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A power MOSFET-based push–pull configuration nanosecond-pulse generator has been designed, constructed, and characterized to permeabilize cells for biological and medical applications. The generator can deliver pulses with durations ranging from 80 ns up to 1 µs and pulse amplitudes up to 1.4 kV. The unit has been tested for in vitro experiments on a medulloblastoma cell line. Following the exposure of cells to 100, 200, and 300 ns electric field pulses, permeabilization tests were carried out, and viability tests were conducted to verify the performance of the generator. The maximum temperature rise of the biological load was also calculated based on Joule heating energy conservation and experimental validation. Our results indicate that the developed device has good capabilities to achieve well-controlled electro-manipulation in vitro.
While previous studies have identified relationships between hippocampal volumes and memory performance in schizophrenia, these relationships are not apparent in healthy individuals. Further, few studies have examined the role of hippocampal subfields in illness-related memory deficits, and no study has examined potential differences across varying illness stages. The current study aimed to investigate whether individuals with early and established psychosis exhibited differential relationships between visuospatial associative memory and hippocampal subfield volumes.
Measurements of visuospatial associative memory performance and grey matter volume were obtained from 52 individuals with a chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 28 youth with recent-onset psychosis, 52 older healthy controls, and 28 younger healthy controls.
Both chronic and recent-onset patients had impaired visuospatial associative memory performance, however, only chronic patients showed hippocampal subfield volume loss. Both chronic and recent-onset patients demonstrated relationships between visuospatial associative memory performance and hippocampal subfield volumes in the CA4/dentate gyrus and the stratum that were not observed in older healthy controls. There were no group by volume interactions when chronic and recent-onset patients were compared.
The current study extends the findings of previous studies by identifying particular hippocampal subfields, including the hippocampal stratum layers and the dentate gyrus, that appear to be related to visuospatial associative memory ability in individuals with both chronic and first-episode psychosis.
Primary care is an important area in which to confront situations of food and nutrition insecurity. To undertake action in this area, well-prepared professionals are necessary. Courses of health training are not yet, however, equipped to offer the necessary preparation.
To analyse the topics taught in nutrition graduation courses related to the abilities and competencies demanded by professional work in this area.
The curricula of the nutrition courses offered in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil were analysed. Nutritionists and teachers were interviewed. The triangulation of the data obtained was undertaken by means of a qualitative approach taking the theory of social representations as the frame of reference.
The concepts necessary to act within the context of food and nutrition security are related to a humanistic approach, the unity of theory and practice, the nutritionist’s role as educator, teamwork and reflection on public health.
Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxide resin, is a high-production-volume chemical implicated in asthma pathogenesis when exposure occurs to the developing fetus. However, few studies have directly examined the effect of in utero and early-life BPA exposure on the pathogenesis of asthma in adulthood. This study examines the influence of perinatal BPA exposure through maternal diet on allergen sensitization and pulmonary inflammation in adult offspring. Two weeks before mating, BALB/c dams were randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 50 ng, 50 μg or 50 mg BPA/kg of rodent chow. Dams remained on the assigned diet throughout gestation and lactation until postnatal day (PND) 21 when offspring were weaned onto the control diet. Twelve-week-old offspring were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged with aerosolized OVA. Sera, splenocytes, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and whole lungs were harvested to assess allergen sensitization and pulmonary inflammation after OVA challenge. Serum anti-OVA IgE levels were increased two-fold in offspring exposed to 50 μg and 50 mg BPA/kg diet, compared with control animals. In addition, production of interleukin-13 and interferon-γ were increased in OVA-stimulated splenocytes recovered from BPA-exposed mice. Pulmonary inflammation, as indicated by total and differential leukocyte counts, cytokines, chemokines and pulmonary histopathology inflammatory scores, however, was either not different or was reduced in offspring exposed to BPA. Although these data suggest that perinatal BPA exposure beginning before gestation enhances allergen sensitization by increasing serum IgE and splenocyte cytokine production, a substantial impact of BPA on OVA-induced pulmonary inflammation in adulthood was not observed.
We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2–22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1–14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control.
Rayleigh match data were modeled with the aim of explaining the locations of match midpoints and matching ranges, both in normal trichromats and in subjects with congenital color deficiency. Model parameters included the wavelength of peak sensitivity of cone photopigments, the effective photopigment optical density, and the noise amplitude in the red-green color channel. In order to avoid the suprathreshold, perceptual effects of extreme L:M cone ratios on color vision, selective post-receptoral amplification of cone signals is needed. The associated noise is also amplified and this causes corresponding changes in red-green threshold sensitivity. We propose that the noise amplitude and hence the size of the matching range in normal trichromats relates to the known inter-subject variation in the relative numbers of L and M cones. If this hypothesis can be shown to account for the extremes of the red-green matching range measured in normal trichromats, it is of interest to establish the extent to which it also predicts the unexpected, small matching ranges that are observed in some subjects with red-green color deficiency. A subset of subjects with deutan deficiency that exhibited less common Nagel matches were selected for genetic analysis of their cone pigment genes in order to confirm the type of deficiency, and to predict the corresponding peak wavelength separation (δλmax) of their two, long-wavelength cone pigments. The Rayleigh match model predicted accurately the midpoint and the range for the spectral differences specified by the genes. The prediction also required plausible selection of effective optical density of the cone pigments and noise. The noise needed varied, but the estimates were confined to lie within the limits established from the matching ranges measured in normal trichromats. The model predicts correctly the small matching ranges measured in some deuteranomalous subjects, principally accounted for by a low estimate of noise level in the red-green channel. The model also predicts the “normal” matches made by some subjects that rely on two hybrid genes and therefore exhibit red-green thresholds outside the normal range, typical of mild deuteranomaly.
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder characterized by the absence or severe distortion of the auditory brainstem responses, in the presence of preserved otoacoustic emissions. This peculiar combination suggests the presence of a defect impinging upon the functional complex formed by inner hair cells, the primary afferents (spiral ganglion neurones) and the first order synapses between hair cells and the cochlear nerve. Typically, AN patients show a severe speech perception impairment, which appears reduced out of proportion to pure tone threshold, but the clinical presentation of AN is quite complex.
Hearing loss is a common symptom associated with mitochondrial diseases; however, AN has only rarely been reported in these disorders.
Here we report a rare association, the first case observed in Italy, in a patient with autosomal recessive mitochondrial myopathy and mitochondrial DNA multiple deletions, and a hearing deficit with the audiological and electrophysiological features of AN.
We report on a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) observed on June 27 1999 by the UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) telescope operating on board the SOHO spacecraft. The CME was also observed by LASCO (SOHO). Emission of hot material has been recorded by UVCS propagating in front of an opening system of loops generated by the CME. The evolution of the UVCS structure is highly correlated to the evolution of the opening loop. The data reveal excess broadening of the O VI doublet lines and an enhancement in the intensity of the Si XII$\lambda 520.66$ and $\lambda499.37$ lines due to the motion of the expanding hot gas. The hot gas emission seems to be due to a shock wave propagating in front of a very fast gas bubble traveling along the opening loop system.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Do we need a code of conduct for politicians, or are the existing unwritten rules a sufficient safeguard against acts of political malfeasance? Based on interviews with 84 backbench MPs, this article examines politicians' informal codes of conduct. The study reveals considerable disagreement in assessments of particular acts, notably those involving conflicts of interest and constituency service. Differences among MPs are related to a number of factors including partisanship, political experience and spatial cleavages. Such divisions of opinion belie the presence of a single elite political culture of corruption and underline the need for a code of conduct to clarify and augment such unwritten rules as presently exist.
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