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This research communication aims to test the hypothesis that B-Mode, colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements and characteristics can identify mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 102 lactating cows were divided into 3 groups: cows in which all mammary quarters were CMT-negative, cows with CMT-positive mammary quarters and cows with clinical mastitis in at least one quarter. Colour Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes revealed that distortion-type vascular morphology, the rate of type 4 vascular densities and the incidence of mixed-type vascular distributions were highest in the clinical mastitis group, whereas the frequency of avascularity in supramammary lymph nodes was highest in the CMT-negative group. All differences were significant. In conclusion, the use of B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes can provide useful information about the current condition of mastitis in cows, although its diagnostic potential remains to be determined.
Nanoporous gold (np-Au) with its high surface area to volume ratio, tunable pore morphology, ease of surface modification with well-studied thiol chemistry, as well as integration with conventional microfabrication techniques is a promising candidate for controlled drug delivery studies. While it has been demonstrated that np-Au can retain and release drugs, release mechanisms and governing parameters are unclear. This paper reports on the effect of film thickness and morphology on the molecular release from np-Au films.
To develop a modified surveillance definition of central line-associated bloodstream infection (mCLABSI) specific for our population of patients with hematologic malignancies to better support ongoing improvement efforts at our hospital.
Retrospective cohort study.
Hematologic malignancies population in a 1,200-bed tertiary care hospital on a 22-bed bone marrow transplant (BMT) unit and a 22-bed leukemia unit.
An mCLABSI definition was developed, and pathogens and rates were compared against those determined using the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition.
By the NHSN definition the CLABSI rate on the BMT unit was 6.0 per 1,000 central line-days, and by the mCLABSI definition the rate was 2.0 per 1,000 line-days (P < .001). On the leukemia unit, the NHSN CLABSI rate was 14.4 per 1,000 line-days, and the mCLABSI rate was 8.2 per 1,000 line-days (P = .009). The top 3 CLABSI pathogens by the NHSN definition were Enterococcus species, Klebsiella species, and Escherichia coli. The top 3 CLABSI pathogens by the mCLABSI definition were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The difference in the incidence of CONS as a cause of CLABSI under the 2 definitions was statistically significant (P < .001).
A modified surveillance definition of CLABSI was associated with an increase in the identification of staphylococci as the cause of CLABSIs, as opposed to enteric pathogens, and a decrease in CLABSI rates.
This paper outlines a simple method to fabricate a bilayer membrane consisting of a thin nanoporous gold layer infused with uncured polydimethylsiloxane. The fabrication technique offers excellent adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between porous layer and elastomer, and excellent electrical conductivity up to 25% strain, despite a very low effective elastic modulus (∼1.35 MPa) due to cracks in the embedded gold layer. Initially freestanding circular membranes displayed significant out of plane buckling, and created difficulties in extraction of membrane mechanical properties. The underlying mechanisms of compressive stress accumulation that lead to membrane buckling and remedies to prevent it are discussed.
Background and objective: We have compared the effects of gabapentin on arterial pressure and heart rate at induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation in a randomized double-blind study. Methods: Ninety normotensive patients (ASA I) undergoing elective surgery were divided into three groups of 30 patients each. Patients received oral placebo (Group I), 400 mg of gabapentin (Group II) or 800 mg of gabapentin (Group III) 1 h prior to surgery in the operating theatre. After induction of anaesthesia heart rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded at baseline 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after intubation. Results: Patients receiving placebo and 400 mg gabapentin showed a significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate associated with tracheal intubation compared to baseline levels and Group III. There was significant decrease in heart rate and arterial pressure in Group III after intubation 1, 3, 5 and 10 min (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively) compared to Groups I and II. Conclusion: Given 1 h before operation gabapentin 800 mg blunted the arterial pressure and heart rate increase in first 10 min due to endotracheal intubation. Oral administration of gabapentin 800 mg before induction of anaesthesia is a simple and practical method for attenuating pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation after standard elective induction.
Neurotisation involves transfer of nerves for the restoration of function following injury. A number of
nerves have been used in different part of the peripheral nervous system. This study was undertaken to
develop a practical and relatively safe surgical approach to the treatment of L4 root lesion's. We examined
the effectiveness and safety of neurotisation of the deep peroneal nerve and its branches by the superficial
peroneal nerve. Twelve legs of dissected cadavers provided for teaching purposes in the anatomy laboratory
were used to display the common peroneal nerve and its branches. Each branch was measured using calipers
and analysed to investigate the possibility of neurotisation of the deep peroneal nerve by the superficial
peroneal nerve and its branches. It was found that of the measured branches, transposition was possible
between those to peroneus longus and tibialis anterior on the basis of their diameter and length. In recent
decades, advances in microsurgical reconstruction and understanding of the microanatomy have played
major roles in improving the results of surgical treatment of nerve injuries. There is a need for further
experimental studies on the feasibility of this surgical approach.
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