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On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
Natural control by predators and parasitoids provides an important and often unnoticed ecosystem service to agricultural landscapes by reducing pest populations in crops. The current model of horticultural intensification in south-eastern Spain produces high yields but has also resulted in a landscape almost completely covered by plastic. Promoting natural areas among greenhouses could enhance biodiversity, by being beneficial insects, and reduce pest pressure outdoors. The first step is to ascertain how pests and their natural enemies (NEs) use Mediterranean vegetation for selecting the best plants for pest suppression outdoors. The abundance of the two major horticultural pests, the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, together with their NEs, were assayed in 22 flowering perennial plants, which were newly planted in an experimental field surrounded by greenhouses. Eight plant species were identified as the most critical species for sustaining pest populations outdoors. A set of five plant species supported a medium level of pests, and another set of ten plant species supported the lowest level of both pests. Tobacco whitefly occurred in a few plants species, whereas western flower thrips occurred on almost all the plant species studied, and was favoured by the presence of flowers in perennial plants. The results suggest that plant diversity may provide relatively few acceptable host plants for tobacco whitefly than for western flower thrips. NEs were generally collected in plants that also supported abundance of pests, indicating that host/prey availability, more than food resources from flowers, was a stronger predictor of NE abundance in perennial plants. Field trials using the plants with the lowest host acceptance by pests are needed in order to ascertain whether pest abundance outdoors is reduced.
Blazar OJ 287 is one of the best observed extragalactic objects. It's historical light curve goes back to 1890′s. Based on the historical behaviour Sillanpää et al. (1988) showed that OJ 287 displays large periodic outbursts, with a period of 11.7 years. We have monitored OJ 287 intensively for two years, during the OJ-94 project. This project was created for monitoring OJ 287 during its predicted new outburst in 1994. In the data archive we have over 7000 observations on OJ 287, in the radio, infrared and optical bands. This data archive contains the best ever obtained light curves for any extragalactic object. The optical light curve shows continuous variability down to time scales of tens of minutes. The variability observed in OJ 287 can be broken down to (at least) four different categories:
Better performance due to repeated testing can bias long-term trajectories of cognitive aging and correlates of change. We examined whether retest effects differ as a function of individual differences pertinent to cognitive aging: race/ethnicity, age, sex, language, years of education, literacy, and dementia risk factors including apolipoprotein E ε4 status, baseline cognitive performance, and cardiovascular risk. We used data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a community-based cohort of older adults (n=4073). We modeled cognitive change and retest effects in summary factors for general cognitive performance, memory, executive functioning, and language using multilevel models. Retest effects were parameterized in two ways, as improvement between the first and subsequent testings, and as the square root of the number of prior testings. We evaluated whether the retest effect differed by individual characteristics. The mean retest effect for general cognitive performance was 0.60 standard deviations (95% confidence interval [0.46, 0.74]), and was similar for memory, executive functioning, and language. Retest effects were greater for participants in the lowest quartile of cognitive performance (many of whom met criteria for dementia based on a study algorithm), consistent with regression to the mean. Retest did not differ by other characteristics. Retest effects are large in this community-based sample, but do not vary by demographic or dementia-related characteristics. Differential retest effects may not limit the generalizability of inferences across different groups in longitudinal research. (JINS, 2015, 21, 506–518)
The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between self-focused
attention and mindfulness in participants prone to hallucinations and others who
were not. A sample of 318 healthy participants, students at the universities of
Sevilla and Almería, was given the Launay-Slade Hallucinations
Scale-revised (LSHS-R, Bentall & Slade, 1985). Based on this sample, two groups were formed:
participants with high (n = 55) and low proneness
(n = 28) to hallucinations. Participants with a
score higher than a standard deviation from the mean in the LSHS-R were included
in the high proneness group, participants with a score lower than a standard
deviation from the mean in the LSHR-R were included in the second one. All
participants were also given the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS, McKenzie
& Hoyle, 2008) and the
Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ, Chadwick et al., 2008). The results showed that
participants with high hallucination proneness had significantly higher levels
of public (t(80) = 6.81, p
< .001) and private (t(77) = 7.39,
p < .001) self-focused attention and lower levels
of mindfulness (t(81) = -4.56, p
< .001) than participants in the group with low hallucination
proneness. A correlational analysis showed a negative association between
self-focused attention (private and public) and mindfulness (r
= -0.23, p < .001; r
= -0.38, p < .001 respectively). Finally,
mindfulness was found to partly mediate between self-focused attention and
hallucination proneness. The importance of self-focused attention and
mindfulness in understanding the etiology of hallucinations discussed and
suggest some approaches to their treatment.
