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As a ubiquitous method in natural language processing, word embeddings are extensively employed to map semantic properties of words into a dense vector representation. They capture semantic and syntactic relations among words, but the vectors corresponding to the words are only meaningful relative to each other. Neither the vector nor its dimensions have any absolute, interpretable meaning. We introduce an additive modification to the objective function of the embedding learning algorithm that encourages the embedding vectors of words that are semantically related to a predefined concept to take larger values along a specified dimension, while leaving the original semantic learning mechanism mostly unaffected. In other words, we align words that are already determined to be related, along predefined concepts. Therefore, we impart interpretability to the word embedding by assigning meaning to its vector dimensions. The predefined concepts are derived from an external lexical resource, which in this paper is chosen as Roget’s Thesaurus. We observe that alignment along the chosen concepts is not limited to words in the thesaurus and extends to other related words as well. We quantify the extent of interpretability and assignment of meaning from our experimental results. Manual human evaluation results have also been presented to further verify that the proposed method increases interpretability. We also demonstrate the preservation of semantic coherence of the resulting vector space using word-analogy/word-similarity tests and a downstream task. These tests show that the interpretability-imparted word embeddings that are obtained by the proposed framework do not sacrifice performances in common benchmark tests.
Individuals who differ markedly by chronotype, i.e., morning-type or evening-type, differ on a number of psychological, behavioral, and biological variables. Disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity and perception is definitional to dissociation, particularly pathological forms of dissociation. Dissociative experiences possess dream-like properties, which might be fueled by a labile sleep-wake cycle. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of individual biological rhythm differences on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in conjunction with dissociative experiences.
Participants were 372 undergraduates, ranged between 18 and 26 years of age, 61.6 % were females.
The volunteers completed a package of psychological instruments including the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
We performed mediation regression analysis of relations between dissociative symptomatology and chronobiological features mediated by insomnia and sleepiness. We run a multiple mediator model utilizing from the SPSS script in which we bootstrapped 5000 times.
We found direct effect of the MEQ scores on the DES scores was not substantial. Direct effect of the MEQ on the ESS was not significant; whilst the direct association between the ESS and the DES was significant (β=0.79; p<.01). Evening-type individuals were more prone to insomnia (β=-0.14; p<.01) and insomnia was a direct predictor of dissociative symptomatology (β=0.47; p<.01). Eveningness was significantly associated through insomnia with dissociation (β=-0.07; p<.01). The multiple mediator model is illustrated in Figure 1.
We found significant associations of pathological dissociation in terms of DES-taxon with insomnia and sleepiness.
The effect of poor sleep quality on depressive symptoms has been consistently found. The aim of our study was to assess the heterogenity of sleep quality in relations between circadian preferences and depressive symptomatology among major depression patients.
The sample was consisted of 225 patients with first diagnosis major depression. Mean age of the sample was 29.92 (SD±10.49). The patients completed a package of psychological instruments including the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Beck Depression Inventory.
The latent structure of sleep quality among first diagnose major depressive patients was examined by applying latent class analysis (LCA) to the seven components of the PSQI, using Mplus 4.01. We also examined the latent structure of sleep quality in conjunction with the MEQ and BDI scores.
We found that evening-type depressive patients were more prone to report greater scores of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction sub-scales of the PSQI. Direct effect of evening-type chronobiological preference was significantly linked to greater depression scores. Indirect effects of chronobiological characteristics through components of the PSQI were only significant for use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction sub-scales of the PSQI (p<.05).
These findings suggest that sleep quality in general operates and influences on depression in concert with chronobiological characteristics; however, the construct of sleep quality appear like to be heterogeneous in nature and is influential on severity of depression symptoms through distinct mechanisms among depressive patients.
