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From foraging patterns in a single tree to social interactions across a home range, how primates use space is a key question in the field of primate behavioral ecology. Drawing on the latest advances in spatial analysis tools, this book offers practical guidance on applying geographic information systems (GIS) to central questions in primatology. An initial methodological section discusses niche modelling, home range analysis and agent-based modelling, with a focus on remote data collection. Research-based chapters demonstrate how ecologists apply this technology to study intensity of range use and travel routes, as well as to population-level questions; how GIS can help to assess the impact of logging, mining and hunting, as well as to inform primate conservation strategies. Offering best practice guidelines on cutting-edge technologies, this is an indispensable resource for any primatologist or student of animal behaviour.
To describe relationships among baseline characteristics, engagement indicators and outcomes for rural participants enrolled in SIPsmartER, a behavioural intervention targeting sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake.
A secondary data analysis. Bivariate analyses determined relationships among baseline characteristics (e.g. age, gender, race, education, income), engagement indicators (completion of 6-month health screening, class attendance, call completion) and SSB outcomes (SSB ounce reduction (i.e. US fluid ounces; 1 US fl. oz = 29·57 ml), reduced ≥12 ounces, achieved ≤8 ounce intake). Generalized linear models tested for significant effects of baseline characteristics on engagement indicators and of baseline characteristics and engagement indicators on SSB outcomes.
South-west Virginia, USA, a rural, medically underserved region.
Participants’ (n 155) mean age was 41 years; most were female (81 %), White (91 %) and earned ≤$US 20 000 per annum (61 %).
All final models were significant. Engagement models predicted 12–17 % of variance, with age being a significant predictor in all three models. SSB outcome models explained 5–70 % of variance. Number of classes attended was a significant predictor of SSB ounce reduction (β = −6·12, P < 0·01). Baseline SSB intake significantly predicted SSB ounce reduction (β = −0·90, P < 0·001) and achieved ≤8 ounce intake (β = 0·98, P < 0·05).
The study identifies several participant baseline characteristics that may impact engagement in and outcomes from a community-based intervention targeting SSB intake. Findings suggest greater attendance of SIPsmartER classes is associated with greater reduction in overall SSB intake; yet engagement variables did not predict other outcomes. Findings will inform the future implementation of SIPsmartER and research studies of similar design and intent.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Experts recommend that products containing artificial sweeteners are not marketed to children or sold at schools. The present study aimed to provide a baseline assessment of the extent to which state laws and local school district wellness policies (LWP) address restrictions on the use of artificial sweeteners in competitive foods and beverages (CF&B) sold at schools.
A descriptive, cross-sectional study of policies in place for the 2014–15 school year.
Data were collected on laws in all fifty states and Washington, DC. LWP were compiled for 496/518 school food authorities (SFA) for which data were collected as part of the US Department of Agriculture’s School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study.
State laws and LWP respectively were coded on a 0–3 ordinal scale for the strength of their restrictions on artificial sweeteners in CF&B sold in each of five CF&B venues, separately by grade level. Prevalence of state laws and LWP for SFA nationwide was computed.
Thirteen states addressed the use of artificial sweeteners. Six states addressed the use of artificial sweeteners in both CF&B. District-level artificial sweetener policies were most frequently addressed for beverages in elementary schools’ vending machines. District policies also were more likely to address artificial sweeteners in states with laws addressing artificial sweeteners.
Most state laws and LWP do not address artificial sweeteners in CF&B. This is not surprising given the Food and Drug Administration has approved eight artificial sweeteners for consumption and the Smart Snacks regulation does not limit artificial sweeteners for CF&B.
Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu (2018) argue that social exchange theory (SET) should be revised to accommodate work relationships in the “new era” of work, characterized by a more diverse workforce with changing expectations for relationships between themselves and their organizational representatives. To account for the modern workplace, Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu introduce “new” or “modern exchange variables” that capture modern workplace conditions and employee characteristics or preferences, which they expect to indirectly influence whether and how employees develop high-quality work relationships with organizational representatives.
We present a case study of GG Carinae (GG Car), a Galactic B[ e ] supergiant binary having significant eccentricity (0.28), based on Global Jet Watch spectroscopy data which has been collecting high-time-sampled optical spectra since early 2015. GG Car has so far not been observed in the X-ray band, however it is of similar phenomenology to known X-ray binaries and may therefore be an obscured X-ray source. We have discovered that the absorption component of the H-alpha line displays a ∼62-478-day period in both equivalent width and wavelength centroid indicating cycles in the dynamics of the circumstellar environment, such as precession of the circumbinary or circumprimary disk. Circumbinary disk precession is an as-of-yet underexplored origin of super-orbital variations in the X-ray flux of X-ray binaries, since the rate of precession is generally much longer than the orbital period of the inner binary.
