To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To determine the prevalence and distribution of inner-ear malformations in congenital single-sided deafness cases, as details of malformation type are crucial for disease prognosis and management.
A retrospective study was conducted of 90 patients aged under 16 years with congenital single-sided deafness. Radiological findings were evaluated using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Inner-ear malformations were identified and cochlear nerve status was determined in affected ears.
Out of 90 ears, 42 (46.7 per cent) were found to have inner-ear malformation. Isolated cochlear aperture stenosis was the most common anomaly (n = 18, 20 per cent), followed by isolated cochlear aperture atresia (n = 11, 12.2 per cent) and cochlear hypoplasia (n = 7, 7.8 per cent). Cochlear nerve deficiency was encountered in 41 ears (45.6 per cent). The internal auditory canal was also stenotic in 49 ears (54.4 per cent).
Inner-ear malformations, especially cochlear aperture anomalies, are involved in the aetiology of single-sided deafness more than expected. The cause of single-sided deafness differs greatly between congenital and adult-onset cases. All children with single-sided deafness should undergo radiological evaluation, as the prognosis and management, as well as the aetiology, may be significantly influenced by inner-ear malformation type.
Dikmen Valley is a slum district where the Municipality of Ankara intended to start an urban transformation project. Dikmen neighborhood includes nearly 1000 houses which the Municipiality attempted to pull down suddenly at night in the winter of 2007.
Residents of Dikmen Valley resisted and managed to stop this attempt. Whole event was experienced as an acute trauma as well as a continuous experience of anxiety because of ongoing risk of another attack.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychological consequences of the whole process.
The study sample consisted of 201 individuals from 106 households, and a total of 178 individuals from 102 households was taken as comparison group from another slum neighborhood where residents did not experience any threat to their houses. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale were used for assessment.
Dikmen sample was found to have a statistically significant higher mean score of anxiety and depression compared to the comparison group. Dikmen had a higher level of general self-efficacy belief than the comparison group after controlling for depression and anxiety scores.
Although the traumatic process after an attack of pulling down and the threat of losing one's house resulted with a depressive state and anxiety in Dikmen residents, unexpectedly they had a high level of general self-efficacy. To the researchers’ observations, a social transformational process has been realized resulting with an overall high general self-efficacy level in Dikmen neighborhood.
Sleep hygiene can be described as practices to ease sleep and to avoid factors which decrease sleep quality. Inadequate sleep hygiene generally results in disturbance of daily life activities due to inability to sustain sleep quality and daytime wakefulness. The aim of the study was to assess psychometric properties of the Sleep Hygiene Index in clinical and non-clinical Turkish samples.
Data were collected from 106 patients with major depression and 200 were volunteers recruited from community sample who were enrolled at the university. The Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were administered to the subjects. All depression patients and thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent a twenty-day test-retest procedure. Factor structure of the SHI was evaluated with explanatory and multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients of the SHI with the PSQI, ISI and ESS were performed. Item analyses, internal consistency coefficients and intra-class correlations between two repeated applications in both patient and healthy subjects were calculated.
Cronbach's alphas for the SHI in community sample and patients with major depression were 0.70 and 0.71, respectively. Scale scores had comparatively good temporal stability over a three-week time for either clinical or non-clinical samples. SHI had good internal reliability.
The findings of this present study suggest that the SHI may be a useful research or clinical assessment tool for evaluating sleep hygiene to guide case formulation, treatment planning in depression as well as nonclinical population.
Type D (distressed) personality is defined as the co-occurrence of negative affect (NA) and social inhibition (SI).
Although many studies have analyzed the association of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and personality traits, the effect of Type D personality on sleep quality of patients with IBS has not been evaluated.
We aimed to assess the prevalence of Type D personality in patients with and to investigate whether the presence of a Type D personality would affect subjective sleep quality in patients with IBS.
Ninety-seven patients who met the Rome III criteria for IBS with no psychiatric comorbidity were consecutively enrolled, along with 39 healthy controls. Type D Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used in the collection of data.
Of 97 patients evaluated, 45.4% met criteria for Type D personality. Thirty-five patients (36.1%) and 7 healthy volunteers (17.9%) were “poor” sleepers (p< 0.05). IBS patients with a Type D personality were found to score higher on sleep latency, sleep disturbance, and global sleep quality domains of PSQI than patients without a Type D personality. Poor sleeping was more prevalent among patients with a Type D personality than those without (50.0% vs 33.9%; p < 0.01). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association of Type D personality with poor sleeping (r = 0.315; p < 0.01).
