To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality has as its main foundation a Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), defined by anxiolytic drugs, in which high trait sensitivity should lead to internalising, anxiety, disorders. Conversely, it has been suggested that low BIS sensitivity would be a characteristic of externalising disorders. BIS output should lead to increased arousal and attention as well as behavioural inhibition. Here, therefore, we tested whether an externalising disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), involves low BIS sensitivity. Goal-Conflict-Specific Rhythmicity (GCSR) in an auditory Stop Signal Task is a right frontal EEG biomarker of BIS function. We assessed children diagnosed with ADHD-I (inattentive) or ADHD-C (combined) and healthy control groups for GCSR in: a) an initial smaller study in Dunedin, New Zealand (population ~120,000: 15 control, 10 ADHD-I, 10 ADHD-C); and b) a main larger one in Tehran, Iran (population ~9 [city]-16 [metropolis] million: 27 control, 18 ADHD-I, 21 ADHD-C). GCSR was clear in controls (particularly at 6–7 Hz) and in ADHD-C (particularly at 8–9 Hz) but was reduced in ADHD-I. Reduced attention and arousal in ADHD-I could be due, in part, to BIS dysfunction. However, hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD-C are unlikely to reflect reduced BIS activity. Increased GCSR frequency in ADHD-C may be due to increased input to the BIS. BIS dysfunction may contribute to some aspects of ADHD (and potentially other externalising disorders) and to some differences between the ADHD subtypes but other prefrontal systems (and, e.g. dopamine) are also important.
A novel idea is presented in this paper to simulation, design, and feasibility of making a machine in order to produce nitrogen 13 (N-13) at a much lower cost than conventional medical applications. In a plasma focus device, only 0.02% of the generated ions have more than 1 MeV energy. In this paper, using a new idea we have tried to find a solution to increase the energy of deuterium ions to produce N-13. To achieve this, a series of magnetic lenses has been used to focus and guide the ions. To increase the ion energy, a small linear accelerator has been designed using a TM010 waveguide. The accelerator waveguide is also designed and optimized to have the highest impedance matching and maximum power transmission. Eventually, low-energy ions that are transmitted by magnetic lenses accelerate in the waveguide electric field and their energy increases significantly. The collision of these energetic ions with graphite target produce N-13.
A temporally evolving turbulent plane jet is studied both by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and Lie symmetry analysis. The DNS is based on a high-order scheme to solve the Navier–Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid. Computations were conducted at Reynolds number
is defined based on the initial jet thickness,
, and the initial centreline velocity,
. A symmetry approach, known as the Lie group, is used to find symmetry transformations, and, in turn, group invariant solutions, which are also denoted as scaling laws in turbulence. This approach, which has been extensively developed to create analytical solutions of differential equations, is presently applied to the mean momentum and two-point correlation equations in a temporally evolving turbulent plane jet. The symmetry analysis of these equations allows us to derive new invariant (self-similar) solutions for the mean flow and higher moments of the velocities in the jet flow. The current DNS validates the consequence of Lie symmetry analysis and therefore confirms the establishment of novel scaling laws in turbulence. It is shown that the classical scaling law for the mean velocity is a specific form of the current scaling (which has a more general form); however, the scaling for the second and higher moments (such as Reynolds stresses) has a completely different structure compared to the classical scaling. While the failure of the classical scaling for the second moments of the fluctuating velocities has been noted from the jet data for many years, the DNS results nicely match with the present self-similar relations derived from Lie symmetry analysis. Key ingredients for the present results, in particular for the scaling laws of the higher moments, are symmetries, which are of a purely statistical nature. i.e. these symmetries are admitted by the moment equations, however, they are not observed by the original Navier–Stokes equations.
