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Melioidosis is a serious infection caused by soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is most commonly reported in Northern Australia, Southeast and Southern Asia, China, and Taiwan.
A case report and short review of the literature are presented. Presentation, diagnosis including genomic sequencing, and acute and long-term management are discussed.
A 58-year-old female presented with chronic rhinosinusitis secondary to melioidosis. This is the third reported incidence of sinusitis secondary to melioidosis, which occurred in an otherwise well female with no risk factors and no apparent cause of exposure. Treatment involved an acute phase in which meropenem was administered parenterally for two weeks, followed by a prolonged oral course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for three months, as per recommended guidelines.
In patients presenting with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis, ENT surgeons should consider the presence of unusual causative pathogens such as B pseudomallei, particularly in those with recent travel history to Northern Queensland and/or Southeast Asia.
There is considerable interest in understanding further the factors that increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for military personnel. This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of demographic variables; childhood adversity; the nature of exposure to traumatic events during deployment; appraisal of these experiences; and home-coming experiences in relation to the prevalence of PTSD ‘caseness’ as measured by a score of ⩾50 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) in UK Armed Forces personnel who have been deployed in Iraq since 2003.
Data were drawn from the first stage of a retrospective cohort study comparing UK military personnel who were deployed to the 2003 Iraq War with personnel serving in the UK Armed Forces on 31 March 2003 but who were not deployed to the initial phase of war fighting. Participants were randomly selected and invited to participate. The response rate was 61%. We have limited these analyses to 4762 regular service individuals who responded to the survey and who have been deployed in Iraq since 2003.
Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with lower rank, being unmarried, having low educational attainment and a history of childhood adversity. Exposure to potentially traumatizing events, in particular being deployed to a ‘forward’ area in close contact with the enemy, was associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Appraisals of the experience as involving threat to one's own life and a perception that work in theatre was above an individual's trade and experience were strongly associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Low morale and poor social support within the unit and non-receipt of a home-coming brief (psycho-education) were associated with greater risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms.
Personal appraisal of threat to life during the trauma emerged as the most important predictor of post-traumatic stress symptoms. These results also raise the possibility that there are important modifiable occupational factors such as unit morale, leadership, preparing combatants for their role in theatre which may influence an individual's risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Therefore interventions focused on systematic preparation of personnel for the extreme stress of combat may help to lessen the psychological impact of deployment.
This paper was written at the request of the Life Research Committee of the United Kingdom Actuarial Profession's Life Board. It concerns the valuation of U.K. with-profits business, with particular attention to the market-consistent ‘realistic reporting’ basis currently being used in the U.K. by the regulator, the Financial Services Authority (FSA). The paper surveys recent regulatory activity concerning the development and introduction of the new valuation approach, and puts it into the context of a survey of alternative methodologies, both deterministic and stochastic. The particular issues arising when considering prudential solvency are discussed, and various approaches are reviewed and compared with market consistent methods. Numerical examples are given, which demonstrate potential issues (regarding comparability and consistency) with the FSA's proposed approach — in particular the sensitivity of results to model calibration. The authors support the FSA's move to a stochastically-based framework for solvency measurement, but highlight some issues which need to be taken into account.
The need for training to prepare mental health professionals to assess and manage risks is now well established. This paper reports on the development, delivery and evaluation of interprofessional clinical risk training in Salford and Manchester since 1998. A training-needs analysis was carried out, followed by post-training evaluation and an impact-monitoring questionnaire.
The training was very well received by participants, with over 90% of them meeting the objectives and 100% of respondents reporting that the training had a positive impact on their clinical practice more than 12 months afterwards.
The evaluation of the training demonstrates that a properly planned and delivered 2-day clinical risk assessment course can have a positive impact on the practice of clinicians in mental health services. However, this should be seen only as an introductory course, as more advanced risk training is required. This is currently being delivered and planned.
‘Induction days' are becoming more popular for trainees and are a useful way of communicating important local information to the new intake. The authors feel that a handbook given out during the induction can serve as an aide-memoire, and have provided a suggested layout which they themselves have used in preparing several such books.
The INCENPs (INner CENtromere Proteins - Mr 133 and 145 kDa) are tightly bound to chromatin until early metaphase, and arrive at the metaphase spindle plate as integral components of the chromosomes (Cooke et al., 1987; Earnshaw & Cooke, 1991). It is thus surprising that the INCENPs leave the chromosomes during the latter part of metaphase to become associated with fibrous structures traversing the metaphase plate (presumably the overlapping polar microtubules of the spindle). Following the onset of anaphase, the INCENPs remain closely associated with the stem body material in the central spindle and also become associated with the inner surface of the cell membrane at the position where the cleavage furrow subsequently forms.
By combining library screening with reverse-transcriptase PCR, we have recovered cDNA clones that contain the complete open reading frames (ORFs) of the two chicken INCENPs. Class 1 INCENP cDNA contains an ORF of 839 codons, which includes a predicted central coiled-coil domain of about 200 residues.
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