Type D personality was associated with decreased perceived sleep quality in patients with IBS.
Self-image is developed by the way in which adolescents think, feel and behave and it arises from the person's body image during preadolescence. problematic A considerable amount of literature published so far on Internet addiction reveals that it is a worldwide phenomenon.
Internet use involves an individual's inability to control his or her use of the Internet, negative consequences (e.g., failing in school, decreased productivity), and marked distress and/or functional impairment Until now, no studies were performed to investigate the relationship between Internet addiction and self-image.
The aim of this study was to evaluate Internet addiction among adolescents and to examine the correlation between problematic Internet use and self-image.
We assessed 1912 high school students, aged between 14 and 18 years. Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Offer Self- Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and a sociodemographic query form were used in the collection of data.
According to the IAT, 201 students (10.5%) were found to be a ‘problematic Internet user’ or an ‘Internet addict’. The students with Internet addiction scored lower on all subscales of OSIQ (impulse control, emotional tone, body image, social Relations, vocational and educational goals, family relations, mastery of the external world, emotional health and superior adjustment), except sexual attitudes. A significant negative correlation between daily OSIQ subscales and IAT and weekly Internet use was found.
The results of this study showed that Internet addiction was related to the development of the self-image, which is a crucial psychological structure gained in adolescence.
Pseudocholinesterase (PCHE) deficiency is an inherited condition, in which recovery from anesthetic agents like succinylcholine and mivacurium is slow and complicated with prolonged paralysis of respiratory muscles in susceptible patients. Succinylcholine is used very frequently as a muscle relaxant during the procedure.
In Bakirkoy research and training hospital for psychiatric and neurological diseases, 24.310 patients were hospitalized for acute conditions and 3490 of these patients were treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in 3 years. We present a very rare case that we encountered in our practice; a severe PCHE deficiency case that could have complicated the modified ECT procedure unless necessary precautions were taken.
Detection of PCHE levels of all patients eligible for ECT is part of our pre-ECT assessments procedure, and the case presented here shows the benefits of this method.
The patient is a 29-year-old woman, with a 15 year history of schizophrenia. She was hospitalized for homicidal risk and refusal of treatment. Inadequate clinical response with pharmacological interventions and continuous aggressive excitations directed us to consider ECT.
After the detection of PCHE deficiency (PCHE level: 126 U/L), we performed the modified ECT with propophol and rocuronium instead of succinylcholine as usual. Sugammadex 100 mg was used for fastening the recovery. Response to treatment, which is recorded with positive and negative syndrome scale, was good and we completed 9 ECT sessions without complication.
Screening for PCHE levels in the pre-ECT assessments is efficacious in order to decrease the complications of the ECT procedure.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Patients with schizophrenia commonly show deficits in executive functioning that allow a person to make plans, solve problems, do many tasks simultaneously and adapt to unexpected conditions. Executive dysfunction is associated with very simple and automatic activities, such as walking in schizophrenia patients. However, no study exists about its relation to postural control in these patients.
To investigate the effect of executive functioning on postural control using dual task paradigms.
Fifteen clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Postural control was assessed with bilateral stance test using the Balance Master system under three different conditions with eyes open and eyes closed (EC): without a task, during a cognitive task (verbal fluency) and during a motor task (holding a cup of water).
Standing on a foam surface with EC resulted in higher postural sway velocities in schizophrenia patients under all conditions (P = 0.009, P = 0.032, P = 0.013). During a cognitive task, both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls showed higher velocities on firm surface with EC in comparison to the condition without a task (P = 0.023). Both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls did not show higher postural sway velocities during the motor task.
The effect of verbal fluency on postural sway shows the relationship between executive functioning and postural control in schizophrenia patients. Foam surface also higher postural sway velocities in schizophrenia patients in EC condition suggesting the difficulties in integrating the proprioceptive information in the absence of visual input.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The rapid warming observed in the western Antarctic Peninsula gives rise to a fast disintegration of ice shelves and thinning and retreat of marine-terminating continental glaciers, which is likely to raise global sea levels in the near future. In order to understand the contemporary changes in context and to provide constraints for hindcasting models, it is important to understand the Late Quaternary history of the region. Here, we build on previous work on the deglacial history of the western Antarctic Peninsula and we present four new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from Horseshoe Island in Marguerite Bay, which has been suggested as a former location of very fast ice stream retreat. Four samples collected from erratic pink granite boulders at an altitude of ~80 m above sea level yielded ages that range between 12.9 ± 1.1 ka and 9.4 ± 0.8 ka. As in other studies on Antarctic erratics, we have chosen to report the youngest erratic age (9.4 ± 0.8 ka) as the true age of deglaciation, which confirms a rapid thinning of the Marguerite Trough Ice Stream at the onset of Holocene. This result is consistent with other cosmogenic age data and other proxies (marine and lacustrine 14C and optically stimulated luminescence) reported from nearby areas.
