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Recent trends in multimedia technologies indicate the need for richer imaging modalities to increase user engagement with the content. Among other alternatives, point clouds denote a viable solution that offers an immersive content representation, as witnessed by current activities in JPEG and MPEG standardization committees. As a result of such efforts, MPEG is at the final stages of drafting an emerging standard for point cloud compression, which we consider as the state-of-the-art. In this study, the entire set of encoders that have been developed in the MPEG committee are assessed through an extensive and rigorous analysis of quality. We initially focus on the assessment of encoding configurations that have been defined by experts in MPEG for their core experiments. Then, two additional experiments are designed and carried to address some of the identified limitations of current approach. As part of the study, state-of-the-art objective quality metrics are benchmarked to assess their capability to predict visual quality of point clouds under a wide range of radically different compression artifacts. To carry the subjective evaluation experiments, a web-based renderer is developed and described. The subjective and objective quality scores along with the rendering software are made publicly available, to facilitate and promote research on the field.
It is suggested that bovine enteroviruses (BEV) are involved in the aetiology of enteric infections, respiratory disease, reproductive disorders and infertility. In this study, bovine faecal samples collected in different Brazilian states were subjected to RNA extraction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 5′-terminal portion of BEV. One hundred and three samples were tested with an overall positivity of 14.5%. Phylogenetic analysis clustered these BEV Brazilian samples into the Enterovirus F clade. Our results bring an important update of the virus presence in Brazil and contribute to a better understanding of the distribution and characterisation of BEV in cattle.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
This study systematised and synthesised the results of observational studies that were aimed at supporting the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors among adolescents. Relevant scientific articles were searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE and SCOPUS. Observational studies that included the measurement of any CMR factor in healthy adolescents and dietary patterns were included. The search strategy retained nineteen articles for qualitative analysis. Among retained articles, the effects of dietary pattern on the means of BMI (n 18), waist circumference (WC) (n 9), systolic blood pressure (n 7), diastolic blood pressure (n 6), blood glucose (n 5) and lipid profile (n 5) were examined. Systematised evidence showed that an unhealthy dietary pattern appears to be associated with poor mean values of CMR factors among adolescents. However, evidence of a protective effect of healthier dietary patterns in this group remains unclear. Considering the number of studies with available information, a meta-analysis of anthropometric measures showed that dietary patterns characterised by the highest intake of unhealthy foods resulted in a higher mean BMI (0·57 kg/m²; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·63) and WC (0·57 cm; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·67) compared with low intake of unhealthy foods. Controversially, patterns characterised by a low intake of healthy foods were associated with a lower mean BMI (−0·41 kg/m²; 95 % CI −0·46,−0·36) and WC (−0·43 cm; 95 % CI −0·52,−0·33). An unhealthy dietary pattern may influence markers of CMR among adolescents, but considering the small number and limitations of the studies included, further studies are warranted to strengthen the evidence of this relation.
The objective of the current research was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics of silage made with the upper third section of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plants with added condensed tannin levels of 0, 25, 50 and 75 g/kg dry matter (DM). The experimental design was a complete randomized design, with treatments arranged in a 4 × 7 factorial (tannin addition levels × days of ensiling). The loss of gas and the presence of moulds observed in the opening days had increased linearly. Fermentative characteristics were decreased by the addition of tannin. Acetic acid content showed a linear increase. Tannin levels had a quadratic effect on gas production at 28 days of ensiling. After 56 days, however, tannin levels had no significant effect on silage gas production. After 28 days of ensiling, the degradability of potentially degradable fraction ‘b’ demonstrated quadratic effect. The same occurred with the fractions ‘a’, ‘b’ which were undegradable after 56 days of ensiling. The addition of condensed tannin lengthened the fermentative stage and caused the silage to stabilize after 56 days of ensiling.
Genetic parameters for visual assessment traits measured at 487 days of age (body structure (BS), finishing precocity (FP) and muscling (MS)), body weight at 450 days of age (W450), age at first calving (AFC), heifer pregnancy (HP) and stayability (STAY, i.e. the probability of a cow to produce at least three calves before reaching 76 months of age) were estimated in Nellore cattle, seeking to include these traits in the selection criteria for dams. The statistical models included additive genetic and residual random effects using single- and two-trait Bayesian analyses. The average heritability estimates were equal to 0·37 for BS, 0·42 for FP, 0·37 for MS and 0·48 for W450. Age at first calving had a low average heritability estimate (0·13), while HP and STAY estimates were higher (0·36 and 0·24, respectively). The genetic correlations between AFC, HP and STAY with visual assessment traits and body weight were favourable, indicating that selecting animals with higher BS, FP, MS and W450 values will result in the indirect selection of animals with lower AFC and successful scores for HP and STAY. The selection of heifers that present an early pregnancy should anticipate AFC and improve HP in the current herd. Except for AFC, the heritability and genetic correlation estimates between the studied traits justify their inclusion in the selection criteria of the Nellore breeding programme.
