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In order to inform core performance projections and divertor design, the baseline SPARC tokamak plasma discharge is evaluated for its expected H-mode access, pedestal pressure and edge-localized mode (ELM) characteristics. A clear window for H-mode access is predicted for full field DT plasmas, with the available 25 MW of design auxiliary power. Additional alpha heating is likely needed for H-mode sustainment. Pressure pedestal predictions in the developed H-mode are surveyed using the EPED model. The projected SPARC pedestal would be limited dominantly by peeling modes and may achieve pressures in excess of 0.3 MPa at a density of approximately 3 × 1020 m−3. High pedestal pressure is partially enabled by strong equilibrium shaping, which has been increased as part of recent design iterations. Edge-localized modes (ELMs) with >1 MJ of energy are projected, and approaches for reducing the ELM size, and thus the peak energy fluence to divertor surfaces, are under consideration. The high pedestal predicted for SPARC provides ample margin to satisfy its high fusion gain (Q) mission, so that even if ELM mitigation techniques result in a 2× reduction of the pedestal pressure, Q > 2 is still predicted.
The circumscription of the lichenized ascomycete genus Icmadophila Trevis. in the family Icmadophilaceae Triebel was investigated. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and large subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuLSU) were generated for the five Icmadophila species and additional members of Icmadophilaceae from the genera Dibaeis, Endocena, Knightiella, Siphula, Siphulella and Thamnolia. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that three Icmadophila species are closely related: the type, I. ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr., which is widespread in Eurasia and North America, I. aversa (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel from Central and South America, and I. japonica (Zahlbr.) Rambold & Hertel, which is restricted to Far East Russia and Japan. The genus Knightiella Müll. Arg. is reinstated to accommodate I. splachnirima (Hook.f. & Taylor) D. J. Galloway emend. L. Ludw., which occurs in New Zealand and Australia. Two further species of Knightiella, K. eucalypti (Kantvilas) Kantvilas and K. queenslandica Kantvilas, are found to be unrelated to K. splachnirima, and are accommodated in two newly described genera, Knightiellastrum and Siphulopsis respectively. Knightiellastrum L. Ludw. & Kantvilas is characterized by a squamulose, erhizinate, whitish to pale grey thallus with a green, coccoid photobiont and by containing thamnolic acid. Siphulopsis Kantvilas & A. R. Nilsen is similarly characterized by an erhizinate, whitish to pale grey thallus, with a green, coccoid photobiont and containing thamnolic acid, but is instead fruticose. This study reveals considerable diversity within Australasian Icmadophilaceae; ongoing work in the Southern Hemisphere and tropical regions may reveal additional species in this family and clarify the relationships of these newly described genera.
There is widespread evidence that schizophrenic symptomatology is best represented by three syndromes (positive, negative, disorganized). Both the disorganized and negative syndrome have been found to correlate with several neurocognitive dysfunctions. However, previous studies investigated samples predominantly treated with typical neuroleptics, which frequently induce parkinsonian symptoms that are hard to disentangle from primary negative symptoms and may have inflated correlations with neurocognition. A newly developed psychopathological instrument called the Positive and Negative and Disorganized Symptoms Scale (PANADSS) was evaluated in 60 schizophrenic patients. Forty-seven participants treated with atypical neuroleptics performed several neurocognitive tasks.
A three-factor solution of schizophrenic symptomatology emerged. Negative symptomatology was associated with diminished creative verbal fluency and digit span backward, whereas disorganization was significantly correlated with impaired Stroop, WCST and Trail-Making Test B performance.
Data suggest that disorganization is associated with tasks that demand executive functioning. Previous findings reporting correlations between negative symptomatology and neurocognition may have been confounded by the adverse consequences of typical neuroleptics.
This project will work closely with existing service partners involved in street level services and focus on testing and evaluating three approaches for street level interventions for youth who are homeless and who have severe or moderate mentally illness. Youth will be asked to choose their preferred service approach:
Housing First related initiatives focused on interventions designed to move youth to appropriate and available housing and ongoing housing supports.
Treatment First initiatives to provide Mental Health/Addiction supports and treatment solutions, and; Simultaneous attention to both Housing and Treatment Together
Our primary objective is to understand the service delivery preferences of homeless youth and understand the outcomes of these choices. Our research questions include:
1. Which approaches to service are chosen by youth?
2. What are the differences and similarities between groups choosing each approach?
3. What are the critical ingredients needed to effectively implement services for homeless youth from the perspectives of youth, families and service providers?
