5 of the 9 articles reported tests of association between adherence with emergency measures and psychosocial factors; perceived risk and perceived seriousness were found to be significantly associated with adherence or adherence intentions. Although it is well documented that psychosocial factors are important predictors of protective health behaviors in general, this has not been rigorously studied in the context of bioevents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:528–535)
In 2015 and 2016, the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) Social Media (SoMe) Team collaborated with established medical websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics while tracking dissemination and readership.
CJEM publications in the “Original Research” and “State of the Art” sections were selected by the SoMe Team for podcast and infographic promotion based on their perceived interest to emergency physicians. A control group was composed retrospectively of articles from the 2015 and 2016 issues with the highest Altmetric score that received standard Facebook and Twitter promotions. Studies on SoMe topics were excluded. Dissemination was quantified by January 1, 2017 Altmetric scores. Readership was measured by abstract and full-text views over a 3-month period. The number needed to view (NNV) was calculated by dividing abstract views by full-text views.
Twenty-nine of 88 articles that met inclusion were included in the podcast (6), infographic (11), and control (12) groups. Descriptive statistics (mean, 95% confidence interval) were calculated for podcast (Altmetric: 61, 42-80; Abstract: 1795, 1135-2455; Full-text: 431, 0-1031), infographic (Altmetric: 31.5, 19-43; Abstract: 590, 361-819; Full-text: 65, 33-98), and control (Altmetric: 12, 8-15; Abstract: 257, 159-354; Full-Text: 73, 38-109) articles. The NNV was 4.2 for podcast, 9.0 for infographic, and 3.5 for control articles.
Limitations included selection bias, the influence of SoMe promotion on the Altmetric scores, and a lack of generalizability to other journals.
Collaboration with established SoMe websites using podcasts and infographics was associated with increased Altmetric scores and abstract views but not full-text article views.
Hosts face mortality from parasitic and environmental stressors, but interactions of parasitism with other stressors are not well understood, particularly for long-lived hosts. We monitored survival of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) in a longitudinal design incorporating cestode (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection, starvation and exposure to the pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). We found that cestode cysticercoids exhibit increasing morphological damage and decreasing ability to excyst over time, but were never eliminated from the host. In the presence of even mild environmental stressors, host lifespan was reduced sufficiently that extensive degradation of cysticercoids was never realized. Median host lifespan was 200 days in the absence of stressors, and 3–197 days with parasitism, starvation and/or DE. Early survival of parasitized hosts was higher relative to controls in the presence of intermediate concentrations of DE, but reduced under all other conditions tested. Parasitism increased host mortality in the presence of other stressors at times when parasitism alone did not cause mortality, consistent with an interpretation of synergy. Environmental stressors modified the parasite numbers needed to reveal intensity-dependent host mortality, but only rarely masked intensity dependence. The longitudinal approach produced observations that would have been overlooked or misinterpreted if survival had only been monitored at a single time point.
The current study examined whether consistency in day-to-day interactions between children and parents related to inflammatory cytokine production in youths. One hundred twenty-three parents recorded the daily quality of interactions and timing of leisure activities with their adolescent children for 2 weeks, and the degree of variability in those ratings was calculated. One year later, the production of proinflammatory cytokines in youths’ blood was measured in response to in vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide (a bacterial product). The results indicate that greater variability in parent–child relationship quality related to greater stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in youths, above and beyond overall relationship quality. Greater variability in the timing of parent–child leisure activities also predicted greater stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production in youths, regardless of the frequency of interactions. In sum, consistency in both the affective and temporal aspects of parent–child relationships may contribute to inflammatory processes in youth.
