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Refugees are confronted with the task of adapting to the long-term erosion of psychosocial systems and institutions that in stable societies support psychological well-being and mental health. We provide an overview of the theoretical principles and practical steps taken to develop a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Integrative Adapt Therapy (IAT), which aims to assist refugees to adapt to these changes. This paper offers the background informing ongoing trials of IAT amongst refugees from Myanmar.
A systematic process was followed in formulating the therapy and devising a treatment manual consistent with the principles of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The process of development and refinement was based on qualitative research amongst 70 refugees (ten from West Papua and 60 Rohingya from Myanmar). The therapeutic process was then piloted by trained interventionists amongst a purposively selected sample of 20 Rohingya refugees in Malaysia.
The final formulation of IAT represented an integration of the principles of the ADAPT model and evidence-based techniques of modern therapies in the field, including a transdiagnostic approach and the selective use of cognitive behavioural treatment elements such as problem-solving and emotional regulation techniques. The steps outlined in refining the manual are outlined in relation to work amongst West Papuan refugees, and the process of cultural and contextual modifications described during early piloting with Rohingya refugees in Malaysia.
IAT integrates universal principles of the ADAPT model with the particularities of the culture, history of conflict and living context of each refugee community; this synthesis of knowledge forms the basis for participants gaining insights into their personal patterns of psychosocial adaptation to the refugee experience. Participants then apply evidence-based techniques to improve their capacity to adapt to the serial psychosocial changes they have encountered in their lives as refugees. The overarching goal of IAT is to provide refugees with a coherent framework that assists in making sense of their experiences and their emotional and interpersonal reactions to the challenges they confront within the family and community context. As such, the principles of a general model (ADAPT) are used as a springboard for making concrete, manageable and meaningful life changes at the individual level, a potentially novel approach for psychosocial interventions in the field.
The main focus is on the assessment of the effects of early institutional care and compares three longitudinal studies from Romania, Greece and Hong Kong/China. The findings have been strikingly contrasting. The review asks if the risks are dependent on whether or not the institutional rearing is accompanied by gross pervasive deprivation (as it was in Romania) and investigates the methodological issues to explore the causal influence of the outcomes. Evidence is considered on changing institutional practices and the benefits of doing so. Comparison is made between institutions with major deprivation and those without global deprivation. A small number of studies are discussed that look at direct comparisons between institutional and community care. The empirical and conceptual implications of the findings are discussed.
Very little up-to-date information is available on the microbiology of complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Reliable microbiology testing is necessary to inform current empirical antimicrobial treatments. This study was conducted in response to recent US guidelines on antimicrobial treatments for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. It aimed to describe the pathological micro-organisms involved in complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in the UK and their antimicrobial susceptibility.
This study collected retrospective data on cases of complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis with sinogenic orbital and/or intracranial infections from 2007 to 2012. Bacteria identified in paranasal sinus pus were compared with those identified in orbital and/or intracranial infections.
Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria were isolated from 61.3 per cent of paranasal sinus pus samples, 83.3 per cent of orbital infections and 77.8 per cent of intracranial infections. All S anginosus isolates were sensitive to penicillin; no penicillin-resistant organisms were isolated.
S anginosus was the predominant organism isolated from complicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis samples at our UK centre. S anginosus is sensitive to penicillin, suggesting that penicillin can be used as an appropriate first-line empirical antibiotic for uncomplicated acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.
This study aimed to evaluate whether a pre-operative elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level is a potential predictor of post-operative hypocalcaemia after total thyroidectomy.
Data was retrospectively collected from the case notes of patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into Graves’ disease and non-Graves’ groups. Pre-operative and post-operative biochemical markers, including serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels, were reviewed.
A total of 225 patients met the inclusion criteria. Graves’ disease was the most common indication (n = 134; 59.5 per cent) for thyroidectomy. Post-operative hypocalcaemia developed in 48 patients (21.3 per cent) and raised pre-operative serum alkaline phosphatase was noted in 94 patients (41.8 per cent). Raised pre-operative serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly associated with post-operative hypocalcaemia, particularly in Graves’ disease patients (p< 0.05).
Pre-operative serum alkaline phosphatase measurements help to predict post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, especially in patients who do not develop hypoparathyroidism. Ascertaining the pre-operative serum alkaline phosphatase level in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy may help surgeons to identify at-risk patients.
This study aimed to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus infection and salivary gland tumours in a Scottish cohort.
Specimens from a range of salivary gland tumours operated on between 1997 and 2012 were studied. A tissue microarray constructed from tissue blocks was subjected to p16INK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation using probes specific for human papillomavirus, including types 16 and 18.
A total of 61 tumours (benign and malignant) were deemed suitable for the study. p16INK4 staining yielded three (4.9 per cent) positive samples: one small cell carcinoma, one squamous cell carcinoma and one poorly differentiated carcinoma. Human papillomavirus in situ hybridisation demonstrated a positive signal in the latter sample only (1.6 per cent).
This study demonstrated a very low human papillomavirus detection rate in salivary gland tumours. It can therefore be concluded that human papillomavirus infection is unlikely to play a role in salivary gland neoplasia. Rare human papillomavirus positive cases should be carefully evaluated to exclude the possibility of a metastatic lesion.
To evaluate the histopathological findings from post-treatment neck dissection of p16 positive and negative oropharyngeal carcinoma cases, after completion of chemoradiotherapy, and to question the role of neck dissection after a ‘clinically complete response’ to chemoradiotherapy.
Data were collected retrospectively from a cohort of patients treated with curative intent using chemoradiotherapy and post-treatment neck dissection. Primary tumours underwent p16 immunohistochemistry. Neck dissection specimens were examined for viable cancer cells.
A total of 76 cases were assessed. Viable cancer cells were detected from neck dissection in 29 per cent of p16 negative cases. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 12.9 per cent of p16 negative cases. The association between p16 positivity in the primary tumour and histopathologically negative neck dissection was significant (p < 0.05).
p16 status appeared to be an independent marker of disease control for the cohort in this study. The data raise questions about the role of post-treatment neck dissection in p16 positive cases with a ‘clinically complete response’ to chemoradiotherapy.
The association between eustachian tube dysfunction and middle-ear effusion is well established. Studies have also demonstrated pathological changes affecting the middle-ear mucosa associated with chronic sinonasal inflammation. No previous studies have evaluated symptoms related to sinonasal inflammatory disease in different ear diseases.
To assess the presence of sinonasal symptoms in ear diseases using the Dundee Rhinogram.
Data were collected prospectively in the period February–October 2011. Sinonasal symptoms were graded using the Dundee Rhinogram. Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify any statistically significant associations.
In total, 164 patients were assessed. There was a statistically significant association between sinonasal symptoms and mucosal middle-ear diseases (p < 0.005). The mean sinonasal symptoms score for mucosal middle-ear disease patients was 5.94 (range, 0–32).
Assessment of sinonasal symptoms is paramount in patients presenting with an ear symptom; inflammatory sinonasal disease treatment may become necessary in the management of middle-ear mucosal disease for better patient outcome.
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