Focus groups with staff and family members will occur to assist in understanding the nature of each of service approach, changes that evolve within services, & facilitators and barriers to service delivery. This work will be important in determining which approach is chosen by youth and why. Evaluating the outcomes with each choice will provide valuable information about outcomes for the service options chosen by youth. This assist in better identifying weaknesses in the services offered and inform further development of treatment options that youth will accept.
We hypothesized an increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) glutamate levels would occur after three weeks of repetitve transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment and a decrease in major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms.
We report six cases (four females) 15–21 years of age with treatment-resistant MDD. Participants had a mean age of 18.7 years and a mean IQ of 102.3. Short echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) was used to quantify glutamate levels in the left DLPFC (4.5cc) before and after rTMS treatment. rTMS was localized to the left DLPFC and applied for 15 consecutive weekdays. Treatment response was defined as a greater than 50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (Ham-D).1H-MRS data was analyzed with LCModel to determine glutamate concentration.
Following rTMS, treatment responders (N=4) showed an increase (relative to baseline) in left DLPFC glutamate levels (11%), which corresponded to an improvement in depressive symptom severity (68% Ham-D score reduction). Treatment non-responders (N=2) had elevated baseline glutamate levels compared to responders in that same region, which decreased with rTMS (−10%). Procedures were generally well tolerated with no adverse events.
rTMS is feasible and possibly efficacious in adolescents with MDD. In responders, rTMS may act by Induced elevations in elevating DFPLC glutamate levels in the left DLPFC, thereby leading to symptom improvement. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adolescent Depression (TMSAD)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging intervention for treatment resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. Though rTMS is an effective technique, positive responses are not universal. As MDD is associated with alterations in brain chemistry, we investigated metabolite concentrations as a biomarker for predicting treatment response. We hypothesized that lower baseline glutamate levels would predict beneficial rTMS treatment response and associate with lower MDD scores post-treatment.
Anatomical and spectroscopy data was collected on a 3.0T GE MR750w. A 15-weekday rTMS treatment was applied targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).
No significant adverse events were reported. Depression and anxiety scores decreased with rTMS (p < 0.001). At baseline, responders had lower left DLPFC glutamate concentration (p = 0.047) that increased with rTMS compared to non-responders (p = 0.01) and correlated with the change in Hamilton depression rating scores (HAMD; r = 0.58, p = 0.02). Reduced DLPFC thickness was observed in responders (p = 0.009), and was also associated with greater change in HAMD (r = -0.56, p = 0.03). Lower left DLPFC cerebral blood flow at baseline was associated with greater change in Children's Depression Rating Scale (r = -0.62, p = 0.02) and Beck Depression Inventory scores (r = -0.59, p = 0.03).
rTMS is an effective and safe treatment for adolescents with MDD. Measures of glutamate and cortical thickness in the left DLPFC may provide tractable predictions of rTMS treatment response in youth, leading to more personalized therapy regimens.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 15% of youth, half of who do not respond to standard treatment. One promising intervention is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). However, response is limited, highlighting the need to focus on biomarkers to predict treatment response.
To explore baseline biomarkers of response associated with rTMS treatment in adolescent MDD.
To determine the association between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) glutamate levels, cortical thickness, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) with MDD symptomatology decrease after rTMS intervention.
Twenty-four MDD youth underwent 3 weeks of rTMS, baseline and post-intervention magnetic resonance imaging scans, and short echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Response was determined by a 50% reduction of depression scores.
Depressive symptoms decreased with rTMS (t = 8.304, P = 0.00). Glutamate levels differed significantly between responders and non-responders (t = 2.24, P = 0.0039), where higher glutamate changes were associated with a better response (r = 0.416, P = 0.038). Responders also exhibited thinner DLPFC (r = –0.797, P = 0.000) and lower CBF levels.
The development of biomarkers for rTMS represents a novel and encouraging technique for a personalized and effective treatment while reducing ineffective treatment costs and personal burden in adolescent MDD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Video games become increasingly popular form of spending free time, therefore they are often a research subject. Researchers focus mainly on video games influence over children's psyche and their social interactions, although video games can also have an impact on adult's behaviour.
Incidence of social anxiety disorder and impulsiveness among video game players and non-players.
Material and methods
An anonymous online survey included 263 students of medical university of Silesia (112 M and 151 W). In study group, 142 people (54%) declared to be players. Questionnaire contained questions about playing time, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software package Statistica 12.