This chapter considers two competing views about what modularity might consist of, which the authors refer to as sui generis modularity and descent-with-modification modularity. Descent-with-modification helps make sense of the considerable phylogenetic continuity that has been documented in recent years, in terms of comparative psychology, comparative neuroanatomy, and comparative genomics. The chapter also considers language, the canonical putative module, and its relation to cognitive systems. Cognitive mechanisms for spatial and temporal representation seem to run deeply through the structure of the linguistic system. The notion of descent-with-modification, once recognized, has significant implications for how one can assesses debates about modularity. The descent-with-modification perspective suggests caution for inferring the absence of modularity from many studies of "normal" cognition. Descent-with-modification also suggests that one should expect the hallmarks of ancestry even in the very machinery that makes abstract linguistic representation possible.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increase nitrogen (N) uptake by their host plants, but their role in plant N capture from soil organic material is still unclear. In particular, it is not clear if AM fungi compete with the host plant for the N coming from the decomposing organic matter (OM), especially when the AM extraradical mycelium (ERM) and plant roots share the same soil volume. The goal of the present research was to study the effects of AM fungi on wheat N capture after the addition of 15N-labelled OM to soil. Durum wheat (Triticum durum) was grown under controlled conditions in a sand:soil mix and the following treatments were applied: (1) AM inoculation with Glomus mosseae and uninoculated control; and (2) soil amended with 15N-enriched maize leaves and unamended soil. The addition of OM reduced plant growth and N uptake. The AM fungi increased both plant growth and N uptake compared with uninoculated control plants and the effect was enhanced when wheat was grown in soil amended with OM compared with the unamended control. Although AM fungi increased soil N mineralization rates and total plant N uptake, they strongly reduced wheat N recovery from OM, suggesting that AM fungi have marked effects on competition between plants and bacteria for the different N sources in soil.
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of Se inclusion in high-DHA and vitamin E microdiets (5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight; 5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight supplemented with Se) in comparison with a control diet (1 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 150 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight) on sea bass larval growth, survival, biochemical composition, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, muscle morphology and antioxidant enzymes (AOE), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and myosin expression. For a given DHA and vitamin E dietary content, Se inclusion favoured larval total length and specific growth rate, and reduced the incidence of muscular lesions, MDA contents and AOE gene expression. In contrast, IGF gene expression was elevated in the 5/300 larvae, suggesting an increased muscle mitogenesis that was corroborated by the increase in mRNA copies of myosin heavy chain. The results of the present study denoted the beneficial effect of Se not only in preventing oxidative stress, as a glutathione peroxidase cofactor, but probably due to other as yet unknown physiological functions.
Structural dynamics is a key discipline in aircraft design and certification. The realm of structural dynamics includes problems in which structure flexibility is important, such as dynamic loads (landing, taxi, gust, turbulence...), but it also includes other areas like environmental vibration or impacts technology. This is closely related with its sister discipline Aeroelasticity.
Linearity has been the cornerstone assumption in aircraft design engineering solutions. In the past, linearity allowed to solve many structural dynamics problems that otherwise would have been unaffordable. Nowadays, the necessity of highly optimised structures, combined to an increase of computer power, has made this assumption to be reconsidered.
