To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Introduced species can have strong ecological, social and economic effects on their non-native environment. Introductions of megafaunal species are rare and may contribute to rewilding efforts, but they may also have pronounced socio-ecological effects because of their scale of influence. A recent introduction of the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius into Colombia is a novel introduction of a megaherbivore onto a new continent, and raises questions about the future dynamics of the socio-ecological system into which it has been introduced. Here we synthesize current knowledge about the Colombian hippopotamus population, review the literature on the species to predict potential ecological and socio-economic effects of this introduction, and make recommendations for future study. Hippopotamuses can have high population growth rates (7–11%) and, on the current trajectory, we predict there could be 400–800 individuals in Colombia by 2050. The hippopotamus is an ecosystem engineer that can have profound effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments and could therefore affect the native biodiversity of the Magdalena River basin. Hippopotamuses are also aggressive and may pose a threat to the many inhabitants of the region who rely upon the Magdalena River for their livelihoods, although the species could provide economic benefits through tourism. Further research is needed to quantify the current and future size and distribution of this hippopotamus population and to predict the likely ecological, social and economic effects. This knowledge must be balanced with consideration of social and cultural concerns to develop appropriate management strategies for this novel introduction.
Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the hydrothermal precipitation of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and its transformation to hematite (Fe2O3) in situ. Akaganeite was the first phase to form and hematite was the final phase in our experiments with temperatures between 150 and 200 °C. Akaganeite was the only phase that formed at 100 °C. Rietveld analyses revealed that the akaganeite unit-cell volume contracted until the onset of dissolution, and subsequently expanded. This reversal at the onset of dissolution was associated with a substantial and rapid increase in occupancy of the Cl site, perhaps by OH− or Fe3+. Rietveld analyses supported the incipient formation of an OH-rich, Fe-deficient hematite phase in experiments between 150 and 200 °C. The inferred H concentrations of the first crystals were consistent with “hydrohematite.” With continued crystal growth, the Fe occupancies increased. Contraction in both a- and c-axes signaled the loss of hydroxyl groups and formation of a nearly stoichiometric hematite.
Obesity levels in cats are increasing and the main causative factor is higher energy intake v. energy expenditure over time. Therefore, altering energy expenditure by enhancing physical activity of the cat could be a strategy to reduce obesity. Hydrating commercial dry diets with water increased activity in cats; however, no study has compared this approach with feeding high-moisture canned diets. Eight healthy male neutered domestic shorthair cats were fed four different dietary treatments in a Latin square design. Treatments were a canned diet ‘as is’ (82 % moisture) and freeze-dried (4 %), a dry diet ‘as is’ (3 %) and with added water (70 %). Cat activity was measured continuously using Actical® accelerometers. Cats were group housed during the first 14 d of each period and then moved to individual cages for 7 d with faecal and urine production measured over the final 4 d. Intake was similar for each diet. The average activity over 24 h was not different between treatments (P > 0·05). However, the ratio between average activity during the day v. at night was higher when cats were fed the dry diet (P = 0·030). Total water intake and urine volume increased when the canned diet was fed (P < 0·001). The similarity in total activity of the cats on the treatments indicates that dietary moisture or diet type did not have a major effect on these cats. However, the stronger diurnal activity patterns observed in the cats when they were fed the dry diet are intriguing and require further study.
As with Indira Gandhi, to understand Benazir Bhutto requires accurately locating her in the context of her family history. In Pakistan, apart from the family, a child is born into clan or tribal affiliations that act as a critical network for identity development. The honor of the clan is sacred and enmeshed with one’s own self-worth, and interdependence is the basis for social organization and self-perception. In Benazir’s case, the Bhutto clan’s fortune and prestige were well established in the country in the early 19th century by the legendary Dodo Khan Bhutto who warred ruthlessly with other tribes in order to acquire land.
Subsequent generations acquired more land, and their prestige increased, with Benazir’s great-great-great-grandfather regarded as the virtual Nawab (ruler) of the Pakistani province of Sindh after an alliance was made with the ruling Talpur family. This alliance established the Bhuttos among the elite families in the area, and this position was the foundation both for Benazir’s father, Zulfiqar, and Benazir herself to move into political leadership roles.
The victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran did not fulfill Ayatollah Khomeini’s messianic aspirations. Still driven by dreams of glory, the aged Ayatollah continued relentlessly to pursue his greater goal of one “united Islamic Nation” under his guidance. The fundamental political, economic, and social changes, as well as the violence and havoc that his revolution unleashed, are vivid testimony to the powerful forces that can be mobilized by charismatic leader-follower relationships. Osama bin Laden similarly forged a powerful bond with his alienated followers, resulting in the explosive events of September 11, 2001. Indeed, Khomeini can be considered an intellectual mentor and model for bin Laden. The Islamic Revolution in Iran and the radical Islamic terrorism of al-Qaeda are pointed reminders that such relationships are not merely interesting relics of a bygone era – the era of “great men” – but continue to play an important and often determining role in world affairs.
I write not of charismatic leaders but rather of charismatic leader–follower relationships. In this chapter, I elaborate on the political psychology of this powerful tie between leaders and followers and attempt to identify crucial aspects of the psychology of the leader that, like a key, fit and unlock crucial aspects of the psychology of their followers. In delineating this lock-and-key relationship, I draw on emerging understandings of the psychology of narcissism.
The preceding chapter dealt with the issues of entitlement and political affairs, but no work on these themes would be complete without considering a man who has not only become synonymous with inappropriate sexual behavior while in political power, but who has also used and thoroughly abused his country’s legal and media systems to shamelessly further his own personal interests. Silvio Berlusconi dominated Italian politics for nearly two decades, making “Berlusconismo” his own unique political brand. And, even though he spent much of that time actively undermining some of the most basic features of his country’s democracy, it was only the tremendous outside pressure exerted in the form of the Euro crisis that eventually removed him from power in November 2011. Between changing laws at the highest levels in order to free himself from prosecution and ultimately securing control of roughly 90 percent of the Italian media, it is a wonder that he still had time to socialize with women much younger than himself, even being accused of having sex with an underage prostitute. It would not be an exaggeration to say that, for the past two decades, Italy has been more a reflection of Berlusconi than Berlusconi has been of Italy, a feat attributable to his intensely narcissistic character.
To understand how he managed for so long to run his party – and Italy – like his own personal fiefdom, it is important to understand how he came to power in the first place and his appeal to the Italian public. Without delving too deeply into Italian political history, it is enough to note that postwar Italy was dominated by a communist ideology that appealed to the masses because of the horrors that characterized the wartime fascist system of Benito Mussolini. But when the Berlin Wall came tumbling down in 1989, leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 and communism lost what was left of its already severely weakened appeal, the Italian people decided that it was time for their country to reinvent itself.
In this chapter, the manner in which narcissistic dictators seek to continue their legacy and secure their place in history by passing on the baton of power to the next generation is considered. Two examples will be reviewed: Saddam Hussein and his sons Uday and Qusay, and Kim Il-sung and his son Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-il’s son, Kim Jong-eun.
SADDAM HUSSEIN AND HIS BOYS, UDAY AND QUSAY: THE FAMILY THAT SLAYS TOGETHER STAYS TOGETHER
Saddam Hussein was not a typical soccer dad. Although he considered himself a great sportsman, rather than take his sons to sports events, starting at age ten, he took his sons to witness torture sessions, apparently imbued with what I consider one of his maxims, “the family that slays together stays together.” Thus, from early on, Saddam was preparing his sons to succeed him and was demonstrating the techniques for maintaining a rule of terror and total control. And he was teaching them that there were no limits to the violence they could administer, that they were special and need not fear retribution.
The quality of narcissism is not strained. It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven. It floodeth the chambers of Congress and presidential palaces. ‘Tis most dangerous in the mightiest, for it is enthroned in the hearts of kings and presidents.
With apologies to Shakespeare for this riff on Portia’s eloquent soliloquy on mercy in the Merchant of Venice, in this age of narcissism, politicians with significant narcissistic personality features are apparently ubiquitous. The arena of politics is particularly attractive to narcissistic individuals who, if gifted with persuasive skills, can attract adoring followers. As the jury deliberated in the case of Senator John Edwards, accused of misuse of campaign funds to cover up an affair with a videographer with whom he had a child, an affair carried out while his wife was undergoing painful treatment for breast cancer, the gap between the glittering surface of the candidate and what lies beneath was all too palpable. The jury acquitted Edwards, saying the charges never should have been brought in the first place, and the Department of Justice dropped the case.