Using Liebowitz Scale in 168 (64.86%) all studied people lack of phobia was found, moderate social phobia 39 (15.06%), marked social phobia 26 (10.03%), severe social phobia 17(6.56%) and very severe social phobia 9(3.47%). There was no statistical significance between players and non-players (test Chi2P = 0.6521). Also in Barratt Scale statistical significance was not found in attentional impulsiveness (test U M-W P = 0.3267) and in Motor impulsiveness (test U M-W P = 0.3140). Statistical significance was observed in Non-planning impulsiveness (players: 23.68 V non-players: 22.02; test U M-W P = 0.0036).
The study did not show clear influence adult's video games playing over social phobia and impulsiveness occurrence.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Observation of the ion source generated background has been an area of focus during our routine analytical work. It is noted that the results of very-low-ratio samples are dependent upon the particular procedures for measurement using the present-day Cs+ sputter ion sources. When measured without excessive Cs+ fluxes and without interleafing with other higher-ratio samples and references, the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) sensitivity can be somewhat improved. In some cases, it appears possible to assess old radiocarbon (14C) samples to beyond the long-standing 60 kyr limit. A number of observational studies are made for the sole purpose of minimizing the final contamination to the rare isotopes that is generated within the ion source.
“General” can be understood in a formal way. The generality of an issue or a rule in this formal sense means that it is relevant in more than one legal context. Relevance in more than one factual context would hardly suffice. What exactly constitutes a“legal context” depends upon each legal system and is also a question of perspective/level of abstraction. Thus, for example, a substantive rule on the formation of contracts is formally general because this issue arises with regard to more than one type of contract, be it a sales contract, a construction contract or a service contract. Yet it would still only be a rule about contracts and of no importance in tort law.
The same can be said for EU private international law. At EU level, for example, each of the Rome Regulations and the Succession Regulation can be seen as constituting one legal context. Formally general issues or rules would thus be issues or rules relevant for more than one EU private international law regulation. This is the level with which this chapter deals for the most part. But one can also move one level lower: there are issues or rules that are formally general within each EU private international law regulation because they are relevant for more than one of their conflict'Ss provisions, e.g. not only for consumer contracts but also for employment contracts, not only for torts but also for unjust enrichment. Symeonides has called this problem of shift ing frames of reference the “blurred line” between special and general rules. As long as the frame of reference is made explicit, however, one is able to say whether an issue exists in (or a rule applies to) only one context or more.
This chapter, then, is about issues arising for more than one rule – or, if there is already a solution for the issue in question intended to operate in more than one context, about rules that are the same for more than one conflicts rule.
Descriptive sections in comparative studies can easily become tedious. Yet transparency dictates not making reference to the provisions of domestic and EU law only in piecemeal fashion later on, where the brunt of references is relegated to the“low rumble of the footnote”. I will therefore try to navigate Scylla and Charybdis by first giving a brief overview of the private international law of each member state and of the EU itself, so that later references do not point to a vacuum.
Incidentally: the decision for not having fewer references, and thus slimmer footnotes, in the first place is based on the idea that not all sources compiled for this book will be available everywhere. More references for the same point increase the probability that every reader has access to at least some of the sources relied upon for my observations.
DOMESTIC PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW
SCOPE OF THE OVERVIEW
In accordance with the overall approach of this book, the scope does not cover the legal, constitutional, or political order of the member states as a whole. Rather, it focuses on the following issues:
– Is there a legislative act, be it part of another act or stand-alone, dealing with different aspects of conflict of laws? In short, and shunning the many possible connotations of the term, is there a“code” of private international law?
– If so, does that code contain a separate set of provisions which it itself expressly deems “general”? (This formal perspective entails that the meaning of “general” can remain open for the time being.) What issues do the provisions in such a section deal with?
– If there is no code of private international law, are there issues which have nevertheless been identified as “general” or at least are dealt with separately from other sets of issues (and by whom/with what authority)?
Note that, in the interest of readability, I will use inverted commas as sparingly as possible outside of direct quotations (of which there will be quite a few).
Comparative law is a risky discipline. There is a danger of at least prima facie doubtful endeavours such as comparing New Zealand and German adoption laws, or Uzbek securities trading law with its Swiss counterpart. Then there are numerous, perhaps countless, pitfalls in the comparative process itself. In view of these issues, this chapter addresses three aspects. First, the reasonableness of approaching the present topic in a comparative way. Second, the extent to which this book follows the traditional notion of comparative law, the extent to which it does not, and why not. Third, the attempts that will be made in order to avoid some of the subject'Ss pitfalls and why falling into some of them – horribile dictu – would not cast doubts on the book as a whole.