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age. Total and UCP1-dependent mitochondrial respiration were determined by high-resolution respirometry. A Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used (significance: P<0.05). UCP1 mRNA levels were not different between the HF and SF offspring. UCP1 protein levels, total mitochondrial respiration and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly higher in BAT from HF males (P=0.02, P=0.04, P=0.005, respectively) and females (P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.02, respectively). In SAT, the UCP1 protein was significantly lower in HF females (P=0.03), and the UCP1-dependent thermogenesis was significantly lower from HF males (P=0.04). In VAT, UCP1 protein levels and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly lower only in HF females (P=0.03, P=0.04, respectively). There were no differences in total respiration in SAT and VAT. Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to significant increases in UCP1 levels and function in BAT in offspring with little impact on UCP1 levels and function in SAT and VAT.
Anthony M. Kwasnica, Smeal College of Business, The Pennsylvania State University,
John O. Ledyard, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology,
David P. Porter, Economic Science Institute, Chapman University,
Christine DeMartini, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology
Theory, experiment and practice suggest that, when bidder valuations for multiple objects are super-additive, combinatorial auctions are needed to increase efficiency, seller revenue, and bidder willingness to participate (Bykowsky et al. 2000, Rassenti et al. 1982, Ledyard et al. 2002). A combinatorial auction is an auction in which bidders are allowed to express bids in terms of packages of objects. The now famous FCC spectrum auctions are a good example of the relevance of these issues. In 41 auction events from 1994 to 2003, the FCC used what is known as a Simultaneous Multiple Round (SMR) auction to allocate spectrum and raise over $40 billion in revenue. This auction format does not allow package bidding. The FCC auctions also divide the spectrum by geographic location. It is reasonable to expect that some bidders might receive extra benefits by obtaining larger, more contiguous portions of the spectrum. A firm might enjoy cost savings if they could purchase two adjacent locations. However, without package bidding, a bidder cannot express that preference, potentially lowering the efficiency and revenue of the auction. If the bidder attempts to acquire both licenses through bidding on the licenses individually, they might be forced to expose themselves to potential losses. The high number of bidder defaults on payments might, in part, be evidence of losses caused by the lack of package bidding. In response to these difficulties, the FCC plans to allow package bidding in future auctions (Federal Communications Commission 2002, Dunford et al. 2001). In particular, the FCC in its auction #31 for the upper 700 MHz band, affords bidders the ability to submit bids for packages of licenses. The particular design presented in this paper was developed prior to the FCC package auction design. Indeed one of the major features of the FCC design was clearly influenced by the pricing rules we developed herein.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism Met allele exacerbates amyloid (Aβ) related decline in episodic memory (EM) and hippocampal volume (HV) over 36–54 months in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which Aβ+ and BDNF Val66Met is related to circulating markers of BDNF (e.g. serum) is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of Aβ and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on levels of serum mBDNF, EM, and HV at baseline and over 18-months.
Non-demented older adults (n = 446) underwent Aβ neuroimaging and BDNF Val66Met genotyping. EM and HV were assessed at baseline and 18 months later. Fasted blood samples were obtained from each participant at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Aβ PET neuroimaging was used to classify participants as Aβ– or Aβ+.
At baseline, Aβ+ adults showed worse EM impairment and lower serum mBDNF levels relative to Aβ- adults. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism did not affect serum mBDNF, EM, or HV at baseline. When considered over 18-months, compared to Aβ– Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Val homozygotes showed significant decline in EM and HV but not serum mBDNF. Similarly, compared to Aβ+ Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Met carriers showed significant decline in EM and HV over 18-months but showed no change in serum mBDNF.
While allelic variation in BDNF Val66Met may influence Aβ+ related neurodegeneration and memory loss over the short term, this is not related to serum mBDNF. Longer follow-up intervals may be required to further determine any relationships between serum mBDNF, EM, and HV in preclinical AD.
Background: Dysphagia is a common and devastating complication after acute stroke. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are often placed for persistent dysphagia. However, little is known regarding outcomes after PEG tube placement. Methods: We used a 10-year Ontario Stroke Registry to shed light on the clinical outcomes of patients with PEG tube insertion after ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage compared to patients with only NG tubes, including rate of pneumonia, disability, and mortality. Results: Using propensity score matching, 1,793 patients were successfully matched and had similar baseline characteristics. Compared with NG, patients with PEG had a higher rate of pneumonia (32.6% vs. 20.6%; RR 1.59), higher disability at discharge (modified Rankin Scale Score 3-5; 74.0% vs. 65.4%; RR 1.13), and higher rate of long-term care placement (27.1% vs. 9.3%; RR 2.9). >From stroke onset, there was a lower rate of death in patients with PEG compared to NG at 30 days (15.3% vs. 34.3%; RR 0.45) but no difference at 2 years (52.8% vs. 53.5%; RR 0.99, p=0.71). *All significant p <0.0001. Conclusions: In conclusion, PEG tube placement after stroke may prolong survival in patients with poor outcomes. Our study provides a framework for discussions between physicians, patients, and families with regards to expected prognosis after PEG tube placement.