The study of the Bom Santo Cave (central Portugal), a Neolithic cemetery, indicates a complex social, palaeoeconomic, and population scenario. With isotope, aDNA, and provenance analyses of raw materials coupled with stylistic variability of material culture items and palaeogeographical data, light is shed on the territory and social organization of a population dated to 3800–3400 cal BC, i.e. the Middle Neolithic. Results indicate an itinerant farming, segmentary society, where exogamic practices were the norm. Its lifeway may be that of the earliest megalithic builders of the region, but further research is needed to correctly evaluate the degree of this community's participation in such a phenomenon.
Nebovirus is a new genus of viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family recently characterized in cattle, and is associated with gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhoea, anorexia and intestinal lesions particularly in calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of neboviruses in Brazilian cattle and analyse phylogenetically the virus strains detected. A prevalence of 4·8% of neboviruses in faecal samples from 62 head of cattle from different Brazilian states was detected. All positive animals were aged <20 days and had diarrhoea. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the virus sequences into the Newbury1 clade. There was >96·0% nt (100% aa) sequence identity between the virus sequences in this study and >88·8% nt (>94·4% aa) identity with Newbury1/UK. Our results indicate, for the first time, the occurrence of neboviruses in Brazil as well as in South America, and the first Newbury1-like nebovirus found outside the UK.
The family Eulimidae comprises minute gastropods best known for its parasitic habit on Echinodermata. Despite this, reports of association between eulimids and echinoderms are rather scarce. In this study, two new hosts, Parathyone suspecta and Holothuria grisea, were observed for the eulimid Melanella eburnea. This is the first record for the latter species in Brazilian waters. In addition we observed the association between the eulimid M. hypsela and the holuthurian Isostichopus badionotus, which is a new record for Brazilian waters.
Animal temperament is a trait of economic relevance and its use as a selection criterion requires the identification of environmental factors that influence this trait, as well as the estimation of its genetic variability and interrelationship with other traits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of the covariates dam age at calving (ADC), long yearling age (YA) and long yearling weight (YW) on temperament score (T) and to estimate genetic parameters for T, scrotal circumference (SC) at long YA and age at first calving (AFC) in Nellore cattle participating in a selection program. The traits were analyzed by the restricted maximum likelihood method under a multiple-trait animal model. For all traits, contemporary group was included as a fixed effect and additive genetic and residual as random effects. In addition to these effects, YA, YW and ADC were considered for analyzing T. In the case of SC and AFC, the effect of long YW was included as a covariate. Genetic parameters were estimated for and between traits. The three covariates significantly influenced T. The heritability estimates for T, SC and AFC were 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.53 ± 0.04 and 0.23 ± 0.08, respectively. The genetic correlations between T and SC, and T and AFC were −0.07 ± 0.17 and −0.06 ± 0.19, respectively. The genetic correlation estimated between SC and AFC was −0.57 ± 0.16. In conclusion, a response to selection for T, SC and AFC is expected and selection for T does not imply correlated responses with the other traits.
The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is considered an endangered species in Brazil and its capture by fisheries forbidden. Despite such legislation, nurse sharks continue to be caught as these laws are unenforced and fisheries are not monitored. The goal of the present study was to describe the population structure of nurse sharks caught off Ceará State, north-eastern Brazil, based on the following aspects: abundance and size, sex-ratio, fisheries incidence and seasonality of captures. Landings were monitored weekly during a two-year period. A total of 189 specimens were recorded. Total length (TL) varied between 73 and 274 cm. The male–female ratio did not differ significantly (1.19♀:1♂). TL of individuals landed as carcasses was estimated based on interdorsal length. The following equation was obtained for males and females: TL = 12.606ID + 14.24 (R2 = 0.9505). Most of the landed sharks were juveniles (86.2%). No seasonal pattern of abundance and TL variation was observed. Management of this fishery is required in order to prevent localized over-fishing of nurse sharks.
The occurrence of the pod weed, Halidrys siliquosa, is recorded for the
first time on the Portuguese coast. Several specimens of this brown algae were observed
attached to the rocky surface in tide pools at 41º44′10″N
8º52′34″W, extending southward its previously known
geographical distribution. The observed shift is inconsistent with general predictions of
species migrations under warming climate conditions, which anticipate poleward shifts
rather than southern expansions. Although more data will be required to undoubtedly
uncover its cause, the recently observed range expansion raises important questions about
the generalization of the previously stated biogeographic rules.
