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This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disorders among children with mid-exertional syncope evaluated by a paediatric cardiologist, determine how often a diagnosis was not established, and define potential predictors to differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac causes.
We carried out a single-centre, retrospective review of children who presented for cardiac evaluation due to a history of exertional syncope between 1999 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) age ⩽18 years; (2) mid-exertional syncope; (3) electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and an exercise stress test, electrophysiology study, or tilt test, with exception of long QT, which did not require additional testing; and (4) evaluation by a paediatric cardiologist. Mid-exertional syncope was defined as loss of consciousness in the midst of active physical activity. Patients with peri-exertional syncope immediately surrounding but not during active physical exertion were excluded.
A total of 60 patients met the criteria for mid-exertional syncope; 32 (53%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope and 28 with non-cardiac syncope. A majority of cardiac patients were diagnosed with an electrical myopathy, the most common being Long QT syndrome. In nearly half of the patients, a diagnosis could not be established or syncope was felt to be vasovagal in nature. Neither the type of exertional activity nor the symptoms or lack of symptoms occurring before, immediately preceding, and after the syncopal event differentiated those with or without a cardiac diagnosis.
Children with mid-exertional syncope are at risk for cardiac disease and warrant evaluation. Reported symptoms may not differentiate benign causes from life-threatening disease.
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with a variety of novel properties. In this work, bulk single crystal SrTiO3 samples were heated to 1200°C, resulting in the creation of point defects. These thermally treated samples showed large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. Illumination with sub-gap light (>2.9 eV) caused an increase in free-electron concentration by over two orders of magnitude. After the light is turned off, the conductivity persists at room temperature, with essentially zero decay over several days. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements suggest that a point defect is responsible for PPC because the photo-induced response of one of the EPR signals is similar to that seen for the PPC. Due to a large barrier for recapture, the photo-excited electron remains in the conduction band, where it contributes to the conductivity.
The stability of green phosphorescent OLEDs with different structures was evaluated through constant-current stressing. Through the modifications of the ITO anode by different plasma treatments and the hole transport layer (HTL) by incorporating inorganic dopants, we proved that energy level misalignment at the ITO/HTL interface leads to localized joule heating, accelerating defect generation and luminescence decay. Pulsed current stressing was then employed to suppress the joule-heating effect so as to differentiate the thermal and nonthermal factors governing the device degradation. For OLEDs with a large energy barrier at the ITO/HTL interface, the effective lifetime was markedly increased under pulsed operation, whereas in OLEDs with an appropriate interfacial energy level alignment, pulsed stressing with 10% duty cycle only improved the effective half life by ∼15% as compared to continuous-wave stressing, indicating a minor role played by joule heating.
The physical mechanisms responsible for electrically-induced parametric degradation in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are examined using a combination of experiments, device simulation, and first-principles defect analysis. A relatively simple formulation is developed under the assumption that the hot-electron scattering cross-section is independent of the electron energy. In this case, one can relate the change in defect concentration to the operational characteristics of a device, such as the spatial and energy distribution of electrons (electron temperature), electric field distribution, and electron energy loss to the lattice.
Introduction: Digoxin or propranolol are used as first-line enteral agents for treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia. We used a large national database to determine whether enteral digoxin or propranolol was more effciacious as first-line infant supraventricular tachycardia therapy. Materials and Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried over 10 years for infants with supraventricular tachycardia initiated on enteral digoxin or propranolol monotherapy. Patients were excluded for Wolff–Parkinson–White, intravenous antiarrhythmics (other than adenosine), or death. Success was considered as discharge on the initiated monotherapy. Risk factors for successful monotherapy and risk factors for readmission for supraventricular tachycardia for patients discharged on monotherapy were determined. Results: A total of 374 patients (59.6% male) met the study criteria. Median length of stay was 7 days (interquartile range of 3–16 days). Patients had CHD (n=199, 53.2%) and underwent cardiac surgery (n=123, 32.9%), ICU admission (n=238, 63.6%), mechanical ventilation (n=146, 39.0%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=3, 0.8%). Pharmacotherapy initiation was at median 37 days of life (interquartile range of 12–127 days) and 47.3% were initiated on digoxin. Success was similar between digoxin (73.1%) and propranolol (73.5%). Initial therapy with digoxin was not associated with success (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.64–1.61, p=0.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated hospital length of stay (odds ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–1.00) and involvement of a paediatric cardiologist (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.75) associated with monotherapy failure, and male gender (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.67) associated with monotherapy success. No variables were significant for readmission on multivariable analysis. Discussion: Digoxin or propranolol may be equally efficacious for inpatient treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia.
