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CIGS thin films were irradiated with 100 or 250 keV electrons to reveal the radiation defect by analyzing PL measurement. The PL intensity decreased due to non-radiative recombination defects induced by electron irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity 0.8 eV peak of the PL spectrum was observed from CIGS films irradiated with 250 eV electrons and is said to correspond to In-antisite defects in CIGS materials. The defects can usually change into InCu-VCu complex defects combined with VCu, since the formation energy of the complex defect is lower than that of each defect. Cu interstitial defects induced by 250 keV electron irradiation would diffuse to VCu of the complex defect, whereupon the complex defect might become an In-antisite defect due to 250 keV electron irradiation.
We carried out large–scale (4 × 2 degree) CO multi–line observations toward the central molecular zone (CMZ) in the Galactic center (GC) with the NANTEN2 4m telescope and mapped several diffuse molecular features located at relatively high Galactic latitudes above 0°.6. These high–latitude features are composed of diffuse molecular halo gas and molecular filaments according to their morphological aspects. Their high velocities and high intensity ratios between 12CO J = (2−1) and J = (1−0) clearly indicate their location in the GC, and their total mass amount to ∼10% of that of the CMZ. We discuss that magnetic field is a possible mechanism of these high–latitude molecular features lifting up toward high galactic latitude.
CIGS solar cells were irradiated with 250 keV electrons, which can create only Cu-related defects in the cell, to reveal the radiation defect. The EL image of CIGS solar cells before electron irradiation at 120 K described small grains, thought to be those of the CIGS. After 250 keV electron irradiation of the CIGS cell, the cell was uniformly illuminated compared to before the electron irradiation and the observed grains were unclear. In addition, the EL intensity rose with increasing electron fluence, meaning the change in EL efficiency may be attributable to the decreased likelihood of non-irradiative recombination in intrinsic defects due to electron-induced defects. Since the light soaking effect for CIGS solar cells is reported the same phenomena, the 250 keV electron radiation effects for CIGS solar cells might be equivalent to the effect.
We have proposed new magnetic memories using parallel-aligned nanowires without mechanical moving parts, in order to achieve the ultra high transfer rate of more than 144 Gbps for Super Hi-Vision TV. In the magnetic memory using nanowires, the data are stored as the magnetic domains with up or down magnetization in magnetic nanowires, and the domains are shifted quite faster by applying optimum current along the nanowire direction for data writing and reading purpose. Since the electric circuits and the insulation space between the neighbor nanowires are necessary for moving the magnetic domain walls, the areal recording density is essentially reduced as compared with that of conventional hard disk drives. In this study, in order to increase the areal recording density of magnetic nanowire memory, we have tried to act one magnetic nanowire as the virtual multiple data tracks. The shallow scratched trench was introduced using scanning probe microscopy along the length direction on the surface of a single nanowire to form multiple internal tracks, and we have succeeded in realizing a couple of virtual tracks states.
To apply thin ZnO film to photoacoustic tomography sensors, we investigated methods to improve its piezoelectricity with high optical transmittance. ZnO film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on a quartz substrate with various changes of the following conditions: RF sputtering power, Ar gas pressure, and substrate temperature (TSUB). The preliminary optimization of sputtering conditions is to form the ZnO film with good c-axis crystalline alignment. The results of X-ray diffraction measurement and cross-sectional observations indicated that the high-TSUB condition was preferable. This was because the desorption of Zn due to high-TSUB during the deposition process induced the formation of excellent columnar grains normal to the substrate. To enhance the piezoresponse, the substitution of Zn with different crystal-radius atoms was investigated, the aim being to increase the electrically neutral dipole moment by the partial displacement of the Zn-O bond. The transition metal V, with the potential to have the various configurations and coordination numbers, was selected as the dopant. As a result, it was confirmed that the diffraction peak from the (002) plane shifted to low angles with small degradation of the diffraction intensities.
In order to compare the bubble dynamics of various quantum liquids, we performed the visual observation of a sound-induced bubble in a normal liquid 4He, pure superfluid 4He, and superfluid 3He–4He liquid mixtures of saturated and unsaturated 3He concentrations. When an acoustic wave pulse was applied to these liquids under saturated vapour pressure, a macroscopic bubble was generated on the surface of a piezoelectric transducer. For all liquids, the size of the bubble increased, as a higher voltage was applied to the transducer at a fixed temperature. In the normal 4He we observed a primary bubble surrounded with many small bubbles which ascended upward together. In contrast to normal phase, only one bubble was generated in the superfluid 4He, and its shape proved to be highly irregular with an ill-defined surface. In the 3He saturated superfluid mixture, we also observed a solitary bubble but with a nearly perfect spherical shape. The bubble in this mixture expanded on the transducer surface, grew to a maximum size of the order of 1 mm and then started shrinking. As the bubble detached from the transducer with shrinking, we clearly detected an origination of the upward jet flow which penetrated the bubble. The jet velocity in the liquid mixture was approximately 102–103 times smaller than in water. At the final stage of the process we could sometimes observe a vortex ring generation. It is interesting that, though the bubble size and time scale of the phenomenon differ from those in water, the behaviour in the collapsing process had much in common with the simulation study of the vortex ring generation in water. In addition, for the mixture with the unsaturated 3He concentration of about 25% at 600 mK, the shape of the upward jet was observed distinctly, using more precise measurement with shadowgraph method.