Radbruch'Ss observation that “sciences which have to busy themselves with their own methodology usually are sick sciences” may or may not be true. If one emphasises the compulsory aspect (“have to”) in the sense that those sciences do little else, it is easier to agree with Radbruch than in general, where occupation with method and methodology is a constitutive element of the scientific nature of a discipline. Even though there are excellent examples of comparative private international law, i.e. the comparison of private international law rules, questions of comparative law are mostly (and mostly without making mention of it) discussed in relation to comparing substantive rules. Thus, it may be of some general interest to analyse features of comparative private international law here. In order to be understood as correctly as intersubjectively possible, some remarks as to methodological preconceptions are indispensable.“Some”, however, is to be taken literally; the debate on methods in comparative law has been getting out of hand, it would be impossible in this context to address anything but select questions.
COMPARATIVE PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
COMPARATIVE PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW
The “intimate”, almost “symbiotic” relationship between private international law and comparative law has oft en been noted.
Some groundwork is necessary before one can delve into conceptual, legal, and policy questions surrounding general issues of private international law in the context of the EU.
The first chapter in this part addresses questions of method. Why even approach the present topic from a comparative perspective? What kind of perspective is this? How does it deal with the various difficulties of taking into account the law of 28 states?
The next chapter then provides an overview of the legislative and scholarly material upon which Part II in particular relies. Short country reports summarise the situation of private international law in the different member states. Does domestic private international law — or at least its treatment by the cognoscenti – already reflect a distinction between ‘general’ and ‘special’ issues? If so, to what extent? Finally, with regard to EU private international law itself: is it possible to observe in it at least incunabula of any such systematisation?
Whether or not a legislator should make general provisions for a given area of law is obviously not a question confined to private international law. The pros and cons of a general part of a civil code have been a topic of discussion “[e]ver since the heyday of Pandectism”. Pandectist textbooks following the structure introduced by Heise influenced the 1865 Saxon Civil Code, i.e. the “trial run” for the BGB, and then the BGB itself. But was it appropriate to transfer this structure of scholarly presentation and teaching, itself not free from critique, to legislation? Then again, criminal codes even before the 19th century had general parts, with the “technically exemplary” 1810 French Code pénal being a particularly influential model at the beginning of that century. Roughly two centuries later, the question of general provisions arises for EU private international law.
LEGISLATORS, SCHOLARS, TEACHERS: ANOTHER TRIPARTITE DISTINCTION
To begin with, it is worth emphasising that the following remarks only concern the legislator. The topic “general issues/rules” as such does not require this perspective. In particular, it can also be analysed in relation to scholars and teachers. These three dimensions must be set apart. At least as long as law is considered to be a systematic discipline – which is arguably (still) the European way of conceiving of law – the scholarly necessity of finding general patterns in the law and structuring it accordingly can hardly be questioned. This much is accepted even by those to whom a legislative general part in substantive private law is anathema. The often copious separate chapters on “general” or “preliminary” issues in books on private international law, even in member states without a respective code, demonstrate that this insight applies to private international law as well – and that it is anything but limited to the idea of law as “legal science”. On the other hand, it has also rarely been disputed that general statements about (substantive private) law are not exactly the ideal place to start when instructing novices in the law. When faced with generalities, their interest in the law will probably wane quickly.
Thus far, it has first been shown that domestic, as well as EU, private international law distinguishes between at least two classes of private international law rules, with one oft en expressly called ‘general’. This is not always done, however, in uniform fashion. It has then been demonstrated that, as a matter of theory, it is reasonable to approach the meaning of ‘general’ from a formal and a substantive perspective, and that, as a matter of checking the theory against existing law and its academic presentations, both approaches together take account of virtually everything designated or treated as ‘general’. As the future of European private international law clearly lies at the level of the EU, the final questions are whether the EU can and should make (formally and/or substantively) general provisions for a ll2 003 of its private international law.
‘Can’ implies the legal dimension (Chapter 5): does the EU have the competence to make general rules of this kind? Which legislative procedure is to be used? How would a respective instrument and the rest of EU private international law interact?
‘Should’ refers to the policy dimension (Chapter 6): does it make sense to create general provisions of EU private international law? What are the advantages and disadvantages of proceeding in this way? Is there any alternative scenario –and is it viable?
Accordingly, law and policy are the two standards by which the idea of general provisions of EU private international law will be examined in the following.