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis. Antibiotics also disrupt the composition of intestinal microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of a short-term feeding with HFD on oxidative status, enteric microbiota, intestinal motility and the effects of antibiotics and/or melatonin treatments on diet-induced hepato-intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were pair-fed with either standard chow or HFD (45 % fat) and were given tap water or melatonin (4 mg/kg per d) or melatonin plus antibiotics (ABX; neomycin, ampicillin, metronidazole; each 1 g/l) in drinking water for 2 weeks. On the 14th day, colonic motility was measured and the next day intestinal transit was assessed using charcoal propagation. Trunk blood, liver and intestine samples were removed for biochemical and histopathological evaluations, and faeces were collected for microbiota analysis. A 2-week HFD feeding increased blood glucose level and perirenal fat weight, induced low-level hepatic and intestinal inflammation, delayed intestinal transit, led to deterioration of epithelial tight junctions and overgrowth of colonic bacteria. Melatonin intake in HFD-fed rats reduced ileal inflammation, colonic motility and perirenal fat accumulation. ABX abolished increases in fat accumulation and blood glucose, reduced ileal oxidative damage, suppressed HFD-induced overgrowth in colonic bacteria, and reversed HFD-induced delay in intestinal transit; however, hepatic neutrophil accumulation, hepatic injury and dysfunction were further enhanced. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that even a short-term HFD ingestion results in hepato-intestinal inflammatory state and alterations in bacterial populations, which may be worsened with antibiotic intake, but alleviated by melatonin.
The aim of this study was to examine whether melatonin is involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This study included 29 patients with nasal polyposis and undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. As a control group, 26 patients who had been operated on for a deviated nasal septum and concha bullosa were enrolled. Samples were taken from the nasal polyp tissue and from the resected middle concha bullosa mucosa of the control group. Serum samples were taken from all patients.
It was found that the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the nasal polyp group were significantly lower compared with the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the control group.
In nasal polyposis, the melatonin level in the serum and tissue is lower than in individuals without polyposis. This deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This paper is about rings
for which every element is a sum of a tripotent and an element from the Jacobson radical
. These rings are called semi-tripotent rings. Examples include Boolean rings, strongly nil-clean rings, strongly 2-nil-clean rings, and semi-boolean rings. Here, many characterizations of semi-tripotent rings are obtained. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a Morita context (respectively, for a group ring of an abelian group or a locally finite nilpotent group) to be semi-tripotent are proved.
Much progress has been made in recent years towards understanding how early-type galaxies (ETGs) form and evolve. SAURON (Bacon et al. 2001) integral-field spectroscopy from the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) has suggested that less massive ETGs are linked directly to spirals, whereas the most massive objects appear to form from a series of merging and accretion events (Cappellari et al. 2013). However, the ATLAS3D data typically only extends to about one half-light radius (or effective radius, Re), making it unclear if this picture is truly complete.
In this paper, we investigate in various ways the representation of a large natural number as a sum of a fixed power of Piatetski-Shapiro numbers, thereby establishing a variant of the Hilbert–Waring problem with numbers from a sparse sequence.
Islamist parties' electoral performance is a hotly debated question. Two arguments dominate the literature in terms of Islamist parties' performance in democratic elections. The conventional argument has been the “one man, one vote, one time” hypothesis. More recently, Kurzman and Naqvi challenge this argument and show that Islamists tend to lose in free elections rather than win them. We argue that existing arguments fall short. Specifically, we theorize that moderateness of Islamist platform plays a key role in increasing the popularity of these parties and leads to higher levels of electoral support. Using data collected by Kurzman and Naqvi, we test our hypothesis, controlling for political platform and political economic factors in a quantitative analysis. We find that there is empirical support for our theory. Islamist parties' support level is positively associated with moderateness; however, this positive effect of moderation is also conditioned by economic openness.
