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In the world of Nigerian beauty pageants, the bikini remains a fraught embodied symbol and aesthetic practice. Pageant affiliates, critics, and fans alike strongly debate the question of whether to include bikinis in these events. This article draws primarily from nearly a year of ethnographic observations of two Nigerian national beauty contests in 2009-2010 to show how various stakeholders used personal, domestic, and international frames about women’s bodies, and the bikini in particular, to bolster respectability. Through embodied respectability, women’s figurative and literal bodies were used to strategically situate propriety, social acceptance, and reputability for the self and the nation.
The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of childhood hepatitis B virus transmission in children born in the UK, a very low-prevalence country, that is preventable only by universal hepatitis B immunization of infants. Oral fluid specimens were collected from schoolchildren aged 7–11 years in four inner city multi-ethnic areas and tested for the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those found positive or indeterminate were followed up with testing on serum to confirm their hepatitis B status. The overall prevalence of anti-HBc in children was low [0·26%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·14–0·44]. The estimated average annual incidence of hepatitis B was estimated to be 29·26/100 000 children (95% CI 16·00–49·08). The total incidence that is preventable only by a universal infant immunization programme in the UK was estimated to be between 5·00 and 12·49/100 000. The study demonstrates that the extent of horizontal childhood hepatitis B virus transmission is low in children born in the UK and suggests that schools in the UK are an uncommon setting for the transmission of the virus. Targeted hepatitis B testing and immunization of migrants from intermediate- and high-prevalence countries is likely to be a more effective measure to reduce childhood transmission than a universal infant immunization programme.
To evaluate the usefulness of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay for assessing the efficacy of daily hospital cleaning practices.
A 2-phase prospective intervention study.
A university-affiliated community teaching hospital.
During phase I of our study, 5 high-touch surfaces in 20 patient rooms were sampled before and after daily cleaning. Moistened swabs were used to sample these surfaces and were then plated onto routine and selective media, and aerobic colony counts were determined after 48 hours of incubation. Specialized ATP swabs were used to sample the same high-touch surfaces in the 20 patient rooms and were then placed in luminometers, and the amount of ATP present was expressed as relative light units. During phase II of our study, after in-service housekeeper educational sessions were given, the housekeepers were told in advance when ATP readings would be taken before and after cleaning.
During phase I, the colony counts revealed that the 5 high-touch surfaces were often not cleaned adequately. After cleaning, 24 (24%) of the 100 surface samples were still contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 16 (16%) of the 100 surface samples still yielded vancomycin-resistant enterococci. ATP readings (expressed as relative light units) revealed that only bathroom grab bars and toilet seats were significantly cleaner after daily cleaning than before. During phase II, a total of 1,013 ATP readings were obtained before and after daily cleaning in 105 rooms. The median relative light unit was significantly lower (ie, surfaces were cleaner) after cleaning than before cleaning for all 5 high-touch surfaces.
Suboptimal cleaning practices were documented by determining aerobic colony counts and by use of an ATP bioluminescence assay. ATP readings provided quantitative evidence of improved cleanliness of high-touch surfaces after the implementation of an intervention program.
Hepatitis C is a global health problem and in the UK seroprevalence studies have mainly concentrated on specific high-risk groups. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus in England using residual specimens collected between 1986 and 2000 reflecting the general population. A cross-sectional study design using a convenience collection of serum specimens from adult patients submitted to laboratories in the years 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2000 from a total of 19 laboratories around England were investigated. The main outcome was to determine anti-HCV prevalence and the average incidence occurring between 1986 and 2000 and factors associated with infection. Multivariable analysis of results from all years showed there was a significant difference in prevalence between males and females (P<0·001), birth cohort (P<0·001) and by health region (P<0·001). An average of 0·72% (95% CI 0–1·65%) of those susceptible to HCV born between 1950 and 1970 were estimated to have acquired the infection between 1986 and 2000. Analysis of this convenience serum collection suggests that HCV prevalence is low in the general population, and is associated with period of birth, gender and health region. There was evidence to support a low incidence of HCV infection in those born between 1950 and 1970 over the period 1986–2000 which, at the population level, equated to a substantial burden of infection (~106 000 persons). Continued surveillance and prevention targeted at injecting drug users are essential for the control of hepatitis C in the UK.
