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The study the diet of Eneolithic populations is of great interest to archaeologists. However, the studies undertaken in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Volga region in Russia have left many issues unsolved. Data collected recently through the comprehensive studies of Lebyazhinka VI settlement enable us to change this situation. Of particular importance at this settlement site is good preservation of animal bones, bone fishing tools, and ceramics of the same type with food crusts and connected to a large house pit. For the first time in this geographical area, bones of domestic animals were found in the fill of a dwelling. The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained through comprehensive studies of diet and economy in the Eneolithic based on the materials from Lebyazhinka III and Lebyazhinka VI settlement sites. The main results of the archaeozoological analysis— determinations of species, age and size of the animals—provide the necessary data for studying the diet. We conclude that there are differences between Lebyazhinka III and Lebyazhinka VI settlements. Lebyazhinka III settlement included bones of only wild species, however, Lebyazhinka VI settlement consists of wild and domestic species.
A better understanding of the dynamics of different particulate organic matter (OM) pools in the coastal carbon budget is a key issue for quantifying the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle. To elucidate the benthic component of this carbon cycle at the land-sea interface, we investigated the carbon isotope signatures (δ13C and ∆14C) in the sediment pore waters dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in addition to the sediment OM to constrain the origin of the OM mineralized in sediments. The study site is located at the outlet of the Rhône River (Mediterranean Sea), which was chosen because this river is one of the most nuclearized rivers in Europe and nuclear 14C can serve as a tracer to follow the fate of the OM discharged by the river to the coastal sea. The ∆14C results found in the pore waters DIC show a general offset between buried and mineralized OM following a preferential mineralization model of young and fresh particles. For example, we found that the sediment OM has values with a mean ∆14C=–33‰ at sampling stations near the river mouth whereas enriched ∆14C values around +523‰ and +667‰ respectively were found for the pore waters DIC. This indicates complete mineralization of a riverine fraction of OM enriched in 14C in the river conduit during in-stream photosynthesis. In shelf sediments, the ∆14C of pore waters DIC is slightly enriched (+57‰) with sediment OM reaching –570‰. A mixing model shows that particles mineralized near the river mouth are certainly of riverine phytoplanktonic origin whereas OM mineralized on the shelf is of marine origin. This work highlights the fact that pore waters provide additional information compared to sediments alone and it seems essential to work on both pools to study the carbon budget in river prodelta.
Measurements of the radiocarbon (14C) and tritium (3H) activity in a 5.8-m-long ice core from the Saarhalle, Dachstein-Mammoth Cave allowed a substantial revision of previous opinions concerning the age of the ice block, and provide useful experience that may be applied to future 14C dating of cave ice deposits. The stepped combustion technique results in a remarkably older radiocarbon age for the 800°C than for the 400°C fractions of the carbonaceous matter from ice layer samples. The highest tritium activity (37.2±1.2 TU) can be linked to the period of anthropogenically increased tritium activity of atmospheric precipitation at the mid-1960s, providing a well-dated radiochemical reference horizon. Compared the 3H-based extrapolated ages of two shallow samples to the expected atmospheric signal an average 14C reservoir bias of ~1500 BP was obtained for the insoluble organic fraction combusted at 400°C. The conventional 14C age measured for the 400°C fraction of the deeper samples has been corrected with the average reservoir bias. The median calibrated age of the deepest analyzed sample of the ice profile is ~1830 cal BC and a linear extrapolation to the bottom ice layer gave 2590 cal BC, making the Saarhalle ice block among the oldest dated cave ice deposits known in the Alpine domain.
During the last several years, new multi- and single-layered archaeological sites, in which the most ancient Neolithic pottery in the Eastern Europe had been found, were excavated in the region of Lower Volga. Animal bones and organic materials were sampled from these sites for radiocarbon (14C) dating and diet investigations. The evidence from these studies suggests that the first domestic animals in the Lower Volga region appeared in the Cis-Caspian culture of the Early Eneolithic. Lipid analysis of food crusts from pottery allowed the cooked food to be characterized. The detailed chronology from Neolithic (6500–5400 cal BC) to Eneolithic (5300–4700 cal BC) cultures, as well as the diet of these ancient people, were reconstructed.