There is a small group of important international leaders who were not their parents’ first choices to occupy the seats of power. They were raised in politically oriented families, chose their own paths in life (having embraced their own unique interests and skills), but were pushed into leadership positions because their brothers, the initially designated choices to carry on the family torch, died before they were able to fulfill the parents’ dreams of glory. The devastated parents then turned to the sons who were next in line, who had grown up in the shadows of their brothers, and compelled them to abandon their own career ambitions and step in, paving the way for the “second-choice sons” to become leaders by default.
It is interesting to explore how they and their leaderships were impacted by the knowledge that they were not originally selected for the important positions that they eventually came to occupy and by the accompanying pressure that they surely felt at being under the watchful eyes of overbearing parents whose narcissistic needs were suddenly and belatedly projected onto them. What does it mean to grow up in the shadow of the blinding son, the designated hero, eclipsed by his larger-than-life stature?
It was Wilhelm Reich, initially a member of Freud’s inner circle, who first conceptualized a particular form of narcissism that he called the phallic narcissistic personality type. These individuals are characterized by an excessively inflated self-image, are admiration seeking, self-promoting, and empowered by social success. Because a large identifying factor for this type of narcissist concerns athletic prowess and body image, it is more common to see this type of narcissism manifest in men. The characteristic traits of exhibitionism, bold recklessness, and confident arrogance are, in concert, often quite impressive. These persons also can be very effective in their manipulative behavior. Individuals with this character type are generally looked on as desirable sexual objects because they reveal all the marks of obvious masculinity in their appearance and in their exaggerated hypersexuality. But their sexual prowess is not in the service of love but rather of exhibitionism, aggression, and revenge.
In their everyday life, these are individuals are experienced as completely aggressive by others, and they often achieve leading positions in life where they can dominate those beneath them. If their vanity is offended, they react with cold disdain, ill-humor, or aggressive acts. Their narcissism is expressed in a blatantly self-confident way, with a flagrant display of superiority and dignity.
If one were to strip from the ranks of political figures all those with significant narcissistic personality traits, those ranks would be perilously impoverished. It seems that scarcely a day goes by that we are not greeted by a headline trumpeting that Senator X or Governor Y, noted for strongly espousing family values, has been caught in a sordid affair. Typically, a televised news conference, with the wife loyally by his side in a show of support, follows. This seems to be a bipartisan affair. And although the punditocracy regularly bemoans the blatant hypocrisy of such miscreants, I would suggest that another factor is at work: namely, that this behavior reveals significant narcissism in the character of the newly revealed sinner, that he somehow considers himself above the law and not subject to the usual moral, ethical, and legal constraints governing behavior.
But this apparent epidemic of narcissism is not confined to politicians. The rise of the “me generation” has been the subject of frequent commentary. There is growing concern that, intensified by the social media use of the “Facebook generation,” an exaggerated concern with self and narcissism is increasingly widespread in society: College students’ scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory rose twice as fast in the five years from 2002 to 2007 as in the decades between 1982 and 2006.
Who can forget the look of murderous rage distorting the face of the Wicked Queen in Walt Disney’s remarkable animation of the classic fairy tale “Snow White” when she looks in the mirror after asking this question in her daily ritual of reassurance and, instead of her own face, sees reflected the image of the even more beautiful Snow White? The popularity of this fairy tale reflects the universality of a theme central to political psychology: the narcissistic ruler clinging to power who is threatened by pretenders to the throne. Reflecting the ruler’s underlying insecurity, Arthur Feiner, in an especially insightful contribution to the volume Narcissism and the Interpersonal Self, mischievously notes and archly asks in his parenthetical to the epigraph that introduces both his and this chapter, “Maybe, it’s you, oh beautiful queen, but Madam, why do you think you need to ask?”
A fatal example of this dynamic is reflected in the life of serial bomber Theodore Kaczynski. The target of one of the FBI’s most costly investigations, Kaczynski became known to that agency as UNABOM (UNiversity and Airline BOMber), and, until his identity was eventually discovered, he was popularly known as the Unabomber. Intellectually precocious and mathematically gifted but a social isolate because of his obvious intellectual gifts and peculiar interpersonal style, Kaczynski skipped several grades in school, which served to isolate him further from his peers. His passage through school was characterized by a major imbalance between prodigious intellectual gifts and a major deficit in interpersonal skills. He has been described as a mathematical genius and an emotional cripple. At age 10, he took with him on a family camping vacation a book entitled Romping through Mathematics from Addition to Calculus.