In ruminants, the protein value of a feedstuff is determined by the amount of amino acids from microbial protein and rumen undegraded dietary protein (UDP) absorbed in the small intestine. The requirement of UDP increases with the production level of the animal. This protein can be supplied by increasing the amount of dietary protein escaping degradation in the rumen. Various physical and chemical treatments have been used to alter the rate of ruminal degradation of soya bean meal (SBM) protein, thus increasing its post-ruminal availability. Recently Al-Asheh et al (2003) reported that thermally activated sodium bentonite (T-bentonite) has the potential to be used as a low cost sorbent since it is naturally available and has high surface area. We hypothesized that this clay can reduce degradation of SBM crude and true protein in the rumen. The main objectives of our research were to evaluate the degradation of untreated and T-bentonite treated SBM proteins by using SDS-PAGE and to determine effective rumen degradation (ERD) and intestinal digestibility of untreated and T-bentonite treated soya bean meal crude protein (CP).
Proteolysis within plant cells occurs during wilting and drying. Changes in plant proteins during those periods usually are monitored by measurement of total crude protein and non protein nitrogen. Alternatively, changes in concentrations of individual proteins can be measured. Plants are composed of an array of different proteins. Electrophoresis can be used to separate these proteins and has been used to study effects of wilting and ensiling on proteins of some forages (Grum et al., 1991). Electrophoresis also has been used in the study of ruminal hydrolysis of oilseed meals proteins (Sadeghi et al., 2004). Most of the experiments designed to use electrophoresis to study protein metabolism in forages and ruminants have been qualitative. The main objective of this study was to determine whether sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometry could be used to monitor quantitatively the changes in alfalfa protein composition during wilting, drying and ruminal exposure.
Grazing cattle often require supplemental nutrients, especially at times when forages are dormant. To meet this requirement, producers have several options. They may supplement proteins or non-protein N (such as urea) or a combination. Urea is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia; consumption of high levels of urea could lead to ruminal ammonia accumulation, inefficient use of N by the animal and animal ammonia toxicity. Moreover, environment pollution is another problem when inefficient use of N occurs. Natural Zeolite is an Aluminosilicate with Cation Exchange and adsorption properties (Tomlinson, 1998). We hypothesized that Natural Zeolite can adsorb ammonia when its concentration in the rumen is high, and return it when ammonia concentration is low. Therefore, this effect can reduce ammonia toxicity and enhance calves performance and carcass traits. This study was conducted to determine the effect of natural zeolite on ammonia toxicity, carcass traits, performance and nutrient digestibility in finishing Holstein calves.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.
Plasma focus is one type of ion source with energy up to few MeV. While some efforts have been made to understand the physics of ion beam acceleration in plasma focus devices (PFD), an acceptable clarification does not exist yet. In this work, the procedure of ions) electrons) acceleration in PFDs to the MeV energy is investigated theoretically. Moreover, the trajectory of electrons (ions) and their angular distribution are studied. The simulations are carried out by COMSOL Multiphysics version 5.2 for a 4.5 kJ Mather type PFD. The results of simulations and calculations show that trapped ions in the negative potential of electrons, their movement toward the top of the anode and the drift motion due to electrical and magnetic fields near the top of the anode are the main causes of high energy electrons (ions) production and acceleration.
The plasma sheath dynamics adjacent to the cathode in the presence of electrons, ions, and doubly ionized ions have been simulated in this work. The aim of the present investigation is, therefore, to study the effect of the doubly ionized ions on the characteristics of the plasma sheath dynamics such as potential distribution, sheath length, and ions dose and velocity near the surface (cathode). It was shown that the presence of the doubly ionized ions can increase the normalized potential of all positions in sheath region, sheath length, and ion/doubly ionized ions density ratio on the target. Obtained results may be helpful for analyzing the practical results of the surface operations such as ion implantation and plasma polymerization, etc.
