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Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits decline from adolescence to adulthood, comorbid psychopathology such as symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug use disorders (DUDs) likely disrupt this normative decline. Using a longitudinal sample of female twins (N = 1,763), we examined if levels of BPD traits were correlated with changes in MDD, AUD, and DUD symptoms from ages 14 to 24. A parallel process biometric latent growth model examined the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the relationships between developmental components of these phenotypes. Higher BPD trait levels predicted a greater rate of increase in AUD and DUD symptoms, and higher AUD and DUD symptoms predicted a slower rate of decline of BPD traits from ages 14 to 24. Common genetic influences accounted for the associations between BPD traits and each disorder, as well as the interrelationships of AUD and DUD symptoms. Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for the correlated levels between BPD traits and MDD symptoms, but solely environmental influences accounted for the correlated changes between the two over time. Results indicate that higher levels of BPD traits may contribute to an earlier onset and faster escalation of AUD and DUD symptoms, and substance use problems slow the normative decline in BPD traits. Overall, our data suggests that primarily genetic influences contribute to the comorbidity between BPD features and substance use disorder symptoms. We discuss our data in the context of two major theories of developmental psychopathology and comorbidity.
Objectives: To investigate the use, challenges and opportunities associated with using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in studies with patients with rare lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), we conducted interviews with researchers and health technology assessment (HTA) experts, and developed the methods for a systematic review of the literature. The purpose of the review is to identify the psychometrically sound generic and disease-specific PROs used in studies with patients with five LSDs of interest: Fabry, Gaucher (Type I), Niemann-Pick (Type B) and Pompe diseases, and mucopolysaccharidosis (Types I and II).
Methods: Researchers and HTA experts who responded to an email invitation participated in a telephone interview. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze the anonymized transcripts. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies that used PROs to investigate burden of disease or to assess the impact of interventions across the five LSDs of interest.
Results: Interviews with seven researchers and six HTA experts representing eight countries revealed five themes. These were: (i) the importance of using psychometrically sound PROs in studies with rare diseases, (ii) the paucity of disease-specific PROs, (iii) the importance of having PRO data for economic analyses, (iv) practical and psychometric limitations of existing PROs, and (v) suggestions for new PROs. The systematic review has been completed.
Conclusions: The interviews highlight current challenges and opportunities experienced by researchers and HTA experts involved in work with rare LSDs. The ongoing systematic review will highlight the experience, opportunities, and limitations of PROs in LSDs and provide suggestions for future research.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an inherently traumatic procedure. Successful resuscitations are often complicated by iatrogenic injuries to structures of the neck, thorax, or abdomen. Rib and sternal fractures are the most frequently induced injuries. However, rare and life-threatening trauma to vital organs such as the heart may also occur during CPR. We describe a novel case of CPR-associated right ventricular rupture in a woman with acute-on-chronic pulmonary embolism and no known pre-existing cardiac disease. We propose that chest compressions in the setting of elevated right ventricular pressure resulted in cardiac rupture, in this case.
We describe a space VLBI experiment involving an earth-orbiting satellite (SURFSAT) and simulated satellites, a space VLBI ground tracking station, an array of ground radio telescopes, and a space VLBI correlator. The purpose of this experiment was to provide as complete as possible an end-to-end simulation of space VLBI in preparation for the first space VLBI mission, VSOP, and in particular to test the most critical aspect of space VLBI, viz. the ability to generate a stable and accurate frequency standard (clock) for the orbiting VLBI element.
