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With the exception of near-occlusion, CEA is of overall benefit for selected patients with recent symptomatic carotid stenosis =50% (NASCET method), provided surgical stroke/death risk is low. The benefit is greater with greater stenosis, men, the elderly (aged =75y), most recent ischaemic event within 2w, irregular plaque surface, and impaired cerebral perfusion reserve. Patients with recent symptomatic carotid territory ischaemic events should be screened by Doppler ultrasonography, MRA, or CTA, confirming substantial stenosis with a second non-invasive investigation. Catheter angiography may be required to confirm uncertain results. The surgical peri-operative stroke and death rate (7% in RCTs) is higher in women, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, and occlusion of the contralateral ICA or ipsilateral ECA. The experience of the surgeon and hospital are crucial, and audited peri-operative complication rates should be publically available. Carotid stenting is less invasive than CEA and causes fewer local complications (cranial neuropathy and neck haematoma), but carries a higher procedural risk of stroke. Stenting should be considered in younger patients, or those at increased risk from CEA. While stenting is of high risk for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis, risk is low for extracranial stenosis and should be considered for recurrent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy.
INTERMED is an instrument to assess bio-psycho-social case complexity in general health care by focusing on past, present and future health needs and risks of patients. It consists in a structured interview defining 20 variables and related anchor points. The total score ranges from 0 to 60, reflecting the level of complexity and the related care needs/risks. The aim of this work was to describe the training process on the use of INTERMED and to assess its effectiveness.
A training group of 9 subjects had two-hour meetings twice a month between April and September 2009. After introductory sessions on theoretical aspects and inter-trainee simulations on interviewing and scoring techniques, students were assigned the task of producing video-recorded clinical material, which was used to comment on interviewing skills and practice on scoring. Individual and consensus scores were collected at the beginning and at the end of the training and compared statistically by means of Cohen's kappa.
Motivation and involvement of students in the training was high (participation was on a voluntary basis during extra-work hours), as satisfaction. Agreement between individual and consensus scores was high already at the beginning of the training (Cohen's kappa mean value of 0.80) and slightly improved during the course.
The training process gave positive results both on the quantitative and the qualitative sides of evaluation. A six-month 25-hour training period is a reasonable time for learning how to master the instrument, although it needs to be followed by the clinical practice.
Data are progressively accumulating regarding the transition to adult services.
A comprehensive search using the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases up until 16 March 2015 was conducted in order to summarize recent evidence on the transition from child to adult mental health services for patients with mental disorders. Authors extracted data and assessed study quality independently.
The main findings of the 33 included studies were discussed taking into consideration four aspects: experiences of patients, carers, and clinicians, accounts of transition, current services models and protocols, and outcomes of transition. Of the 33 studies, 17 focused on a specific mental disorder: seven on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, four on intellectual disability, three on eating disorders, two on serious emotional disorders and one on autism spectrum disorder. An attempt was also made to integrate the studies’ conclusions in order to improve transitional care.
The review reveals an evident need for longitudinal, controlled, health services research to identify and evaluate optimal service models with systematic and seamless transition protocols for patients with mental disorders requiring continuity of care into adult mental services.
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