Mechanistic research suggests a unique evolutionary relationship between complex milk oligosaccharides and cognate bifidobacteria enriched in breast-fed infants. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) were recently identified as structurally and functionally similar to human milk oligosaccharides. The present single-blind three-way crossover study is the first to determine the safety and tolerability of BMO consumption by healthy human participants (n 12) and its effects on faecal microbiota and microbial metabolism. Participants consumed each supplement (placebo-control; low- and high-BMO doses) for eleven consecutive days, followed by a 2-week washout period prior to initiating the next supplement arm. Low and high BMO doses were consumed as 25 and 35 % of each individual's daily fibre intake, respectively. Safety and tolerability were measured using standardised questionnaires on gut and stomach discomfort and stool consistency. Faecal extracts were profiled for bacterial populations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bifidobacteria presence was confirmed using quantitative PCR. Urine was analysed for changes in microbial metabolism using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). Consumption of both the low and high BMO doses was well tolerated and did not change stool consistency from baseline. Multivariate analysis of the NGS results demonstrated no change in faecal microbiota phyla among the placebo-control and BMO supplement groups. In conclusion, BMO supplementation was well tolerated in healthy adults and has the potential to shift faecal microbiota toward beneficial strains as part of a synbiotic treatment with probiotic cultures that selectively metabolise oligosaccharides.
Children with cancer are potentially at a high risk of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy, and despite UK vitamin D supplementation guidelines their implementation remains inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to investigate 25(OH)D concentration and factors contributing to 25(OH)D inadequacy in paediatric cancer patients. A prospective cohort study of Scottish children aged <18 years diagnosed with, and treated for, cancer (patients) between August 2010 and January 2014 was performed, with control data from Scottish healthy children (controls). Clinical and nutritional data were collected at defined periods up to 24 months. 25(OH)D status was defined by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health as inadequacy (<50 nmol/l: deficiency (<25 nmol/l), insufficiency (25–50 nmol/l)), sufficiency (51–75 nmol/l) and optimal (>75 nmol/l). In all, eighty-two patients (median age 3·9, interquartile ranges (IQR) 1·9–8·8; 56 % males) and thirty-five controls (median age 6·2, IQR 4·8–9·1; 49 % males) were recruited. 25(OH)D inadequacy was highly prevalent in the controls (63 %; 22/35) and in the patients (64 %; 42/65) at both baseline and during treatment (33–50 %). Non-supplemented children had the highest prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy at every stage with 25(OH)D median ranging from 32·0 (IQR 21·0–46·5) to 45·0 (28·0–64·5) nmol/l. Older age at baseline (R −0·46; P<0·001), overnutrition (BMI≥85th centile) at 3 months (P=0·005; relative risk=3·1) and not being supplemented at 6 months (P=0·04; relative risk=4·3) may have contributed to lower plasma 25(OH)D. Paediatric cancer patients are not at a higher risk of 25(OH)D inadequacy than healthy children at diagnosis; however, prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy is still high and non-supplemented children have a higher risk. Appropriate monitoring and therapeutic supplementation should be implemented.
Supraglacial streams are important hydrologic features in glaciated environments as they are conduits for the transport of aeolian debris, meltwater, solutes and microbial communities. We characterized the basic geomorphology, hydrology and biogeochemistry of the Cotton Glacier supraglacial stream located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The distinctive geomorphology of the stream is driven by accumulated aeolian sediment from the Transantarctic Mountains, while solar radiation and summer temperatures govern melt in the system. The hydrologic functioning of the Cotton Glacier stream is largely controlled by the formation of ice dams that lead to vastly different annual flow regimes and extreme flushing events. Stream water is chemically dilute and lacks a detectable humic signature. However, the fluorescent signature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the stream does demonstrate an extremely transitory red-shifted signal found only in near-stream sediment leachates and during the initial flushing of the system at the onset of flow. This suggests that episodic physical flushing drives pulses of DOM with variable quality in this stream. This is the first description of a large Antarctic supraglacial stream and our results provide evidence that the hydrology and geomorphology of supraglacial streams drive resident microbial community composition and biogeochemical cycling.
Fontan survivors have depressed cardiac index that worsens over time. Serum biomarker measurement is minimally invasive, rapid, widely available, and may be useful for serial monitoring. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers that correlate with lower cardiac index in Fontan patients.