Parasite dynamics can be mediated by host behaviours such as sociality, and seasonal changes in aggregation may influence risk of parasite exposure. We used little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) captured during the autumn mating/swarming period to test the hypothesis that seasonal and demographic-based variation in sociality affect ectoparasitism. We predicted that ectoparasitism would: (1) be higher for adult females and young of the year (YOY) than adult males because of female coloniality; (2) increase for adult males throughout swarming because of increasing contact with females; (3) decrease for adult females and YOY throughout swarming because of reduced coloniality and transmission of individual ectoparasites to males; (4) be similar for male and female YOY because vertical transmission from adult females should be similar. Ectoparasitism was lowest for adult males and increased for males during swarming, but some effects of demographic were unexpected. Contrary to our prediction, ectoparasitism increased for adult females throughout swarming and YOY males also hosted fewer ectoparasites compared with adult and YOY females. Interestingly, females in the best body condition had the highest parasite loads. Our results suggest that host energetic constraints associated with future reproduction affect pre-hibernation parasite dynamics in bats.
The contamination of water by a large variety of molecules is a major environmental issue that will require the use of efficient and versatile materials to purify hydrological systems from source to point-of-use. The present study describes the aqueous-phase adsorption of heavy metal ions and multiple organic compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations onto graphene-single-walled carbon nanotube free-standing hybrid papers. Optical absorption spectroscopy results clearly showed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibit superior adsorption properties compared to activated carbon, the most widely used adsorbent to date.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved
understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural
weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate
subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some
excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a
very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive
studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to
established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast,
invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using
invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions
grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed
management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would
benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and
increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in
this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for
weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop
specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists
and with the wider scientific community.
Discrimination against people with severe mental illness is an international problem. It is associated with reduced social contact and hinders recovery. This paper aims to evaluate if experienced or anticipated discrimination is associated with social capital, a known correlate of mental health.
Data from the annual viewpoint cross-sectional survey of people with severe mental illness (n = 1016) were analysed. Exploratory univariate analysis was used to identify correlates of social capital in the sample, which were then evaluated in linear regression models. Additional hypotheses were tested using t tests.
Experienced discrimination made a modest contribution to the explained variance of social capital. Experienced discrimination from friends and immediate family was associated with reduced access to social capital from these groups, but this was not found for wider family, neighbours or mental health staff. Experience of discrimination in finding or keeping a job was also associated with reduced access to social capital.
Further longitudinal research is needed to determine how resources within people's networks can help to build resilience, which reduces the harmful effect of discrimination on mental health.
We assessed serum homocysteine (tHcy) and folate concentrations among US adolescents before and after fortification of cereal-grain products with folic acid, and associations with demographic, behavioural and physiological factors.
Observational study conducted among participants of a randomized trial.
The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study.
Adolescents (n 2445) in grades 8 (pre-fortification, mean age 14 years) and 12 (post-fortification, mean age 18 years).
Average serum concentrations of tHcy, folate and vitamin B6 increased by 17 %, 16 % and 14 %, respectively, while serum concentrations of vitamin B12 decreased by 11 % post-fortification. Folic acid fortification provided, on average, an additional intake of 118 μg folate/d. Male sex (P < 0·0001) and white race (P = 0·0008) were associated with significantly greater increases in tHcy concentration, while increases in BMI (P = 0·006) and serum folate concentration (P < 0·0001) were associated with significant decreases in tHcy concentration. Female sex (P < 0·0001), non-smoking (P < 0·0001), use of multivitamins (P < 0·0001) and higher dietary intake of folate (P = 0·001) were associated with significantly greater increases in serum folate concentrations. From grade 8 to grade 12, the upward age trend in serum tHcy concentration was uninterrupted in its course (P > 0·50); whereas serum folic acid concentration showed a downward trend that incurred a discrete jump upward (17 % higher; P < 0·0001) with fortification. These trends differed significantly for males v. females (P < 0·001 for interaction).
Fortification had a significant impact on improving folate status but not serum tHcy concentrations among US adolescents.
This paper is concerned with the current and future financing of long-term care (LTC). This is defined as the provision of nursing and care services to those adults who are incapable, to some degree, of looking after themselves, but excluding short-term convalescent care. The current position is summarised, covering the demand and supply of LTC, how it is currently financed, new developments and consumer attitudes. The paper then goes on to consider future developments. Possible patterns of future demand, covering likely needs and costs are given. Consideration is then given as to how future demand may be financed.