Archaeological fieldwork at Hjarnø Sund in Horsens Fjord (eastern Jutland, Denmark) has explored an eroding Mesolithic shell midden. Its stratigraphy is characterized by two layers, containing marine mollusk taxa typically collected by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers for food. In the field, the lower layer appeared to be dominated by oysters (Ostrea edulis), while the upper one by cockles (Cerastoderma edule), which was confirmed by our zooarchaeological study. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating on shells and paired charcoal samples from the two layers indicate that these are chronologically consecutive (separated by as little as 0–163 yr [95.4%]) and that the oyster-to-cockle shift dated between ~5500–5300 and ~5300–5200 cal BC (around or just after the Kongemose/Ertebølle transition). The shell midden at Hjarnø Sund is, thus, one of the oldest-known in Denmark, demonstrating that intensive shellfish exploitation was a hallmark of the Ertebølle culture from its inception. Oyster-to-cockle shifts, thus, also occurred at times other than the Mesolithic–Neolithic Transition and may have been ultimately caused by local shoreline displacements, resulting from changes in sedimentation, possibly induced by drops in relative sea level.
We report marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ∆14C from seawater collected from the North central Pacific Ocean (NCP) in 2015. These measurements show DOC ∆14C values averaged –235±5‰ (n=3) in the mixed layer (24–81 m) and –544±5‰ (n=5) in the deep water (1500–5139 m). A comparison of these data with two previously published DOC ∆14C profiles from the NCP in 1985 and 1987 reveals that deep DOC ∆14C values have decreased. We discuss several possible mechanisms that could cause such a shift in DOC ∆14C values, including spatial inhomogeneity and temporal variability due to changes in the dissolution and ∆14C value of surface derived particles in the deep sea. We find that forthcoming profiles of DOC ∆14C results from the NCP will determine the primary mechanisms controlling deep DOC ∆14C distributions, and changes over the past three decades.
The study uses interval regression to investigate factors affecting farmers’ willingness to pay for soil testing services in Northern Haiti. The model reveals that factors such as the type of crops grown, group membership, farmers’ educational level, access to credit, gender, contact with extension services or any institution, type of soils, income level, participation in soil testing program and farm size affect the amount to be paid for soil testing services. These results imply that the training module on soil testing and financial support in form of subsidies or access to credit should be provided to farmers.
Biogeochemical analyses of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) are frequently included in environmental monitoring and paleoecological studies because their shells and soft tissues record environmental and dietary signals. Carbon isotopes in the mineral phase of the shell are derived from ambient bicarbonate and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), while organic carbon present in soft tissue is of dietary origin. Mineral-bound organic matter within the carbonate shell matrix (“conchiolin”) is studied less frequently. The purpose of this study was to compare carbon isotope composition (δ13C and Δ14C) of conchiolin to those of shell carbonates and soft tissues in eastern oysters and assess the extent to which conchiolin can provide insight into paleoecological records. Eleven oyster specimens were live-collected from Apalachicola Bay, USA, as well as a set of environmental samples (water, sediment, and terrestrial plants). Overall, the δ13C values in all studied oyster tissue types record environmental signals related to carbon sources, with conchiolin being enriched in 13C by an average of 2.3‰ relative to bulk soft tissues. Δ14C values in oyster shell carbonates generally reflect the marine versus riverine source of DIC, while conchiolin Δ14C values are impacted by variable relative contributions of young and old organic matter. Environmental samples indicate a significantly large difference in Δ14C among sources, from –127‰ in particulate organic matter to approximately +15‰ in DIC. Conchiolin is significantly depleted in 14C relative to other tissue types, by as much as 56.6‰, posing a major obstacle to the use of conchiolin as an alternative material for radiocarbon dating.
