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The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the reddest colors have the largest amounts of circumstellar dust. AGB stars vary in their brightness, and studies show that the reddest AGB stars tend to have longer periods than other AGB stars and are more likely to be fundamental mode pulsators than other AGB stars. Such stars are difficult to study, as they are often not detected at optical wavelengths. Therefore, they must be observed at infrared wavelengths. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have observed a sample of very dusty AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) over Cycles 9 through 12 during the Warm Spitzer mission. For each cycle’s program, we typically observed a set of AGB stars at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelength approximately monthly for most of a year. We present results from our analysis of the data from these programs.
To determine the characteristics of acute phase nystagmus in patients with cerebellar lesions, and to identify a useful indicator for differentiating central lesions from peripheral lesions.
Acute phase nystagmus and the appearance of neurological symptoms were retrospectively investigated in 11 patients with cerebellar stroke.
At the initial visit, there were no patients with vertical nystagmus, direction-changing gaze evoked nystagmus or pure rotatory nystagmus. There were four cases with no nystagmus and seven cases with horizontal nystagmus at the initial visit. There were no neurological symptoms, except for vertigo and hearing loss, in any cases at the initial visit. The direction and type of nystagmus changed with time, and neurological symptoms other than vertigo appeared subsequently to admission.
It is important to observe the changes in nystagmus and other neurological findings for the differential diagnosis of central lesions.
To evaluate the effectiveness of tympanostomy tube placement in controlling symptoms of intractable Ménière's disease.
Fifteen patients with intractable Ménière's disease underwent tympanostomy tube placement in the affected ear. Post-operative changes in vertigo attacks and hearing level were recorded, and were evaluated according to American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria.
At 12 months after treatment, 3 patients (20 per cent) showed complete control of vertigo, 7 (47 per cent) showed substantial control and 2 (13 per cent) showed limited control; 3 patients (20 per cent) required other treatment. At 24 months after treatment, 7 patients (47 per cent) showed complete control of vertigo, 3 (20 per cent) showed substantial control and 1 (7 per cent) showed limited control; 1 patient required other treatment 15 months after tympanostomy tube placement.
There is no definite pathophysiological explanation for the effect of tympanostomy tube placement in reducing vertigo attacks. This treatment is not effective for all patients with intractable Ménière's disease. However, tympanostomy tube placement might be an additional surgical therapeutic option to consider prior to contemplating other, more invasive treatments.
A new peptide amphiphile (PA) called C16-W3K has hierarchical structures, presenting unique solution states, micelle structures, and secondary structures. In this work, the effects of salt (sodium dihydrogenorthophosphate) concentration on the hierarchical structural transitions of the C16-W3K solution due to its active hydrogen bonding in the peptide were discussed. In order to analyze the effects of salt on the structural transitions, the mechanical and structural analyses were conducted by viscosity measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy. It was found that the C16-W3K solutions with different salt concentrations presented different multi-scale structural transitions from spherical micelles with α-helix molecular conformations in the sol state to wormlike micelles with β-sheet conformations in the gel state. Additionally, we found that the speed of transition increased as the salt concentration increased and the conformational ratio of β-sheet to α-helix in the solutions increased with the increase in the salt concentration.
Using American bullfrog models under normal conditions and under vestibular dysfunction, we investigated whether mechanical vibration applied to the ear could induce otoconial dislodgement.
Vibration was applied to the labyrinth of the bullfrog using a surgical drill. The time required for the otoconia to dislodge from the utricular macula was measured. Vestibular dysfunction models were created and the dislodgement time was compared with the normal models. The morphology of the utricular macula was also investigated.
In the normal models, the average time for otoconial dislodgement to occur was 7 min and 36 s; in the vestibular dysfunction models, it was 2 min and 11 s. Pathological investigation revealed that the sensory hairs of the utricle were reduced in number and that the sensory cells became atrophic in the vestibular dysfunction models.
The otoconia of the utricle were dislodged into the semicircular canal after applying vibration. The time to dislodgement was significantly shorter in the vestibular dysfunction models than in the normal models; the utricular macula sustained significant morphological damage.
To examine the clinical features, age and gender distribution of patients, treatment methods, and outcomes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
This paper reports a review of 357 patients treated for this condition at a single institution over a duration of 5 years. Patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were divided into two groups: one group underwent the Epley manoeuvre and the other received medication. The lateral canal canalolithiasis patients were also divided into two groups: one underwent the Lempert manoeuvre and the other received medication. Lastly, the lateral canal cupulolithiasis patients were treated with medication and non-specific physical techniques.