We study the mutual effects of photoinduced processes (irradiation effects) and plasmonic emission enhancement in close-packed CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots in the vicinity of gold metallic nanoparticles with two significantly different size distributions. For this we examine the impact of the heat generated by the metallic nanoparticles, the strength of plasmonic field enhancement, and the rate of energy transfer from the quantum dots to metallic nanoparticles in the presence of a laser field with low and moderate intensities. Our results show that the interplay between the photophysics of the quantum dots and their plasmonic emission enhancement is significantly pronounced when the metallic nanoparticles are large. In such a case we observed large suppression of photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE). For smaller metallic nanoparticles the results suggest mostly an overall time-independent suppression of the quantum dots’ emission with no significant impact on PFE.
In this contribution we explored the impact of irradiation intensity on the fluorescence of single quantum dots and ensembles of single quantum dots over time scales much greater than the blinking of the individual quantum dots. We also investigated how blinking and photo enhancement are influenced by photo-oxidation when the intensity of the irradiating laser was increased. Analysis of the emission photographs shows the presence of large time scale individual and ensemble blinking behavior. Analysis of the data indicates that photoinduced fluorescence enhancement occurs even when the inter-dot spacing of the quantum dots precludes the formation of a Coulomb blockade. Additionally, irradiation of ensembles of CdSe/ZnS SQDs at higher source intensities lead to a more accelerated suppression of quantum dots emission via photo-oxidation than for ensembles of closely packed quantum dots.
We theoretically show when single hybrid systems consisting of a metallic nanoparticle and a semiconductor quantum dot interact with a coherent light source (a laser field), quantum coherence in the quantum dot can dramatically influence the plasmonic field of the metallic nanoparticle. As a result, the quantum dot can self-renormalize the plasmonic field that it experiences. Using this we show when the applied laser field has a step-like amplitude rise, the effective field experienced by the quantum dot can exhibit strong oscillations with significantly high amplitudes for a short period of time. Our results also reveal the correlation between this effect and the Rabi flopping induced by plasmonic effects when a quantum dot is in the vicinity of a metallic nanoparticle. These results suggest that in a quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle system quantum coherence not only can change the magnitude of the field that the quantum dot experiences, but also, compared to the applied field, it can significantly increase the rate of its time variations. The results suggest that quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems can be appealing host for investigation of quantum plasmonic effects and photonic-plasmonic devices.
Trichotillomania (TTM) is a psychiatric syndrome characterised by the inability to control repetitive hair pulling. Psychiatric data reveal that TTM is not usually prevalent among all family members of patients, and so far only one case of familial TTM has been reported.
In this study, we report a case of familial TTM that afflicted four sisters and discuss the importance of genetic factors in this disorder.
This report suggests that, similar to many other psychiatric disorders, TTM can be detected in other family members and that genetic factors not only have a significant role in the development of such disorders but also in determination of the disorder subtype. This report also shows that the comorbidities in one member of the family might predict the existence of comorbidities in other members. On the basis of response to medication.
the authors suggest that a genetic disorder like polymorphism in serotonin receptors or dopamine can cause such a disorder.
We used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to derive the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binary stars. Using measured radial velocity data of seven double-lined spectroscopic binary systems V373 Cas, V2388 Oph, V401 Cyg, GM Dra, V523 Cas, AB And and HD 141929, we found corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.
The objectives of this study were to quantify the errors in economic values (EVs) for traits affected by cost or price thresholds when skewed or kurtotic distributions of varying degree are assumed to be normal and when data with a normal distribution is subject to censoring. EVs were estimated for a continuous trait with dichotomous economic implications because of a price premium or penalty arising from a threshold ranging between −4 and 4 standard deviations from the mean. In order to evaluate the impacts of skewness, positive and negative excess kurtosis, standard skew normal, Pearson and the raised cosine distributions were used, respectively. For the various evaluable levels of skewness and kurtosis, the results showed that EVs can be underestimated or overestimated by more than 100% when price determining thresholds fall within a range from the mean that might be expected in practice. Estimates of EVs were very sensitive to censoring or missing data. In contrast to practical genetic evaluation, economic evaluation is very sensitive to lack of normality and missing data. Although in some special situations, the presence of multiple thresholds may attenuate the combined effect of errors at each threshold point, in practical situations there is a tendency for a few key thresholds to dominate the EV, and there are many situations where errors could be compounded across multiple thresholds. In the development of breeding objectives for non-normal continuous traits influenced by value thresholds, it is necessary to select a transformation that will resolve problems of non-normality or consider alternative methods that are less sensitive to non-normality.