The paper discusses some of the initiatives that might be undertaken to encourage proper planning by both the State and individuals and concludes that the actuarial profession should have a significant role to play in communicating the issues and evaluating solutions.
An increasing number of researchers and practitioners in Natural Language Engineering face the prospect of having to work with entire texts, rather than individual sentences. While it is clear that text must have useful structure, its nature may be less clear, making it more difficult to exploit in applications. This survey of work on discourse structure thus provides a primer on the bases of which discourse is structured along with some of their formal properties. It then lays out the current state-of-the-art with respect to algorithms for recognizing these different structures, and how these algorithms are currently being used in Language Technology applications. After identifying resources that should prove useful in improving algorithm performance across a range of languages, we conclude by speculating on future discourse structure-enabled technology.
Low temperature photoluminescence is used to study damage centers in ion implanted, pulsed laser annealed Si. A number of intense, damage related photoluminescence lines W, G and 13 are observed. It is shown that most of the W (and 13) centers are created by solid phase annealing of implant damage beyond the laser melted region. Peak G, on the other hand, is present in the tail of the implant damage before laser annealing.
Current research will lead to rapid-prototyping of chemical sensors that utilize microfabricated molecularly imprinted (MI) materials. CFD/CAD software may be used to model flow and chemical binding properties of MI materials in microfluidic channels. Use of this type of software expedites results when changes in properties are made. The surface concentration of bound analyte on a monolithic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) within microfluidic channels can be modeled using its experimental binding kinetics. The time necessary to reach a detection limit is calculated and optimized as a function of flow parameters. In this report, we discuss the unique issues associated with the modeling of chemical sensors that utilize MI materials.
The numbers and serotypes of Clostridium perfringens present in the faeces of three groups of hospital patients and young healthy laboratory workers were examined in studies lasting between 10 and 13 weeks.
In one hospital some long-stay geriatric patients carried relatively high numbers of C. perfringens (> 107/g) most of the time and it was not unusual in any one week for the majority of these patients to carry the same serotype(s). However, the numbers of C. perfringens in the faeces of young long-stay patients in the same hospital were in the range of 103–104/g and carriage of common serotypes was not observed. These results were similar to the findings with the young laboratory workers.
This investigation indicates that two of the laboratory criteria often used in the investigation of C. perfringens food poisoning, i.e. faecal counts of ≥ 105C. perfringens/g and patients carrying the same serological type need to be interpreted with caution with suspected outbreaks involving some groups of geriatric long-stay hospital patients.
Primate crop raiding is a major cause of human-wildlife conflict around the forests of western Uganda. In an attempt to ameliorate the situation a conflict mitigation strategy was established in villages around the Budongo Forest Reserve in 2001. Live-traps were constructed that allowed the identification of crop raiding animals; pest species could be disposed of and threatened species released unharmed. However, by 2004 none of the traps in the study area were functioning and interviews were conducted to assess the reasons for their decline and local people's acceptance of the intervention. Forty-one percent of respondents did not believe the strategy was effective and the majority of local farmers did not accept responsibility for the traps. This was because of operational failures in four areas: (1) the identification of key stakeholders, (2) objective evaluation to assess the efficacy and benefit of the intervention, (3) participatory monitoring and evaluation, and (4) long-term funding commitment by conservation agencies. We examine the impact of these four elements upon the sustainability of the live-trap programme and stress the importance of recognizing and reporting failures to develop effective and acceptable mitigation strategies.
We consider the Solar Cycle - the variation in any solar, heliospheric or cosmic ray parameter, related to the well-known 22-year dynamo-like process on the Sun - and discuss how it is influenced by the inner (the transformation of the solar activity in the basement of the heliosphere) and the external (the interaction between the solar and interstellar winds) factors. The corresponding approaches to the description of the long-term variations (the Solar Cycle, secular and longer ones) in the galactic cosmic ray intensity are outlined.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html