This paper presents a wide survey on non-linear topics in structural dynamics and the way they have been solved at EADS-CASA (Airbus military) in the past 25 years. Although the paper has been mainly focused on numerical simulation using the Finite Element Method technique, component tests and full aircraft tests are also presented.
The aim of the present study was to assess the concurrent and construct validity of two diet-quality indices, a modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) and a Mediterranean-like diet score (MLDS) additionally incorporating unhealthy food choices, as determined by an FFQ.
A validation study assessing FFQ intake estimates compared with ten or more unannounced 24 h recalls. Pearson's correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman plots and the limits of agreement method were used to assess the between-method agreement of scores. Construct validity was shown using associations between nutrient intakes derived from multiple 24 h recalls and the mMDS and MLDS derived from the FFQ.
A total of 107 consecutively selected participants from a population-based cross-sectional survey.
Pearson's correlations for the energy-adjusted mMDS and MLDS compared with multiple recalls were 0·48 and 0·62, respectively. The average FFQ energy-adjusted mMDS and MLDS were 102 % and 98 % of the recall-based mMDS and MLDS estimates, respectively. The FFQ under- and overestimated dietary recall estimates of the energy-adjusted MLDS by 28 % and 25 %, respectively, with slightly wider boundaries for the mMDS (31 % and 34 %). The ICC, which assesses absolute agreement, was similar to Pearson's correlations (mMDS = 0·48 and MLDS = 0·61). The mean differences between methods were similar across the range of average ratings for both scores, indicating the absence of bias. The FFQ-derived mMDS and MLDS correlated in the anticipated directions with intakes of eleven (73·3 %) and thirteen of fifteen nutrients (86·7 %), respectively.
The FFQ provides valid estimates of diet quality as assessed by the mMDS and MLDS.
La3+ −Al3+ and Ce3+ −A13+ pillar precursors were synthesized and intercalated in swelling montmorillonite type clays. 27Al-NMR and 139La-NMR spectra do not confirm chemical interaction between Al and La ions in solution, but after pillaring and calcination (400°C) d-spacings in the range 18.5 Å−20.5 Å indicate indeed a strong interaction between the Al-La species. Also, Ce4+ (Sulfate) cations do interact with Al3+ in the pillar-precursor-solution, into the pH interval 2.78≤p.H ≤3.99.
Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.
Zooplankton biomass was investigated monthly from September 1997 to August 1998 in a shallow eutrophic lake (San Miguel del Monte, Argentina). Duplicate samples of zooplankton were obtained from three stations with different limnological characteristics. The density of zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers and small cladocerans related to the trophic status of this shallow lake. The zooplankton biomass showed similar values to other eutrophic shallow lakes. The annual biomass distribution was bimodal (winter and summer peaks). The contribution of crustaceans, mainly copepods, determined the total biomass. The total zooplankton biomass was significantly correlated with chlorophyll «a» in the sampling station located at the deep part of this shallow lake. There were factors and processes promoting changes in the zooplankton biomass, such as food availability, grazing ability, fish predation, eutrophication process with alternation of turbid and clear water periods, and also the addition of organisms from the Salado River during floods.
A retrospective population-based study was conducted between January 1990 and December 1998 to investigate the incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii disease and the heterogeneity of the isolates in a well-defined geographical area in Catalonia, Spain. A total of 136 patients were identified. Overall incidence and incidence in AIDS patients was 1·5 (95% CI 1·2–1·8) and 1089·6 (95% CI 689–1330) cases/100000 persons per year respectively, which is comparable to that reported from most of other geographical areas. Surprisingly, although 7 subtypes of M. kansasii have been consistently reported, in the present study 91 of the 93 isolates (97·8%) tested for genotype were subtype I, regardless of HIV status of the patients. In conclusion, the high rate of infection observed in the AIDS population contributes significantly to the burden of the M. kansasii disease in our area. M. kansasii disease in our geographical area was almost exclusively caused by subtype I regardless of HIV status.