Prediction of carbohydrate fractions using equations from the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a valuable tool to assess the nutritional value of forages. In this paper, these carbohydrate fractions were predicted using data from three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars, fresh or as silage. The CNCPS equations for fractions B2 and C include measurement of ash and protein-free neutral detergent fibre (NDF) as one of their components. However, NDF lacks pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are found in the cell wall (CW) matrix, so this work compared the use of a crude CW preparation instead of NDF in the CNCPS equations. There were no differences in the estimates of fractions B1 and C when CW replaced NDF; however, there were differences in fractions A and B2. Some of the CNCPS equations could be simplified when using CW instead of NDF. Notably, lignin could be expressed as a proportion of DM, rather than on the basis of ash and protein-free NDF, when predicting CNCPS fraction C. The CNCPS fraction B1 (starch + pectin) values were lower than pectin determined through wet chemistry. This finding, along with the results obtained by the substitution of CW for NDF in the CNCPS equations, suggests that pectin was not part of fraction B1 but present in fraction A. We suggest that pectin and other non-starch polysaccharides that are dissolved by the neutral detergent solution be allocated to a specific fraction (B2) and that another fraction (B3) be adopted for the digestible cell wall carbohydrates.
American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), and leishmaniasis are caused by related protozoa of the family Trypanosomatidae, order Kinetoplastida (see Table 200.1). They have a unique mitochondrial structure, the kinetoplast, are transmitted in nature by insect vectors, and exist in multiple morphologic forms in their human hosts and insect vectors. They are important causes of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas of the world: Chagas disease in South and Central America, sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa, and leishmaniasis in scattered areas on every continent except Antarctica. Although uncommon in industrial countries in North America and Europe, these diseases have been the source of increased attention in recent years. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease, is well documented among a subset of Latin American immigrants to the United States and Canada and poses a risk to them and to recipients of contaminated blood or transplanted organs. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is seen among tourists returning from endemic areas in Latin America and the Middle East as well as in military personnel serving in Iraq and Afghanistan. Canine visceral leishmaniasis has been reported in the United States among foxhounds and other dogs, but to date, humans have not been infected.
Despite several important recent advances, the treatment of Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis leaves much to be desired. Many of the drugs (Table 200.2) used for them are associated with frequent and potentially severe untoward effects, some require parenteral administration, and many must be administered over prolonged periods of time.
The studies developed at CST sinter plant in order to point out any factor that may have an effect on plume visibility are reported. Specific software and indexes have been developed. The approach included a retrospective analysis followed by further industrial tests at the sinter plant with different material input (fuels and raw materials). The results are discussed with reference to potential effects on the plume visibility. Further steps are considered to progress the stack plume project.
Lameness manifests itself during the movement of the animal or at rest, indicating a structural or functional disturbance in one or more limbs. Videographic analyses allow the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the movement, reducing the subjectivity of evaluations. The objective was to record the alterations in the movement of the head and limbs of horses in a lame and non-lame condition. Video cameras (60 Hz) and computational methods were used. Six Purebred Arabian colts were filmed on a treadmill, at walk and at trot, before and after induction of lameness. Lameness was induced in the left forelimb utilizing a transient lameness model. Markers were placed on the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, spiny process of the sixth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae and on the proximal phalange. Nine strides were analysed. At walk and at trot, the animals demonstrated two vertical head movements per stride, while after induction of lameness only one head movement was observed per stride, where this movement was of greater amplitude. The head was shown to be in a more elevated position when the lame limb made first contact with the treadmill belt, which was not observed in the case of the healthy limbs. Only with trotting did the lame animals manifest a prolonged duration of the stance phase for all limbs. The lame animals had a longer support time, lifted the non-lame limbs and showed a shorter stride. Videographic analyses offered details of the alterations in the movement of horses, which are important in the diagnosis of lameness.
a shark tagging programme along the portuguese coast was initiated in 2001 in collaboration with the national marine fisheries service. from a total of 168 blue sharks (prionace glauca) tagged, 34 sharks were recaptured (20% return rate) providing important information on this species' movement patterns for the area. a total of 28 sharks travelled less than 1000 km while at liberty for time periods ranging from 22 to 1294 days. the remaining fish travelled long distances to north-west africa, central atlantic and the bay of biscay. only one shark made a transatlantic migration, being recaptured 3187 km from the tagging site. north–south movements seem to be related to seasonal sea-surface temperature variation in the north-east atlantic. seasonal segregation of different life stages also occurs.