The goal of this study is to analyze the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of the projected 5G frequencies below 6 GHz and at Wi-Fi frequency (2.45 GHz) on a human head, for eyewear device applications. Two separate tri-band printed dipole antennas for this purpose are designed and fabricated at operating frequencies of 2.45/3.8/6 GHz for prototype-1 and at operating frequencies of 2.45/3.6/4.56 GHz for prototype-2. In order to obtain the desired frequencies: first, the prototypes of the proposed antennas are fine-tuned via Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST) and then fabricated on the FR4 layer. The reflection coefficient (S11) is tested and the simulation results are confirmed. In order to analyze the effect of wearing a pair of glasses' frame including a tri-band 5G antenna, a frame is designed and produced via 3D printer with polylactic acid material which has high dielectric constant (ɛr = 8.1). The SAR results of the proposed antennas have been examined for the cases where the antenna is embedded in the frame and is used alone. Both cases were analyzed by using the homogeneous specific anthropomorphic mannequin and the heterogeneous visible human head phantoms and the results have been evaluated in terms of SAR10 g values.
To investigate the feasibility of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) screening test by pulse oximetry in four geographical regions of Turkey with different altitudes, before implementation of a nationwide screening program.
It was a prospective multi-centre study performed in four centres, between December, 2015 and May, 2017. Pre- and post-ductal oxygen saturations and perfusion indices (PI) were measured using Masimo Radical-7 at early postnatal days. The results were evaluated according to the algorithm recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally, a PI value <0.7 was accepted to be significant.
In 4888 newborns, the mean screening time was 31.5 ± 12.1 hours. At first attempt, the mean values of pre- and post-ductal measurements were: saturation 97.3 ± 1.8%, PI 2.8 ± 2.0, versus saturation 97.7 ± 1.8%, PI 2.3±1.3, respectively. Pre-ductal saturations and PI and post-ductal saturations were the lowest in Centre 4 with the highest altitude. Overall test positivity rate was 0.85% (n = 42). CCHD was detected in six babies (0.12%). Of them, right hand (91 ± 6.3) and foot saturations (92.1 ± 4.3%) were lower compared to ones with non-CCHD and normal variants (p <0.05, for all comparisons). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio of the test were: 83.3%, 99.9%, 11.9%, 99.9%, and 99.2%, respectively.
This study concluded that pulse oximetry screening is an effective screening tool for congenital heart disease in newborns at different altitudes. We support the implementation of a national screening program with consideration of altitude differences for our country.
This study aimed to present the histopathological and audiological effects of mechanical trauma associated with the placement of a model electrode in the scala tympani in rats, and the effects of continuous topical corticosteroid application.
The study comprised three groups of rats. The round window membrane was perforated in all three groups and a model electrode was inserted in the round window. Group one received no further treatments. Groups two and three also had an intrathecal microcatheter compatible with a mini-osmotic pump inserted; in group two this was used to release normal saline and in group three the pump released 400 µg/ml dexamethasone.
Dexamethasone infusion given after implantation of the intracochlear model electrode was more effective for preventing hearing loss than the administration of just one dose of dexamethasone.
The findings suggest that continuous dexamethasone infusion is beneficial for preventing the loss of hair cells and neurons associated with early and late periods of intracochlear electrode trauma.
The recurrent laryngeal nerve can be injured during surgery. This study investigated recurrent laryngeal nerve reinnervation.
To study the short-term effects of primary anastomosis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, by laryngeal electromyography and histopathological analysis, in a rabbit model.
Twenty Zealand rabbits underwent either right recurrent laryngeal nerve (1) transection with excision of 1 cm or (2) transection and end-to-end primary anastomosis. Vocal fold movements, laryngeal electromyography results and histological changes were recorded.
Vocal fold analysis showed a paramedian vocal fold in both groups, with perceptible vibratory movements in group two. Electromyography revealed total denervation potentials in group one, but denervation and regeneration signs in group two. Histopathologically, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of the vocal fold mucosa were seen in group one, and signs of parakeratosis and hyperplasia in group two.
Even under ideal conditions for primary recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis, a return to normal muscle function is unlikely. However, such anastomosis prevents muscle atrophy, and should be performed as soon as possible. The degree of nerve recovery is associated with the number, amplitude and myelination level of fibrils returning to the original motor end-plaque.