The crystallinity of a GaN epitaxial layer on a sapphire substrate after the mechanical ding process was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopic analysis. TEM observation results showed that, the screw dislocations as a threading dislocation were induced by the mechanical dicing process in the limited area up to approximately 1.2 μm from the dicing-line. On the other hand, the crystal strains were up to approximately 7 μm from the dicing-line edge measured by the Raman spectroscopic analysis. The distance difference between the area of the screw dislocations and of the residual strain is caused by the stress relaxation.
The Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) is a microlensing survey conducted at Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. We searched transiting planet candidates from the MOA-I Galactic bulge data, which have been obtained with a 61cm B&C telescope from 2000 to 2005 for a microlensing search. Although this survey data were dedicated to microlensing, they are also quite useful for searching transiting objects because of the large number of stars monitored (~7 million) and the long span of the survey (~6 years). From our analysis, we found 58 transiting planet candidates. We are planning to follow up these candidates with high-precision spectroscopic and photometric observations for further selection, toward the detection of planets by radial velocity observations.
The 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-24) is a short version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which is a self-report inventory for depressogenic schemata.
The object of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAS-24 (DAS-24-J).
Subjects consisted of non-clinical sample 1 (248 university students), non-clinical sample 2 (872 Japanese company employees) and a clinical sample (59 depressed out-patients).
Internal consistency was satisfactory in all three samples, Cronbach’s α coefficient being higher than 0.85. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory in non-clinical sample 1. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 and there was no significant difference in the average score of DAS-24-J between the two points. The DAS-24-J showed satisfactory concurrent validity with the Japanese Irrational Belief Test-20 (r= 0.76); Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire – Revised total (r= 0.46), negative (r= 0.53) and positive (r=−0.41); and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r= 0.44 for non-clinical sample, r= 0.63 for clinical sample). The clinical sample showed a significantly higher DAS-24-J score than non-clinical sample 2. According to a factor analysis combining all three samples, three factors were extracted: factor 1 (11 items) corresponded with ‘achievement’ in the original version, factor 2 (6 items) with ‘self-control’ and factor 3 (5 items) with ‘dependency’.
The DAS-24-J is a reliable and valid instrument to measure depressogenic schemata in Japanese.
Two innovative processes have been developed in order to produce
ultra fine grained steel at the hot strip mill. One is based on high
speed, large reduction forging, the other on combined rolling/bending
strain accumulation. Both processes afford drastic reductions
of the strip ferrite grain-size.
The anisotropically biaxial strain in a-plane AlGaN on GaN is investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis of the heterostructure of AlGaN and GaN grown on r-plane sapphire. The AlGaN layer with a low AlN molar fraction or small thickness is coherently grown on the GaN layer both along the m-axis and c-axis. An increase in AlN molar fraction or thickness in AlGaN, results in a slight relaxation of AlGaN only in one direction due to tensile stress along the c-axis, which is caused by the underlying GaN layer during the growth. The cause of the relaxation of AlGaN in one direction is thought to be a large anisotropically biaxial stress.
Mg-doped p-type a-plane GaN films were grown on unintentionally doped a-plane GaN templates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The Mg concentration in a-plane GaN increased with increasing Mg source gas flow rate. A maximum hole concentration of 2.0 × 1018 cm-3 with a hole mobility of 4.5 cm2/Vs and resistivity of 0.7 Ω·cm were achieved. The activation ratio was 5.0 × 10-2. It was found that a maximum hole concentration in p-type a-plane GaN was higher than that in p-type c-plane GaN. The activation energy of Mg acceptors in p-type a-plane GaN with the maximum hole concentration was found to be 118 meV by temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurement.
Larvae of the hydrothermal vent barnacle Neoverruca sp. were reared under laboratory conditions and larval development was observed. Under these conditions, the larvae were released from adults as first-stage nauplii, although the larvae of other deep-sea barnacles have generally been considered to be released at a later larval stage such as the cyprid stage. The larvae of Neoverruca sp. were lecithotrophic through six naupliar stages and the subsequent cyprid stage. The larval period of Neoverruca sp. was more than 96 days under the present rearing conditions, which is the longest yet reported for barnacles. Most cyprid larvae, however, exhibited abnormal morphology and no larvae settled successfully on the substrate. These observations suggest that such a long larval period might enable neoverrucid barnacles to disperse between vent fields.