Surveillance reports and prevalence studies have indicated that injecting drug users (IDUs) contribute more to the hepatitis C epidemic in the United Kingdom than any other risk group. Information on both the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C in IDUs is therefore essential to understanding the epidemiology of this infection. The prevalence of hepatitis C in specimens from the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme collected in 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 was determined using residual syphilis serology specimens from IDUs attending 15 genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in and outside London. These specimens were tested for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). Using this cross-sectional design, anti-HCV-negative specimens were tested for HCV RNA to identify incident infections during the ‘window’ period of infection, and thus to estimate HCV incidence. Results of the multivariable analysis showed that there was marked variation in prevalence by clinic (P<0·0001) and age (P<0·0001). Overall the majority of infections were in males and the overall prevalence in injectors declined over the study period from 36·9% to 28·7%. The annual incidence in these injectors was estimated as being 3·01% (95% CI 1·25–6·73). Over the study period HCV incidence decreased by 1·2% per year. Genotyping of the incident infections identified the most common genotype as type 1 with type 3 being more frequently seen after 1998. Of the prevalent infections, genotype 1 was the most common. The study has confirmed a higher prevalence of anti-HCV in IDUs in the London area compared to those outside London. How representative of the current injecting drug user population are IDUs attending GUM clinics is unclear. Even so, such studies allow prevalence and incidence to be estimated in individuals who have ever injected drugs and inform ongoing public health surveillance.
Matching individuals reported to a sentinel surveillance scheme for hepatitis C between 2000 and 2005 to individuals with a hospital episode for hepatitis C-related liver disease in the same hospitals, we estimated that the number of cases of hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in these English hospitals was 42% (597/419) higher than Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) would indicate. Further, matching records of hepatitis C-related deaths in HES to death certificates, we estimated that, between 2000 and 2005, the true number of deaths from hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease was between 185% (353/124) and 257% (378/106) higher than the number recorded in routine mortality statistics. We provide estimates of under-recording that can be used to modify existing models of disease burden due to hepatitis C and provide a simple approach to improve the monitoring of trends in severe hepatitis C-related morbidity over time.
Between 1992 and 2004, a total of 49 819 confirmed hepatitis C infections have been reported to the Health Protection Agency (HPA) by laboratories in England and Wales; the annual number of reports increased from 241 in 1991 to 8149 in 2004. Most reports with a known risk factor were in injecting drug users (87%, 12 438/14 221), but 71% (35 598/49 819) of the total had no reported identified risk. The age-sex distribution of the latter cases was similar to that in injecting drug users. Using names to assign ethnicity, individuals with South Asian names had an older age distribution and a different risk factor profile from non-South Asians. Using published age-specific prevalence data from 1996, it was estimated that around 281 764 cases of hepatitis C infection exist in England and Wales, and that only 17% of these cases have been reported to the HPA. Surveillance reports continue to provide important information regarding trends in hepatitis C infection in specific risk groups.
This paper describes sentinel laboratory surveillance of hepatitis C antibody testing in England. Demographic and test result data were supplemented by follow-up questionnaires sent to the requesting clinician. Between October 2002 and September 2003 almost 75000 anti-HCV tests were performed in eight sentinel centres. More males were tested than females and over half of those tested were aged 25–44 years. Overall 5·7% (3333/58144, range 2·8–7·7%) individuals tested positive. Follow-up questionnaire data showed that 82% (1043/1277) of the positives had injecting drug use reported as the main risk exposure. The majority of negative individuals were undergoing routine screening as recommended for specific patient groups. Most individuals were asymptomatic. Antibody prevalence was estimated to be 34% in current injecting drug users and 42% in former injectors. Comparing positives to routine national surveillance suggests that only 53% (1782/3333) of diagnosed cases were reported. Sentinel laboratory data can provide valuable supplementary data to national surveillance.
The prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis C infection in women attending antenatal
clinics in two regions of England was investigated to inform future surveillance and control
measures. Women booking into antenatal care are routinely offered a test for immunity to
rubella. Serum residues from these tests were unlinked, anonymized and archived as part of the
Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme (UAPMP). The serum specimens
were tested for anti-HCV using a cost-effective pooling strategy. After taking into account
differential sampling from the UAPMP serum archive, the adjusted overall prevalence of anti-HCV
was 0·43% (95% CI: 0·32–0·53) in London and 0·21% (95% CI: 0·14–0·28) in the
Northern and Yorkshire region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified HCV
RNA identified type 3a as the most common HCV genotype in these antenatal women. The
prevalence of anti-HCV in antenatal women in the UK is low and consistent with that
expected from injecting drug use.
At Shika in a subhumid environment of Nigeria, a 3-year study was carried out to select newly
developed groundnut varieties for use in crop–livestock production systems. The study examined 11
groundnut varieties. Emergence time, plant stands at full emergence, forage and seed yields and yield
components were examined. Whole plant samples were analysed for crude protein (CP) content.
Varieties ICGV 87123 gave the lowest forage yield and cultivar M517-80I, the highest, with seven
varieties recording forage yields above 5 t/ha. The CP content of forage was lowest (14·8%) for
variety M576-80I and highest (21·6%) for variety M554-76. Mean seed yield (over 3 years) varied
significantly from 0·73 to 1·68 t/ha. Only two varieties had mean seed yield >1 t/ha. The relationship
between seed and forage yields was positive and significant (r = 0·529, P < 0·006). Varieties RMP 12,
88-80I and M517–80 were most promising for both forage and seed production.
Confirmed acute hepatitis B infections are reported to the Public
Health Laboratory Service
Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre by laboratories in England and
reports have been used to monitor trends in the incidence of hepatitis
B virus (HBV) infection
over time, and between exposure categories and age groups. Between 1985
and 1996 a total of
9252 cases of acute HBV infection were reported; the number of reports
fell from 1761 in 1985
to 581 in 1996. Most infections were reported in adults aged 15–44
years [n=7365 (80%)],
and infections were more commonly reported in males [n=6490
(70%)] than females
[n=2658 (29%)]. The probable means of acquisiiton was
known for just over half of all adult
cases [4827/8956 (54%)]. Injecting drug use was the most
common exposure [n=1901 (21%)],
followed by sex between men and women [n=1140 (13%)]
and sex between men [n=1025
(11%)]. The number of infections in injecting drug users fell in the
late 1980s, but increased
again from 1991 onwards. In children aged under 15 years, infections acquired
by mother to
baby transmission accounted for 35/170 (21%) of the total. Surveillance
indicates that the
incidence of acute hepatitis B infection fell in the late 1980s, probably
behaviour in injecting drug users. An increase in the number of infections
in injecting drug
users since 1993 may indicate ongoing transmission that has not been contained
introduction of needle exchange schemes or by selective vaccination.
Frequent reports of haematuria among resettlers at Ibaro and Abule-titun located close to a newly constructed reservoir. 20 km north-west of Abeokuta. Ogun State, Nigeria. prompted a pre-control survey to assess age and sex distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in the communities. 210 persons were examined at Ibaro and 145 at Abule-titun between April 1988 and February 1989. Overall prevalence was about 80% in both villages, and all age and sex groups examined were affected. The pattern of infection in both villages was similar, prevalence being high in all age and sex groups and, unlike most endemic communities, the rate of infection was not significantly higher among the 5–14 year age groups. Intensity of infection was also high in all age and sex groups with mean range egg output of between 73±73 and 2016±3875 ova/10ml urine at Ibaro and between 231±122 and 1340±1786 ova/10ml urine at Abule-titun. This is attributed to an occupation-related high rate of human water contact in both villages.
The influence of dietary nutrients on carcass composition, rate of tissue deposition and the development of specific tissues, major and minor muscles in particular has been well documented for pigs reared in a temperate environment. Attempts have also been made in this environment to simulate artificial tropical conditions and, on the consequence of such conditions, to predict the nutrition and growth of the pigs.
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