In this study, biodegradable foams were produced using cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and starch (S). The availability of high volumes of CNFs at lower costs is rapidly progressing with advances in pilot-scale and commercial facilities. The foams were produced using a freeze-drying process with CNF/S water suspensions ranging from 1 to 7.5 wt. % solids content. Microscopic evaluation showed that the foams have a microcellular structure and that the foam walls are covered with CNF`s. The CNF's had diameters ranging from 30 nm to 100 nm. Pore sizes within the foam walls ranged from 20 nm to 100 nm. The materials` densities ranging from 0.012 to 0.082 g/cm3 with corresponding porosities between 93.46% and 99.10%. Thermal conductivity ranged from 0.041 to 0.054 W/m-K. The mechanical performance of the foams produced from the starch control was extremely low and the material was very friable. The addition of CNF's to starch was required to produce foams, which exhibited structural integrity. The mechanical properties of materials were positively correlated with solids content and CNF/S ratios. The mechanical and thermal properties for the foams produced in this study appear promising for applications such as insulation and packaging.
To explore the influences of migration to a Western country on obesity and related risk factors by comparing measures of body composition and energy balance-related behaviours between Turkish adolescents in Turkey (TR-TR) and adolescents from Turkish immigrant ethnicity in the Netherlands (TR-NL).
Cross-sectional survey or baseline intervention data from six Dutch school-based studies and one Turkish study.
Primary and secondary schools.
A total of 915 (49 % girls; mean age 13·1 (sd 0·8) years) TR-TR adolescents and 433 (51 % girls; mean age 11·7 (sd 1·3) years) TR-NL adolescents were included. Outcome measures were self-reported sugar-containing beverage consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, screen time, physical activity, measured body height and weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses.
Our data showed that more TR-NL adolescents were overweight (31 % v. 26 %) and obese (9 % v. 6 %) and had significantly higher mean BMI (21·1 v. 20·0 kg/m2), waist circumference (72·2 v. 71·3 cm) and suprailiac skinfold thickness (19·8 v. 13·1 mm) than TR-TR adolescents. TR-NL adolescents reported significantly higher sugar-containing beverage consumption (1173 v. 115 ml/d), less fruit and vegetable intake (295 v. 647 g/d), less screen time (253 v. 467 min/d) and higher physical activity levels (61 v. 27 min/d) than TR-TR adolescents.
Immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands were more often overweight and had a less favourable dietary pattern than their peers in Turkey, while their physical activity and screen time patterns were more favourable. These results suggest that adolescents from Turkish immigrant ethnicity in the Netherlands have adopted lifestyles towards the host culture.
The three-dimensional transition of the flow behind a circular cylinder with a near-wake wire disturbance has been investigated experimentally. The asymmetric placement of a wire in the near-wake region of the cylinder causes an unnatural mode of shedding to occur, namely mode C. We performed flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments to investigate the influence of the wire on various properties of the flow, such as the dynamics of the streamwise secondary vortices. Experiments were performed at the Reynolds number range of Re = 165–300. From these experiments, it can be concluded that mode C structures are formed as secondary streamwise vortices around the primary von Kármán vortices. The spanwise wavelength of those mode C structures is determined to be approximately two cylinder diameters. The presence of the wire also triggered the occurrence of period doubling in the wake. Each new set of mode C structures is out of phase with the previous set, i.e. doubling the shedding period. This period-doubling phenomenon is due to a feedback mechanism between the consecutively shed upper vortices.
Sweet cherries can be grafted on a wide range of rootstocks belonging to Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus angustifolia or hybrids of different Prunus species. Identification of Prunus rootstocks using morphological traits is almost impossible particularly during the dormant season. However, molecular analysis carried out on actively growing shoot tips, leaves or dormant buds provides good opportunity to reliably distinguish rootstocks. In this study, DNA was extracted from the leaves of a total of 184 sweet cherry rootstock candidates belonging to P. avium L., P. cerasus L., P. mahaleb L. and P. angustifolia L. previously selected from the north-western part of Turkey. The rootstock candidates were tested with ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers, developed for the Prunus genus. The primers successfully identified all rootstock candidates. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from 10 (UDAp-401, UCD-CH21 and CPSCT010) to 20 (UCD-CH31) with an average of 13.3 alleles per locus, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. avium accessions are closely related to P. cerasus. The reference rootstocks were clustered with their associated botanical species.
We report on the field occurrence and isotopic compositions of metamafic rocks exposed in the Serbo-Macedonian (Volvi and Therma bodies) and western Rhodope (Rila Mountains) massifs of Bulgaria and Greece. These metamafic units consist of high- and low-Ti gabbroic and basaltic rocks, whose Nd–Sr–Pb isotopes are compatible with mantle-derived MORB and OIB components with a small amount of crustal material involved in their melt source. These isotopic features combined with the field observations are consistent with an intra-continental rift origin of the metamafic rocks protolith, and are comparable to those of the Triassic rift-related mafic rocks in the northern Aegean region.