Methods and results
This study was a multi-centre case series assessing the correlations between biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance-derived cardiac index in Fontan patients ⩾6 years of age with biochemical and haematopoietic biomarkers obtained ±12 months from cardiac magnetic resonance. Medical history and biomarker values were obtained by chart review. Spearman’s Rank correlation assessed associations between biomarker z-scores and cardiac index. Biomarkers with significant correlations had receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve estimated. In total, 97 cardiac magnetic resonances in 87 patients met inclusion criteria: median age at cardiac magnetic resonance was 15 (6–33) years. Significant correlations were found between cardiac index and total alkaline phosphatase (−0.26, p=0.04), estimated creatinine clearance (0.26, p=0.02), and mean corpuscular volume (−0.32, p<0.01). Area under the curve for the three individual biomarkers was 0.63–0.69. Area under the curve for the three-biomarker panel was 0.75. Comparison of cardiac index above and below the receiver operating characteristic curve-identified cut-off points revealed significant differences for each biomarker (p<0.01) and for the composite panel [median cardiac index for higher-risk group=2.17 L/minute/m2 versus lower-risk group=2.96 L/minute/m2, (p<0.01)].
Higher total alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular volume as well as lower estimated creatinine clearance identify Fontan patients with lower cardiac index. Using biomarkers to monitor haemodynamics and organ-specific effects warrants prospective investigation.
NGC 4945 is with D ~3-4 Mpc one of the nearest starburst galaxies known and a goldmine for molecular cloud research. A multi-line mm-wave study has been carried out towards its nuclear region with the Swedish-ESO Sub-millimetre Telescope (SEST). The study covers the frequency range from 82 GHz to 354 GHz and includes 80 transitions of 19 molecules, including rare isotope-bearing species. Applying a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) code to the data, H2 densities and column densities of 22 molecular species are calculated. Many of these species indicate the presence of a prominent high density interstellar gas component characterized by nH2 ~105cm-3. Abundances of molecular species are calculated and compared with abundances observed toward the starburst galaxies NGC 253 and M 82 and galactic sources. Apparent is an ‘overabundance’ of HNC and CN in the nuclear environment of NGC 4945. NGC 4945 is the second known starburst galaxy with an HNC/HCN abundance ratio ≥1. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotope ratios are also determined. The data indicate that high 18O/17O, low 16O/18O and 14N/15N and perhaps also low 32S/34S ratios (6.4±0.3, 195±45, 105±25 and 13.5±2.5, respectively) are characteristic properties of a starburst environment in an advanced evolutionary stage.
The Rho/ROCK pathway is involved in numerous pivotal cellular processes that have made it an area of intense study in cancer medicine, however, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors are yet to make an appearance in the clinical cancer setting. Their performance as an anti-cancer therapy has been varied in pre-clinical studies, however, they have been shown to be effective vasodilators in the treatment of hypertension and post-ischaemic stroke vasospasm. This review addresses the various roles the Rho/ROCK pathway plays in angiogenesis, tumour vascular tone and reciprocal feedback from the tumour microenvironment and explores the potential utility of ROCK inhibitors as effective vascular normalising agents. ROCK inhibitors may potentially enhance the delivery and efficacy of chemotherapy agents and improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy. As such, repurposing of these agents as adjuncts to standard treatments may significantly improve outcomes for patients with cancer. A deeper understanding of the controlled and dynamic regulation of the key components of the Rho pathway may lead to effective use of the Rho/ROCK inhibitors in the clinical management of cancer.
Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy is extremely useful in determining by precise measurements of atomic and molecular infrared line spectra the molecular abundances, velocity structure, and excitation conditions of the interstellar medium, and the temperature- and pressure-profiles of planetary atmospheres (cf. Kostiuk et al. 1977, Betz et al. 1976, 1977, Abbas et al. 1978).
Published data on a select group of SiO maser sources have been analyzed for velocity variations as a function of phase. No apparent correlation was found to a level of about 2 km/s. This places constraints on the location of the maser molecules. Such a correlation should be present at some level. The implications for future high resolution infrared measurements are discussed.
The effects of alloying elements (Ni/Ta) on the temperature dependence of yield stress in Co3(Al,W) with the L12 structure have been investigated through compression tests of nearly single-phase polycrystalline alloys in the temperature range between room temperature to 1,473K. Compared with a ternary Co3(Al,W), a Ni/Ta-added Co3(Al,W) alloy exhibits a higher γ΄ solvus temperature and lower onset temperature of the yield stress anomaly (positive temperature dependence of yield stress), suggesting that the CSF energy is increased by Ni/Ta addition. As a consequence, the high-temperature strength in Co3(Al,W) is considerably enhanced.