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Un trabajo de rescate arqueológico en la cuenca alta del Río Loa (norte de Chile) resultó en el hallazgo de una inhumación prehispánica de un infante asociado a variados atavíos y ofrendas, junto a los restos óseos parciales de una adolescente. Ambos individuos fueron sometidos a análisis de isótopos estables para establecer paleodieta (δ13C y δ15N) y movilidad (δ18O y 87Sr/86Sr). Además, se efectuaron dataciones radiocarbónicas pareadas de los restos bioantropológicos y culturales con el fin establecer la cronología de la inhumación y, a la vez, evaluar la existencia de un posible efecto reservorio marino. Los resultados isotópicos sugieren consumo de dieta principalmente terrestre y un origen local para los individuos, aunque con una ingesta moderada de recursos marinos. Los fechados radiocarbónicos presentan una inesperada diferencia entre las edades de las ofrendas y los restos humanos, indicando la existencia de un importante efecto reservorio. Dichos resultados dan nuevas luces sobre el consumo de alimentos marinos durante el Formativo temprano en la región, a la vez que permiten ejemplificar los alcances de efectuar dataciones pareadas de restos humanos y culturales.
Shortly after the implementation of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) techniques for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), the discussion about the transition from day 3 to blastocyst stage biopsy was initiated. Trophectoderm biopsy with CCS is meant to overcome the limitations of cleavage-stage biopsy and single-cell analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the results obtained in our PGT-A programme after the implementation of this new strategy. Comparisons between the results obtained in 179 PGT-A cycles with day 3 biopsy (D+3) and fresh embryo transfer, and 204 cycles with trophectoderm biopsy and deferred (frozen–thawed) embryo transfer were established. Fewer embryos were biopsied and a higher euploidy rate was observed in the trophectoderm biopsy group. No differences in implantation (50.3% vs. 61.4%) and clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (56.1% vs. 65.3%) were found. Although the mean number of euploid embryos per cycle did not differ between groups (1.5 ± 1.7 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8), the final number of euploid blastocysts available for transfer per cycle was significantly higher in the trophectoderm biopsy group (1.1 ± 1.3 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8). This factor led to an increased cumulative live birth rate in this last group (34.1% vs. 44.6%). Although both strategies can offer good results, trophectoderm biopsy offers a more robust diagnosis and the intervention is less harmful for the embryos so more euploid blastocysts are finally available for transfer and/or vitrification.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the presence and severity of potential cultural and language bias in widely used cognitive and other assessment instruments, using structural MRI measures of neurodegeneration as biomarkers of disease stage and severity. Methods: Hispanic (n=75) and White non-Hispanic (WNH) (n=90) subjects were classified as cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild dementia. Performance on the culture-fair and educationally fair Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) between Hispanics and WNHs was equivalent, in each diagnostic group. Volumetric and visually rated measures of the hippocampus entorhinal cortex, and inferior lateral ventricles (ILV) were measured on structural MRI scans for all subjects. A series of analyses of covariance, controlling for age, depression, and education, were conducted to compare the level of neurodegeneration on these MRI measures between Hispanics and WNHs in each diagnostic group. Results: Among both Hispanics and WNH groups there was a progressive decrease in volume of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, and an increase in volume of the ILV (indicating increasing atrophy in the regions surrounding the ILV) from CN to aMCI to mild dementia. For equivalent levels of performance on the FOME and CDR, WNHs had greater levels of neurodegeneration than did Hispanic subjects. Conclusions: Atrophy in medial temporal regions was found to be greater among WNH than Hispanic diagnostic groups, despite the lack of statistical differences in cognitive performance between these two ethnic groups. Presumably, unmeasured factors result in better cognitive performance among WNH than Hispanics for a given level of neurodegeneration. (JINS, 2018, 24, 176–187)
Atomic data selection is one important source of systematic uncertainty since there are important variations between the values provided by different authors. We explore the effect of using different atomic data in the determination of physical conditions and chemical abundances in a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae and Hii regions. We find that the available datasets introduce significant differences in the results, especially at densities above 104 cm−3, where O/H and N/O reach uncertainties higher than a factor of 4.
This chapter begins with the female body and "feminine" writing as a locus of rebellion in the 1980s. It discusses the reflections on trauma and defeat the emerged after the dictatorships, the historical revision of the revolutionary endeavor that took place in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The chapter describes the postmemory reflections of the "children of dictatorship", a narrative mode characteristic of memory's turn in the new millennium. In each successive moment, the tenor of memory's performance changes. Particularly in the 1980s, under the rigid surveillance of dictatorship, the body became a metaphorical ground zero from which to decolonize hegemonic discursive constructions. The Latin American dictatorships that spanned the latter half of the twentieth century sought to destroy not only leftist political projects, but also the subjectivities and life-worlds linked to those projects.
By and large texts written by women offer an alternative stance, a diff erentiated locus that places their writing in dialogue with a dominantly patriarchal tradition. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz in Mexico, Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda in Cuba, and Clorinda Matto de Turner in Peru are among the renowned pioneering women whose writings embodied suppressed claims of their times. Taking this tradition of emancipated women writers in Latin America as the starting point of a rich and dynamic literary trajectory, this chapter aims to provide an overview of women's writing in the Andean area. The Andean region highlighted in the chapter is taken as a physical, as well as a symbolic, territory that has had an impact, in the past and present, on both its peoples and its social and cultural processes. While this panoramic approach takes a historical perspective, it places emphasis on present-day trends and writers.