To compare the effects of routine nasal packing with polyvinyl acetal sponge (Merocel) versus no packing, after endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyposis.
Subjects and methods:
This clinical, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an academic tertiary referral centre between 2008 and 2011. Sixty patients with resistant nasal polyposis underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, and were then randomly divided into two groups: packed and non-packed. The amount of bleeding and pain in each group during pack removal was documented.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in the outcome of surgery and complications. One patient in each group needed extra packing. In the packed group, the mean ± standard deviation pain score on pack removal was 61 ± 3 (using a visual analogue scale in which 0 = no pain and 100 = worst pain imaginable).
This study found no significant difference between polyvinyl acetal packed and non-packed groups, following endoscopic sinus surgery for nasal polyposis. This confirms the findings of similar studies, and supports the reconsideration of routine post-operative packing in selected cases.
In this paper, we present the design, static analysis, simulation, and implementation of a novel design for a naturally stable climbing robot that has been inspired from human pole/tree climbers. The other benefits of this robot, besides being naturally stable, are its simple design, ease of control, light weight, simple mechanism, and fast climbing speed. The robot consists of three wheels, two free and one active wheel, which enable the robot to climb or descend poles. The free wheels are almost frictionless, while the active wheel has enough friction to be able to apply force on the pole for stable climbing or descending. The wheels are designed in V-shape such that the robot can compensate for misplacements eliminating possible detachment from poles. Although the robot can operate with a single free wheel, however, an extra free wheel is added to increase the stability and safety of the robot. In this paper, the static analysis of the robot is presented and the robot is simulated. Furthermore, the robot is actually implemented and successfully tested in two sizes, a small size and a big/full size. The full-scale prototype has been equipped with washing and inspection tools and tested washing actual street lights. The results show the unique characteristics of this robot that make it more stable if more weight is carried.
Mucormycosis is an aggressive fungal infection which may still cause fatal complications. However, the rarity of this disease has made optimal treatment a controversial issue. This study aimed to evaluate the use of topical amphotericin B in endoscopic management of rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
Subjects and methods:
Thirty patients with infection limited to the nose and sinuses were selected. Patients underwent endoscopic debridement of all necrotic tissue; cottonoid pledgets soaked in amphotericin B solution were then placed in the nasal cavity. Subsequently, long-term antifungal therapy was administered.
The overall survival rate was 60 per cent (18 cases); survival rates in the diabetic and malignancy groups were 70.58 and 40 per cent, respectively. Apart from predisposing factors, orbital and maxillary sinus involvement also had a significant correlation with patient outcome.
Topical use of amphotericin B combined with endoscopic surgical debridement, followed by intravenous amphotericin B treatment, may constitute acceptable management for selected patients, with less morbidity than conventional treatments.
We simulate the charge carrier traffic between the energy bands and the interface states in structures like Al/SiO2/6H-SiC, Al/diamond/Si and Al/SIPOS/Si to explain their high frequency capacitance-voltage behavior. The structures have in common that traditional electrical measurement techniques performed at room temperature are strongly influenced by non-equilibrium carrier conditions at the insulator-semiconductor interface. This can result in large errors in the interface data extracted from such studies when thermal equilibrium conditions are assumed. In this work, high frequency capacitance-voltage data are compared to numerical simulations which include such thermal non-equilibrium conditions to enable more accurate estimates of interface state parameters in such structures.