Results and conclusion:
For patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, resolution time was significantly shorter in the Epley manoeuvre group than in the medication group. For the lateral canal canalolithiasis patients, resolution time was significantly shorter in the Lempert manoeuvre group than in the medication group. Resolution time was significantly longer in the lateral canal cupulolithiasis patients than in the other patients. The average age of patients increased with the number of recurrences, as did predominance in females. Average age and rate of sensorineural hearing loss were significantly higher in patients with intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo compared with those in the curable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo group.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality.
In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level.
Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39–15.56; p = 0.001).
The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.
To investigate what kinds of stimuli are effective in detaching otoconia from the cupula in three experimental models of cupulolithiasis.
Three experimental models of cupulolithiasis were prepared using bullfrog labyrinths. Three kinds of stimuli were applied to the experimental models. In experiment one (gravity), the labyrinth preparation was placed so that the cupula-to-crista axis was in the horizontal plane with the canal side in the downward position. In experiment two (sinusoidal oscillation), the labyrinth preparation was placed 3 cm from the rotational centre of a turntable, which was sinusoidally rotated with a rotational cycle of 1 Hz and a rotational angle of 30°. In experiment three (vibration), mechanical vibration was applied to the surface of the bony capsule around the labyrinth using a surgical drill.
In experiments one, two and three, the otoconial mass was respectively detached in 2 out of 10 labyrinth preparations, none of the labyrinth preparations, and all of the labyrinth preparations.
Vibration was the most effective stimulus for detaching the otoconia from the cupula in these experimental models of cupulolithiasis.
The depth profiles of the constituent in iron oxide scales were investigated by X-ray diffraction measurement with controlling X-ray penetration depth at SPring-8. We successfully observed the interface region of scales non-destructively using X-ray with energy of 28 keV. The results indicated that the volume fraction ratio of Fe3O4 to FeO around the surface of samples increased by isothermal heat treatment. This suggested that the transformation of FeO to Fe3O4 due to isothermal heat treatment proceeds from surface into the inside of scale.
A novel synthesis route to organic-capped and colloidal ZnO quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. Specifically, zinc-di-butoxide was hydrolyzed with very dilute water (100˜600 mass ppm) dissolved in hydrophilic benzylamine and polymerized to ZnO by dehydration condensation. After formation of ZnO QDs with 2˜3 nm in diameter, growth of the QDs and exchange the surface capping ligand from hydroxyl groups and/or benzylamine to oleylamine were developed by heating the colloidal solution with oleylamine. The size of the ZnO QDs finally obtained was in the range 3˜5 nm in diameter. The QDs show high dispersibility in various organic solvents. Clear UV emission due to exciton recombination was observed; and its energy was varied according to the quantum size effect from 3.39 to 3.54 eV. By using lithium-free zinc-di-butoxide as a starting material, the defect-related VIS emission was successfully decreased and the UV emission becomes dominant. The influence of water concentration in benzylamine and oleylamine on UV emission intensity was also investigated.
We studied the effect of anisotropic pore morphology on the fatigue behavior and fracture surface of lotus-type porous copper, which was fabricated through unidirectional solidification in pressurized hydrogen and argon atmospheres. The fatigue strength at finite life is closely related to the pore morphology. The fatigue strength decreases with increasing porosity, and the strength depends on applied-stress direction. The fatigue life is the longest in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of cylindrical pores. The fatigue strength at finite life is proportional to the ultimate tensile strength and can be expressed by a simple power-law formula. Anisotropic pores affect the fracture surface of lotus copper; crack-initiation site depends on applied-stress direction, and the anisotropic shape pores affect the direction of crack propagation and final fracture surface.
Fine grained gamma+beta dual phase microstructures were obtained in aluminum-titanium-vanadium ternary alloys containing 40 at.% aluminum and 60 at.% (titanium and vanadium). Average grain size was about 5, 3, and 2 micrometers in the recrystallized materials containing 20, 30, and 40 at.% vanadium, and the phase constitution was around 50vol.% gamma phase and 50vol.% beta phase. Compression behavior was investigated at temperatures ranging from the room temperature up to 1200K, and compressive creep tests were carried out at 1050-1200K in order to characterize the temperature and chemical composition dependences of strength and deformation. These gamma+beta microduplex materials showed very high strength at room temperature; 0.2% proof stress was around 1200MPa. The compression deformability decreased from about 0.2 to 0.05 true strain with increasing vanadium content. The grain size effect was not clarified yet, but it was rather disappointing that smaller-grained material with Al40Ti20V40 composition did not show effective improvement either in strength or in deformability. 0.2% proof stress showed a considerable weakening at temperatures higher than 900K; the onset temperature of softening became lower as the vanadium content increased. In Al40Ti40V20 material with about 5 micrometer grains, both gamma and beta grains were flattened up to 1000K, however, above 1100K the gamma grain showed no significant shape change even after a heavy deformation. This is probably because the gamma grains were relatively stronger than the beta grains. The gamma grains showed tendency toward agglomeration, which is similar to rafting of precipitate particles. Surface relief was observed after high temperature deformation suggesting activity of boundary sliding on grain boundaries and interfaces. Compressive creep behavior was investigated under a constant true stress in vacuum. Creep curves consisted of a small amount of normal primary transient, the minimum creep rate region, and a steady or slightly accelerating creep region. Stress exponent decreased to about 2 with decreasing vanadium content. It was rather unexpected that smaller grained Al40Ti20V40 material showed larger stress exponent around 3.