The profuse iconography of Saint Jerome portrays him as a hermit and a man of letters, surrounded by his writing tools, papers, books, a skull, and a lion. Like the saint, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz constructed her hermitage as a cloistered nun, surrounded by books, quill pens, notebooks, documents, and treatises. When referring to other women similar to her, Sor Juana used the syntagm mulier docta, in which docta is understood as "sabio, erudito, estudioso, versado en ciencias o facultades". In her time, from amid the authorship, publication, patronage, and market corresponding to the order of books, the figure of the author became increasingly clearer. However, female authorship was only just beginning in Spain, not to mention in the Spanish colonies, where the case in question involved a woman who was not only a criolla, but also a nun. The first volume of Sor Juana's work Inundacion Castalida gained her a literary recognition in the metropolitan sphere.
The Cambridge History of Latin American Women's Literature is an essential resource for anyone interested in the development of women's writing in Latin America. Ambitious in scope, it explores women's literature from ancient indigenous cultures to the beginning of the twenty-first century. Organized chronologically and written by a host of leading scholars, this History offers an array of approaches that contribute to current dialogues about translation, literary genres, oral and written cultures, and the complex relationship between literature and the political sphere. Covering subjects from cronistas in Colonial Latin America and nation-building to feminicide and literature of the indigenous elite, this History traces the development of a literary tradition while remaining grounded in contemporary scholarship. The Cambridge History of Latin American Women's Literature will not only engage readers in ongoing debates but also serve as a definitive reference for years to come.
Interactions between two contrasting photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) and increasing Ca and P concentrations were analysed in N-fertilised (+N) and Rhizobium-inoculated (+Rh) Phaseolus vulgaris plants grown for 30 days in glasshouses. Plants were grown in sand-filled Leonard jars with 0.9 L N-free for +Rh plants or plus 6 mM KNO3 for +N plants nutrient solution, pH 6.2 in the lower compartment, and were subjected to midday PPFD ≥ 1650 ≤ 1800 mmol m−2 s−1/37±2°C air temperature (HI/HT) or PPDF ≥ 900 ≤ 1200 μmol m−2 s−1/26±2°C air temperature (MI/MT). The nutrient solutions were supplied with 1, 2, 3 or 4 mM P in combination with 1 or 4 mM Ca. Results revealed a 100% mortality of the HI/HT+Rh plants at the juvenile stage of growth. Whereas, all HI/HT+N plants reached the preflowering stage but showed smaller shoot masses, lower chlorophyll concentrations, unusually high chlorophyll a/b ratios and higher shoot nitrate concentrations when compared to values in +N plants grown at MI/MT. Increasing concentrations of P and Ca, or the daily spray of leaves with 2 mM propyl gallate (Pg), did not counteract the negative effects of HI/HT on +Rh and +N plants. Maximum growth, nodulation, chlorophyll concentration and catabolism of ureides in leaves were exclusively observed in +Rh plants grown under MI/MT conditions and supplied with 2 mM P and 1 mM Ca. In contrast, the greater growth of +N plants, associated with higher chlorophyll and nitrate concentrations, took place at MI/MT conditions combined with 1 mM P and 4 mM Ca. Pg further enhanced the growth of MI/MT+Rh and MI/MT+N plants grown at P < 2 mM, at 1 or 4 mM Ca, respectively. At MI/MT, there was a positive relationship between leaf carotenoid concentration and growth of +Rh and +N plants.
Bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-transmitted haemoprotozoans Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens commonly results in substantial cattle morbidity and mortality in vast world areas. Although existing live vaccines confer protection, they have considerable disadvantages. Therefore, particularly in countries where large numbers of cattle are at risk, important research is directed towards improved vaccination strategies. Here a comprehensive overview of currently used live vaccines and of the status quo of experimental vaccine trials is presented. In addition, pertinent research fields potentially contributing to the development of novel non-live and/or live vaccines are discussed, including parasite antigens involved in host cell invasion and in pathogen-tick interactions, as well as the protective immunity against infection. The mining of available parasite genomes is continuously enlarging the array of potential vaccine candidates and, additionally, the recent development of a transfection tool for Babesia can significantly contribute to vaccine design. However, the complication and high cost of vaccination trials hinder Babesia vaccine research, and have so far seriously limited the systematic examination of antigen candidates and prevented an in-depth testing of formulations using different immunomodulators and antigen delivery systems.
The benefits of iodine supplements during pregnancy remain controversial in areas with a mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of improving iodine intakes, with iodised salt (IS) or iodine supplements, in pregnant Spanish women. A total of 131 pregnant women in their first trimester were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) IS in cooking and at the table, (2) 200 μg potassium iodide (KI)/d or (3) 300 μg KI/d. No differences were found in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) or thyroid volume (TV) between the three groups. Regardless of the group in which women were included, those who had been taking IS for at least 1 year before becoming pregnant had a significantly lower TV in the third trimester (P= 0·01) and a significantly higher urinary iodine in the first (173·7 (sd 81·8) v. 113·8 (sd 79·6) μg/l, P= 0·001) and third trimesters (206·3 (sd 91·2) v. 160·4 (sd 87·7) μg/l, P= 0·03). Also, no differences were seen in TSH, FT4 or FT3. Children's neurological development was not significantly associated with the consumption of IS for at least 1 year before becoming pregnant and no differences were found according to the treatment group. In conclusion, in pregnant women with insufficient iodine intake, the intake of IS before becoming pregnant was associated with a better maternal thyroid function. The form of iodide intake was not associated with maternal thyroid function or children's neurological development.