Considering the impact of coastal dynamics on the radiocarbon (14C) marine reservoir effect (MRE), upwelling has the potential of enhancing marine influence, usually 14C depleted. Freshwater input can contribute either to increased reservoir offsets, when dead carbon from rock weathering is available, but also towards an atmospheric 14C signal, when the presence of terrestrial organic matter from catchment prevails. An overview of the MRE studies based on shellmounds on the coast of Rio de Janeiro reveals a pattern of negative local corrections for Saquarema and Rio das Ostras but positive values for Cabo Frio island, suggesting the presence of cold upwelling waters in Cabo Frio at 1.6–1.2 cal kBP. New results for a shellmound on the Ilha Grande island, in the western portion of the Rio de Janeiro coast, revealed a negative value at about 3 ka. We discuss distribution of MRE values and temporal variability in the region and their relation to ocean dynamics, continental input and the choice of marine organisms used for ∆R determination. A comparison of local reservoir offsets for the Saquarema region obtained from fish otolith and mollusk shells revealed similar ΔR distributions, showing that both materials can be equally used.
Secondary carbonate deposits (similar to speleothems) in urban undergrounds, have been recently highlighted as powerful archives for reconstruction of the historical anthropogenic imprint on the environment. The precise chronology of these secondary carbonate deposits is a key issue for the accurate time reconstruction of environmental conditions. We present three 14C data sets for urban speleothem-like deposits that developed in contrasted man made environments. The first one was sampled in an underground technical gallery of the Palace of Versailles (France), and the other two in a manhole (Saint-Martin spring) of a historical underground aqueduct in Paris (France). The comparison of these records with the bomb peak and relative chronology (laminae counting) allowed us to identify: i) fast carbon transfer from the atmosphere to the urban underground; ii) a high proportion of dead carbon and a high damping effect in relation to possible old carbon stored within urban soils and/or the influence of local fossil carbon burning. This study also shows that the lamination of these deposits is bi-annual in these highly urbanized sites.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
The X-ray binary Cyg X-3 offers a rare opportunity to study the physical conditions of the formation of a relativistic jet. While the central engines of extragalactic jets are generally poorly understood, the infrared and X-ray data on Cyg X-3 allow detailed modelling of the conditions in the inner disk and corona, the source of the jet energy. Study of the periodic nature of particle injection into the jet may yield an important clue to the nature of the particle injection mechanism. And the time scale of jet evolution is much shorter than for extragalactic sources, allowing the possibility of observing a large number of flares to determine general characteristics.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2–9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study. In all, three dietary patterns were identified at baseline and follow-up by applying the K-means clustering algorithm based on a higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food (processed), sweet foods and drinks (sweet), and fruits and vegetables (healthy). Vulnerable groups were defined at baseline as follows: children whose parents lacked a social network, children from single-parent families, children of migrant origin and children with unemployed parents. Multinomial mixed models were used to assess the associations between social vulnerabilities and children’s dietary patterns at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents lacked a social network (OR 1·31; 99 % CI 1·01, 1·70) and migrants (OR 1·45; 99 % CI 1·15, 1·83) were more likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Children whose parents were homemakers (OR 0·74; 99 % CI 0·60, 0·92) were less likely to be in the processed cluster at baseline. A higher number of vulnerabilities was associated with a higher probability of children being in the processed cluster (OR 1·78; 99 % CI 1·21, 2·62). Therefore, special attention should be paid to children of vulnerable groups as they present unhealthier dietary patterns.
A high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station was developed as a field unit. Within this, an integrating CO2 sampling system was applied to collect samples for radiocarbon measurements. One sampler was installed in the second largest city of Hungary (Debrecen station) and 2 independent 14CO2 sampling lines were installed ∼300 km from Debrecen in a rural site at Hegyhátsál station as independent background references, where high-precision atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios have been measured since 1994. Fossil fuel CO2 content in the air of the large Hungarian city of Debrecen was determined during the winter of 2008 using both the measurements of CO2 mixing ratio and 14C content of air. Fossil fuel CO2 was significantly enhanced at Debrecen relative to the clean-air site at Hegyhátsál.