Sweet cherries can be grafted on a wide range of rootstocks belonging to Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus angustifolia or hybrids of different Prunus species. Identification of Prunus rootstocks using morphological traits is almost impossible particularly during the dormant season. However, molecular analysis carried out on actively growing shoot tips, leaves or dormant buds provides good opportunity to reliably distinguish rootstocks. In this study, DNA was extracted from the leaves of a total of 184 sweet cherry rootstock candidates belonging to P. avium L., P. cerasus L., P. mahaleb L. and P. angustifolia L. previously selected from the north-western part of Turkey. The rootstock candidates were tested with ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers, developed for the Prunus genus. The primers successfully identified all rootstock candidates. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from 10 (UDAp-401, UCD-CH21 and CPSCT010) to 20 (UCD-CH31) with an average of 13.3 alleles per locus, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. avium accessions are closely related to P. cerasus. The reference rootstocks were clustered with their associated botanical species.
Çiğdem Kağitçibaşi has long been at the forefront of research in developmental and cultural psychology, and is one of the world's most highly respected cross-cultural psychologists. This collection of essays has been produced in honor of Professor Kağitçibaşi's retirement and to commemorate her contribution to the field. The volume examines social, developmental, and cultural psychology and intervention policies. A select group of international expert scholars explore those aspects of human behavior that are observed in all cultures, as well as those that are unique to each. They also examine changes in the family across socio-cultural contexts and generations in order to understand the factors precipitating these changes. Representing developments in theory and research in the field, this volume that will appeal to researchers and students of developmental and cross-cultural psychology across the world.
I regard it a special privilege to be invited to participate in this volume honoring Professor Kağıtçıbaşı, whose distinguished career I have followed with admiration since its early stages. In the 1950s, I knew her first as an able graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley. Çiğdem Çizakça, as she was then called, shared my interest in the important though faulted study of The Authoritarian Personality (Adorno et al. 1950), which had been carried out at Berkeley more than a decade earlier. She thought the negatively valued correlates of authoritarianism in American society would not hold for authoritarianism in Turkey, where authoritarian attitudes were supported by traditional social norms.
In due course, I supervised her doctoral research, in which, against my cautious advice, she undertook a cross-cultural study comparing the responses of Californian and Turkish high school students to the F-scale, the measure of authoritarianism developed by Adorno et al. (ibid.). Before she had completed the analysis of her data, she married Oğuz Kağıtçıbaşı and returned with him to Turkey to take charge of the secondary school in Bursa that her father, just deceased, had established. Her challenges were heightened by the birth of their first child. Naturally, I could not be hopeful about the prospect of her completing the dissertation. Most doctoral students could not have done it under such circumstances. But I didn't really know Çiğdem yet. To my pleasant surprise, she sent me excellent drafts by mail for my comments.
This book covers issues ranging from the status of psychology as a science in the majority world to policy implications that can be derived from it in the form of intervention programs. Within this range from theoretical to practical applications are issues concerning the relation between culture and parenting, self-development in a cultural context, and effects of social change on family and gender roles, which all are among the core concerns of the discipline of human development as well as the cultural perspective. The chapters explore these issues either by comparing the western world with the majority world, or focus on a single culture from the latter. Thus the book addresses questions of interest for developmental psychologists, cross-cultural psychologists, community psychologists, intervention researchers, and policy makers in life span education.
A major reason for putting together this book was to present the state of the art from the perspectives of the western and majority world contributors to the study of culture and development. A second motivation was to recognize the developments that have taken place in this area in the majority world, and particularly in Turkey. One of the driving forces in this development has been Çiğdem Kağıtçıbaşı, who has undertaken significant cross-cultural research and posited theoretical models of self-development and family change. Her work has provided an alternative to the models prevalent in the western world by showing that urbanization and socio-economic development need not necessarily have a single outcome in the form of an autonomous–separate–self.