El blefaroespasmo, el parpadeo involuntario e incontrolable, inducido por neurolépticos puede interferir, cuando es grave, la capacidad para caminar, conducir o trabajar. Sin embargo, la incidencia de blefaroespasmo o síndrome de Meige (distonía blefaroespasmoromandibular) asociado con los antipsicóticos atípicos es infrecuente. Por el contrario, la sustitución por clozapina u olanzapina se ha considerado como una opción de tratamiento del blefaroespasmo inducido por otros neurolépticos, Que sepamos, no había informes de blefaroespasmo inducido por olanzapina, sino algunas descripciones de blefaroespasmo asociado con risperidona. Describimos aquí el caso de un varón joven al que se diagnosticó esquizofrenia que había desarrollado un blefaroespasmo después de nueve meses de terapia de olanzapina (10 mg/día), y su desaparición después de la interrupción de los neurolépticos.
This is a short report on the study of internal motions of selected Planetary nebulae. We have studied this subject with both high (4 or 8 Å/mm) and intermediate (20 Å/mm) dispersion spectrographs. During the course of this work we noticed the existence of a high velocity gas flow distinct from the well known expanding gas, but with smaller velocities than stellar winds (Yadoumaru & Tamura 1994 on Abell 30; Otsuka & Tamura, 2001 on H 4-1). We present subsequent results obtained with the intermediate dispersion spectrograph about 10 selected planetary nebulae. The analyses were made by multiple Gaussian method on the emission line profiles of Hα. High velocity gas flows were recognized by a weak broad wing component.
We propose a new concept of a gene field effect transistor (FET) for detection of allele specific oligonucleotide hybridization, which is in principle based on charge density change at the gate insulator. The electrical characteristics of the gene FET were found to shift after specific binding of biomolecules at the surface of the gate insulator. Allele specific oligonucleotide hybridization and reaction between double-stranded DNA and intercalator were successfully detected with gene FETs because they have intrinsic charges in an aqueous solution. Ability to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was also examined using the gene FET. Our results show that control of hybridization temperature and utilization of intercalator lead to more precise SNP analysis using the gene FET.
Up to now, ten planetary nebulae are regarded as halo planetary nebulae (halo PNe). We obtained low- and moderate-dispersion spectra of the spatially resolved halo planetary nebula H4-1 in the wavelength region of λλ3700-6800 Å with the Cassegrain Spectrograph of 74-inch telescope at Okayama Astronomical Observatory. In the moderate dispersion observation, we were able to obtain [O III] λλ4959,5007 and Hα of H4-1 at several position angles (P.A.). The image was spatially resolved and its apparent angluar size should be less than 10″.0.
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has a crucial role for host defence against parasite infection. It is not clear, however, how IFN-γ affects the parasite-infected host cells. The effect of IFN-γ on Neospora caninum-infected cells was investigated in murine fibroblasts and canine kidney cells in vitro. In the presence of IFN-γ, the viability of the infected host cell was decreased and apoptotic cell death occurred, as analysed by DNA stainings with propidium iodide and a terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) and DNA fragmentation. The percentage of apoptotic cells depended on the dose of IFN-γ. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a significant increase of FasL expression on the IFN-γ-treated cells following N. caninum infection. Moreover, IFN-γ treatment down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in the cells cultured with N. caninum while parasite infection up-regulated Bcl-2 expression. The present study suggests that the IFN-γ induced increases of FasL expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in N. caninum-infected cells are associated with apoptosis in vitro.
TiN/TaN multilayers were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering on WC-Co sintered hard alloy and MgO(100) single crystal substrates. Multilayer structure and composition modulation amplitudes were studied using x-ray diffraction method. Hardness and elastic modulus were mea- sured by nanoindentation tester. For bilayer thickness (Λ) larger than 80 A˚, hardness are lower than rule-of-mixtures value of individual single layers, and increased rapidly with decreasing Λ, peaking at hardness values ≈33% higher than that at A=43 Å. As a result of analysis the inclination of applied load for indenter displacement on P-h curve (ΔP/Δh), this paper exhibits that the en- hancement of the resistance to dislocation motion and elastic anomaly due to coherency strains are responsible for the hardness change.