Fossil CO2 emissions have been diluting the global 14C/C ratio of atmospheric CO2 (Suess effect). We estimated the 14CO2 amount in the atmosphere (and its trend) utilizing the calculated 14CO2 activity concentration in the atmosphere (aacn, reported in mBq m–3). This parameter, calculated from Δ14CO2 and the CO2 mixing ratio (reported in micromoles of CO2 per mole of air), is connected with the 14CO2 quantity in the volume or mass unit of air, which is not influenced by the Suess effect. This parameter can only be influenced by processes linked to 14CO2 emissions/uptake, e.g. associated with atmosphere-biosphere or atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchange as well as by anthropogenic emissions of 14CO2. Results obtained from measurements at Schauinsland station, Germany, indicate a stable amount of 14CO2 in the atmosphere since the early 1990s.
This paper provides new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon age data for the last volcanic events in the Carpathian-Pannonian region of eastern-central Europe. The eruption ages were determined on charcoal fragments collected from pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits at 2 localities of the Ciomadul Volcano. Two charcoal samples from the southeastern margin of the volcano (Bixad locality) set the date of the last volcanic eruption to 27,200 ± 260 yr BP (29,500 ± 260 cal BC). On the other hand, our data show that the Tusnad pyroclastic flow deposit, previously considered as representing the youngest volcanic rock of the region, erupted at ∼39,000 yr BP (∼41,300 cal BC). Thus, a period of dormancy more than 10,000 yr long might have elapsed between the 2 volcanic events. The different ages of the Tusnad and Bixad pyroclastic flow deposits are confirmed also by the geochemical data. The bulk pumices, groundmass glass, and the composition of the main mineral phases (plagioclase and amphibole) suggest eruption of slightly different magmas. Considering also the assumed long volcanic history (∼600 ka) of the Ciomadul, these data suggest that further detailed studies are necessary on this seemingly inactive volcano in order to evaluate the possible renewal of volcanic activity in the future.
An automatic water sampling unit was developed to monitor the radioactive emission (radiocarbon and other corrosion and fission products) from nuclear facilities into the groundwater. Automatic sampling is based on the principal of ion exchange using built-in resin columns in the submerging samplers. In this way, even the short-term emissions can be detected. According to our experiments, the 14C activity concentrations and the δ13C values of the samples made by the ion exchange method are systematically underestimated compared to the real values. The carbonate adsorption feature of the sampling unit was studied under laboratory and field conditions. For this purpose, a test method was developed. The observed sampling efficiencies and additionally some carbon contamination for the sampling method itself have to be taken into consideration when we estimate the amount of 14C contamination introduced into the groundwater from a nuclear facility. Therefore, a correction factor should be made for the 14C anion exchange sampling. With the help of this correction, the results converge to the expected value.
We investigated Csípo-halom, one of the kurgans that served as a burial place in the Hortobágy area of the Hungarian Great Plain. For pedological description and other studies of the protected mound and its surroundings, only a few monitoring drillings were permitted to get soil samples. On the basis of morphological and visual studies, the structure and layers of the mound were reconstructed. The Laboratory of Environmental Studies of the Institute of Nuclear Research at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (INR/HAS) performed radiocarbon measurements of soil samples, applying a bulk combustion pretreatment method. The measured 14C ages of soil samples from reference points, such as the top layer of the mound, the center of mound body, the base layer of the mound, the near surroundings, and the distant surroundings, are in good agreement with the preliminary archaeological concept for this field and give substantial information about the rate of soil generation processes in this area.
Lacustrine carbonate deposition in Hungary has been traditionally interpreted as the outcome of the dry, hot climate prevailing between 7500 and 5000 14C yr BP (hereafter BP) (∼6400 and 3800 BC), triggering the partial desiccation of minor ponds and lakes. A comparative analysis of 5 14C results from the site of Csólyospálos, central Hungary, with those of other Hungarian lacustrine carbonates yielded stunning new results. According to these new dates, carbonate deposition must have initiated much earlier, possibly around 10,000–11,000 BP (9500–11,000 BC) in the Carpathian Basin. Furthermore, the formation of lacustrine carbonates must have come to an end at very different times in different parts of the basin, contrasting previous views on the uniform and synchronous cessation of lacustrine carbonate formation in Hungary. According to the newest results presented here, carbonate deposition in the southern and southeastern parts of the basin ceased around 6000 BP (∼4900 BC). Meanwhile, in the central parts, deposition continued as long as the terminal Bronze Age (∼1300 BC).