Division XI was born by merging Commission 44 “Space and High Energy Astrophysics” and Commission 48 “High Energy Astrophysics” by the decision at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague (1994). As the naming of space astronomy is technique oriented, i.e. astronomy from space, it covers quite a wide range of astronomy, almost all branches of astronomy are included by the progress of space observations. Historically, it started from high energy astronomy, UV, X, and gamma rays astronomy, somewhat including cosmic ray physics. However, in these days, space observations have expanded to low energy astronomy, such as optical, infrared, submillimeter and even radio waves(Space VLBI).
Influences of the continuity of the matrix on Young's modulus and tensile strength of unidirectional SiC/SiC mini-composite prepared by the polymer impregnation and pyrolysis method were studied experimentally by observation of appearance of matrix and tensile test and analytically by a shear lag–Monte Carlo simulation. The continuity of the matrix was improved by the addition of particles such as ZrSiO4, barium magnesium aluminosilicate, and Pyrex (borosilicate glass) into the matrix. The improved continuity of the matrix led to the increase in stress carrying capacity of the matrix and therefore to the increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of the composite. Such a correlation between the continuity of the matrix and the property of the composite was verified numerically by the shear lag–Monte Carlo simulation.
Background and objective: Phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors and dobutamine effectively improve cardiac function in patients with cardiac failure, but they are limited by possible hypotensive effects. We tested the hypothesis that dopamine contributes to stabilizing milrinone-induced haemodynamic changes.
Methods: Nine patients undergoing major surgery were anaesthetized using nitrous oxide and oxygen supplemented with isoflurane 1–2%. After baseline haemodynamics were recorded, milrinone (25 or 50 μg kg−1) was administered over 10 min, followed by a continuous infusion (0.5 μg kg−1 min−1). The second set of haemodynamic values was measured 50 min after beginning the continuous infusion of milrinone. Dopamine (4 μg kg−1 min−1) was then administered with milrinone.
Results: Milrinone significantly increased the heart rate from 81 ± 8 to 102 ± 16 beats min−1, but it decreased the mean arterial pressure from 83 ± 10 to 66 ± 10 mmHg and systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05 for each). The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance did not change significantly. The addition of dopamine to the milrinone infusion significantly decreased the heart rate (94 ± 12 beats min−1) and increased the mean arterial pressure (82 ± 11 mmHg). Dopamine and milrinone, but not milrinone alone, significantly increased the cardiac index and the rate–pressure product.
Conclusions: The combination regimen of milrinone and dopamine improved cardiac function, and changes in heart rate and mean arterial pressure induced by milrinone were attenuated by dopamine. The results suggest that a combination regimen of milrinone and dopamine rather than milrinone alone should be used to maintain arterial pressure.
We present initial results of a deep mid-infrared survey
conducted in the high galactic latitude field SSA13 with ISO.
We have surveyed through the broad band filter
LW2 (5-8.5 μm)
of the mid-infrared camera ISOCAM
to probe the near-infrared light at high redshift.
The 80% completeness limit for point sources in the central
6 arcmin2 reaches 10 μJy at 6.7 μm.
65 sources are detected down to 6 μJy in 16 arcmin2.
The integral galaxy number counts
are 1.4 × 104 deg-2
at 10 μJy with the slope of -1.5.
The integrated 6.7 μm light down to 6 μJy
is estimated as 0.43 nWm-2sr-1.
Our counts are consistent with
the results in the HDF and
the model prediction
based on the K band local luminosity function.
It suggests that
the majority of the detected sources are
E/S0 galaxies at z>1.
Faint submillimeter sources detected with JCMT/SCUBA
have faced an identification problem due to their broad beam profiles.
Here we propose a new method to identify these sources
at the mid-infrared utilizing a finer point spread function.
ISOCAM has provided us a very deep 6.7 μm image of the Hawaii Deep Field SSA13.
For all three 850 μm sources in this field,
we have found their 6.7 μm counterparts.
All of them have been identified with interacting galaxy pairs at the optical.
Two of the pairs are very faint and red (I>24, I - K > 4),
one of the two has the hard X-ray detection with Chandra.
Assuming an Arp 220 SED,
we have found a typical redshift of z ~ 2.
that the sources should be a few times more luminous than Arp 220.
It appears that extremely high star formation rates
are occurring in galaxies at high redshift
with massive stellar contents already in place.
The Japanese infrared space missions in the past and
the future are briefly summarized with some historical and strategic
view points. Starting with simple ground based observations, we have
been putting an emphasis on space missions with less affected by the
poor Japanese climate conditions for infrared observations using
balloons, rockets and satellites. Focusing on diffuse infrared
emissions, which are favorably observable by small and simple
instruments, we have succeeded in getting unique results of zodiacal
light, Galactic and extragalactic emissions as well as the cosmic
Occipital nerve block is usually considered to be a very simple and safe regional anaesthetic technique. We describe a case of sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with an occipital bone defect. A 63-year-old man complained of headache, which was localized to the right occipital region. A right lesser occipital nerve block with a local anaesthetic was performed for treatment. During the lesser occipital nerve block, the patient suddenly became disturbed and lost consciousness. Two hours after the incident, the patient was fully awake without neurological sequelae. He had previously undergone a microvascular decompression for right trigeminal neuralgia. The patient had a bone defect following craniotomy. We believed that the loss of consciousness during lesser nerve block may be due to a subarachnoid injection. Occipital nerve block is relatively contraindicated in the presence of a bone defect.
The idea for a Working Group (WG) on “Future Large Scale Facilities in Astronomy” grew from the Joint Discussion on this topic held on 20 August 1994, during the IAU General Assembly in The Hague. The IAU Executive Committee approved its formation in August, 1995, and Harvey Butcher was chair until the XXIIIrd General Assembly in Kyoto in 1997.