Serum specimens were collected from 25 wild boars in Hiroshima prefecture located in the western region of Japan from November 2004 to February 2005. The sera were tested for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and plaque reduction neutralization test. Seventeen samples (68%) were positive for neutralizing antibody to JEV. All the neutralizing antibody-positive samples were positive for IgG-ELISA. One was also positive for IgM. The results indicate that approximately 70% of the wild boars were positive for anti-JEV antibody, and raises the possibility that wild boars may play a role in the infectious cycle of JEV in this region.