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The mechanical response of modern alloys results from a complex interplay between existing microstructure and its evolution with time under stress. To unravel these processes, in situ approaches intrinsically have a critical advantage to explore the basic mechanisms involving dislocations, grain boundaries (GBs), and their interactions in real time. In this article, we discuss recent findings using in situ nanomechanical testing techniques and refined crystallographic analysis tools. Advancements in in situ nanomechanics not only include multiaxial loading conditions, which bring us closer to real-world applications, but also high strain-rate testing, which is critical to compare experiments and simulations. In particular, unraveling the details of GB-based mechanisms and related microstructural changes will facilitate significant breakthroughs in our understanding of the behavior of materials on macroscopic length scales.
One possible way to reduce urinary nitrogen (N) excretion is reducing the amount of dietary crude protein fed to dairy cows. In fact, decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) concentration from 184 to 151g/kg, linearly decreased urinary N expressed as gram per day or as a percentage of N intake (Broderick, 2003). Balancing diets for limiting amino acids could improve cow responses fed lower protein diets without increasing N losses in urine. High concentrations of methionine and lysine during early lactation may reduce the risk of metabolic disorders (Berthiaume et al., 2006). A number of blood metabolites are useful as monitors for signs of metabolic disorder. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of altering the dietary methionine concentration on some blood metabolite concentrations of early lactating Holstein cows.
Ni-based fcc alloys are frequently used as critical structural materials in nuclear energy applications. Despite extensive studies, fundamental questions remain regarding point defect migration and solute segregation as a function of grain boundary character after irradiation. In this study, a coupled experimental and modeling approach is used to understand the response of grain boundary character in a model Ni–5Cr alloy after high temperature heavy-ion irradiation. Radiation-induced segregation and void denuded zones were experimentally examined as a function of grain boundary character, while a kinetic rate theory model with grain boundary character boundary conditions was used to theoretically model Cr depletion in the alloy system. The results highlight major variations in the radiation response between the coherent and incoherent twin grain boundaries, but show limited disparity in defect sink strength between random low- and high-angle grain boundary regimes.
Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon condition that can mimic other conditions associated with an acute abdomen. We report the case of a patient with a spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma due to a ruptured inferior epigastric artery pseudoaneurysm who presented with hypotension and severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed using emergency department point-of-care ultrasonography. Point-of-care ultrasonography has been increasingly used in the evaluation of emergency department patients with acute abdomen and hypotension to expedite the diagnosis and management of aortic aneurysm and intraperitoneal bleeding. Resuscitation and urgent surgical and interventional radiology consultations resulted in the successful embolization of a branch of the inferior epigastric artery and a good outcome.