GaN ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated on a freestanding GaN substrate with low dislocation density. The resulting dark current density was below 1 nA/cm-2 at -8 V reverse bias, which was about 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of a similar detector made on a sapphire substrate. Moreover, the ideality factor was nearer to unity than the device on a sapphire substrate. In addition, by comparing the GaN-based device to a commonly used Si photodetector, we found that the GaN device had a lower signal-to-noise ratio and greater temperature stability. Therefore, we found a drastic reduction of dark current by using GaN freestanding substrates and so the GaN substrate produced a more effective detector than the sapphire substrate.
A method for making AlGaN with a high AlN molar fraction and low dislocation density is needed for fabricating deep ultraviolet emitters and detectors. In this study, we reduced the dislocation density in AlGaN over a large surface area by using low-pressure MOVPE on a continuously rugged epitaxial AlN substrate. The AlN molar fraction of the AlxGa1-xN was × = 0.51, and atomic steps in the surface were clearly observed with an atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the dislocation density was estimated to be 8.8 × 107 cm−2, which is two orders of magnitude lower than that of AlGaN grown on a flat AlN epitaxial layer. Our results indicate that the dislocation density of AlGaN can be greatly reduced by using a rugged AlN epitaxial substrate with continuously inclined facet.
The heteroepitaxial growth of a GaN single crystal by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on a 4H-SiC (3038) substrate was demonstrated. The crystallographic orientation of GaN was found to be dependent on growth pressure. When the growth pressure was 1000 hPa, the orientation of the GaN single crystal was consistent with that of the SiC substrate, where the c-plane of the GaN was single crystal tilted 54.7° from the surface plane. Then, we fabricated a violet-light-emitting diode (LED) with a GaInN multiple-quantum-well (QW) active layer grown on the GaN layer, which coherently grew on the 4H-SiC (3038 ) substrate. The blue shift of the peak wavelength with increasing injection current of up to 100 mA was confirmed to be two times smaller than that of a conventional LED on a c-plane sapphire substrate due to a low internal polarization.
Nitride-based blue-light-emitting diodes having a moth-eye structure were fabricated on the backside of a 6H-SiC substrate. The light extraction efficiency and the corresponding output power were increased by 3.8 times compared with those of an LED having the conventional structure. The results of theoretical analysis agree with these findings.
Characterizations of transparent Schottky barrier GaN and AlGaN UV detectors in the vacuum UV (VUV) and soft X-ray (SX) region using synchrotron radiation are described. In the GaN UV detectors, the responsivity achieved about 0.05 A/W at 95 eV (13 nm). Thus, their device performance is shown between 3.4 and 100 eV (10 and 360 nm). Furthermore, the high responsivity spectra were realized by using AlGaN Schottky UV detectors consisting of Al0.5Ga0.5N on AlN epitaxial layer.
Non-steady-state solidification of YBa2Cu3O6+δ (Y-123) superconducting oxides was observed by the isothermal undercooling experiment. A sudden decrease in crystal growth rate was found for all the Y-123 samples processed at the different temperatures and from the different Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) contents in the initial composition. Quantitative analysis revealed that the Y-211 particles are pushed by the Y-123 crystal and accumulate in the liquid during solidification. It is also found that the particle volume fraction increased and reached a constant value of about 0.6, when the growth rate decreased abruptly, regardless of a variety of growth conditions. A simple solidification model is developed to interpret the experimental observation. This model shows that particle accumulation, as a result of the particle-pushing behavior, causes less connectivity of the liquid and thereby decreases the liquid diffusion flux, which is responsible for the non-steady-state solidification of Y-123.
This paper describes the influence of the sub-nm screening and capping oxide layer of wet process on B diffusion for 50 nm shallow junction formation. The reason is proposed that the knock-on oxygen into Si makes B diffusion faster such as in the case of oxidation enhanced diffusion. To suppress the B enhanced diffusion, the screening oxide formed before implant should be thin to reduce the knock-on oxygen. The wet process before annealing strongly influences the B diffusion, in particular, thicker capping oxide with sub-oxide structure and knock-on oxygen has an important rule for the enhanced diffusion.