Background: In patients with acute stroke, nasogastric (NG) tubes are commonly inserted for feeding when dysphagia is identified, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are placed for severe or persistent dysphagia. However, little is known regarding predictors of PEG insertion. Methods: We used the Ontario stroke registry from 2003-2013 to identify baseline characteristics of all patients with NG or PEG tube insertion after stroke. We used multiple logistic regression with backwards selection to determine variables that were independent predictors of PEG tube insertion during admission. Results: 4002 patients with NG and 1903 patients with PEG were included in the analysis. Independent predictors of PEG were: Age (80+ vs. <60; odds ratio [OR] 1.70), past history of stroke (OR 1.17), higher stroke severity (severe vs. mild stroke; OR 1.37), stroke unit admission (OR 1.46), and dysphagia screening (OR 1.52). Factors associated with reduced odds of PEG insertion were: Prior history of peptic ulcer disease (OR 0.70), prior independence (OR 0.78), dementia (OR 0.76), palliative status (OR 0.49), and thrombolysis (OR 0.66). *All p<0.01 Conclusions: The strongest predictors of PEG were older age, higher stroke severity, stroke unit admission and dysphagia screening. Patients with dementia had reduced odds of PEG. Thrombolysis also reduced odds of PEG and may be protective.
This paper will present a dynamic Variable Rate Irrigation System developed by the University of Georgia. The system consists of the EZZone management zone delineation tool, the UGA Smart Sensor Array (UGA SSA) and an irrigation scheduling decision support tool. An experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016 in two different peanut fields to evaluate the performance of using the UGA SSA to dynamically schedule Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI). For comparison reasons strips were designed within the fields. These strips were irrigated according to either UGA SSA or Irrigator Pro recommendations. The results showed that Irrigator Pro is a conservative irrigation method which results in high yields. On the other hand the UGA SSA recommendations worked very well with the VRI system and in both years it recommended an average of 25% less irrigation water than the Irrigator Pro.
Introduction: Data regarding adverse events (AEs) (unintended harm to the patient from health care provided) among children seen in the emergency department (ED) are scarce despite the high risk setting and population. The objective of our study was to estimate the risk and type of AEs, and their preventability and severity, among children treated in pediatric EDs. Methods: Our prospective cohort study enrolled children <18 years of age presenting for care during 21 randomized 8 hr-shifts at 9 pediatric EDs from Nov 2014 to October 2015. Exclusion criteria included unavailability for follow-up or insurmountable language barrier. RAs collected demographic, medical history, ED course, and systems level data. At day 7, 14, and 21 a RA administered a structured telephone interview to all patients to identify flagged outcomes (e.g. repeat ED visits, worsening/new symptoms, etc). A validated trigger tool was used to screen admitted patients’ health records. For any patients with a flagged outcome or trigger, 3 ED physicians independently determined if an AE occurred. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an AE related to ED care within 3 weeks of their ED visit. Results: We enrolled 6377 (72.0%) of 8855 eligible patients; 545 (8.5%) were lost to follow-up. Median age was 4.4 years (range 3 months to 17.9 yrs). Eight hundred and seventy seven (13.8%) were triaged as CTAS 1 or 2, 2638 (41.4%) as CTAS 3, and 2839 (44.7%) as CTAS 4 or 5. Top entrance complaints were fever (11.2%) and cough (8.8%). Flagged outcomes/triggers were identified for 2047 (32.1%) patients. While 252 (4.0%) patients suffered at least one AE within 3 weeks of ED visit, 163 (2.6%) suffered an AE related to ED care. In total, patients suffered 286 AEs, most (67.9%) being preventable. The most common AE types were management issues (32.5%) and procedural complications (21.9%). The need for a medical intervention (33.9%) and another ED visit (33.9%) were the most frequent clinical consequences. In univariate analysis, older age, chronic conditions, hospital admission, initial location in high acuity area of the ED, having >1 ED MD or a consultant involved in care, (all p<0.001) and longer length of stay (p<0.01) were associated with AEs. Conclusion: While our multicentre study found a lower risk of AEs among pediatric ED patients than reported among pediatric inpatients and adult ED patients, a high proportion of these AEs were preventable.
Objectives: To examine hierarchical visuospatial processing in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a single gene disorder associated with visuospatial impairments, attention deficits, and executive dysfunction. Methods: We used a modified Navon paradigm consisting of a large “global” shape composed of smaller “local” shapes that were either congruent (same) or incongruent (different) to the global shape. Participants were instructed to name either the global or local shape within a block. Reaction times, interference ratios, and error rates of children with NF1 (n=30) and typically developing controls (n=24) were compared. Results: Typically developing participants demonstrated the expected global processing bias evidenced by a vulnerability to global interference when naming local stimuli without a cost of congruence when naming global stimuli. NF1 participants, however, experienced significant interference from the unattended level when naming both local and global levels of the stimuli. Conclusions: Findings suggest that children with NF1 do not demonstrate the typical human bias of processing visual information from a global perspective. (JINS, 2017, 23, 446–450)