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Identical and fraternal twin pairs reared together have been key to understanding the genetic and environmental etiology of dyslexia and of individual differences in reading. In this chapter, we begin with a brief overview of the methods of twin research, and the historical development and application of these methods to understanding the etiology of individual differences and deficits in reading and related skills. Then we examine results from predominantly English-language twin research on dyslexia. The next section on twin studies of individual differences in reading ability introduces a broader cross-language perspective that includes comparisons of findings from studies in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, and China. Then we expand the reading phenotype beyond word recognition to reading comprehension, the ultimate goal of reading.
In the present study, we aimed to compare anthropometric indicators as predictors of mortality in a community-based setting.
We conducted a population-based longitudinal study nested in a cluster-randomized trial. We assessed weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) on children 12 months after the trial began and used the trial’s annual census and monitoring visits to assess mortality over 2 years.
Children aged 6–60 months during the study.
Of 1023 children included in the study at baseline, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score and MUAC classified 777 (76·0 %), 630 (61·6 %), 131 (12·9 %) and eighty (7·8 %) children as moderately to severely malnourished, respectively. Over the 2-year study period, fifty-eight children (5·7 %) died. MUAC had the greatest AUC (0·68, 95 % CI 0·61, 0·75) and had the strongest association with mortality in this sample (hazard ratio = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·26, 3·89, P = 0·006).
MUAC appears to be a better predictor of mortality than other anthropometric indicators in this community-based, high-malnutrition setting in Niger.
Introduction: Cognitive processing theories postulate that decision making depends on both fast and slow thinking. Experienced physicians (EPs) make diagnoses quickly and with less effort by using fast, intuitive thinking, whereas inexperienced medical students rely on slow, analytical thinking. This study used a cognitive task analysis to examine EPs cognitive processes and ability to provide knowledge translation to learners. Methods: A novel mind mapping approach was used to examine how EPs translate their clinical reasoning to learners, when evaluating a patient for a possible venous thromboembolism (VTE). Nine EPs were interviewed and shown two different videos of a medical student patient interview (randomized from six possible videos). Results: EPs were asked to demonstrate their clinical approach to the scenario using a mind map, assuming they were teaching a learner in the Emergency Department. EPs were later re-interviewed to examine response stability, and given the opportunity to make clarifying or substantive mind map modifications. Maps were broken into component pieces and analyzed using mixed-methods techniques. A mean of 15.7 component pieces were identified within each mind map (standard deviation (SD) 7.8). Maps were qualitatively coded, with a mean of 2.8 clarifying amendments (e.g. adding a time course caveat) (SD 1.5-5.75) and 4.4 substantive modifications (e.g. changing the flow of the map) (SD 2-5). Conclusion: Resulting mind maps displayed significant heterogeneity in teaching points and the degree to which EPs used slow thinking. EPs frequently made fast thinking jumps, although learners could prompt slow thinking by questioning unclear points. This is particularly important as learners engage in cognitive apprenticeship throughout their training. An improved understanding of EPs cognitive processes through mind mapping will allow learners to improve their own clinical reasoning (Merrit et al., 2017). Educating EPs on these processes will allow modification of their teaching styles to better suit learners.
Cattle manure value chains play important biological and economic roles in smallholder crop–livestock systems in developing countries, but relative to other livestock products our understanding of the nature and impact of manure sales is limited. In regions with an active manure trade, farmers face a choice between manure use on-farm and sales, which affects nutrient flows and participant incomes. We analyzed the manure value chain operating in south-central Vietnam as an example of the function and role of manure trade in crop–livestock systems. Lowland cattle farmers sell manure through a network of chain participants, including small-scale collectors, lowland and highland traders, to pepper, coffee, dragon fruit and rubber farms in the central highlands and southeast coast. We collected and summarized quantitative data (e.g., manure-related labor, manure transactions, and fertilizer and manure use) gathered in semi-structured interviews with value-chain participants [lowland cattle owners (n = 101), traders (n = 27) and end users (n = 72)]. Lowland cattle owners were selected by stratified random sampling, and subsequent participants were identified in preceding interviews. One key finding concerns the seasonality of the manure value chain: most manure flowed between February and August (lowland dry season and period of peak highland demand) from lowland communes to highland coffee and pepper farms for use as organic soil amendments. Fewer sales occurred, at a lower price, to southeast coastal dragon fruit farms and rubber companies. Value addition to manure occurred via drying, bagging, collection, transport and composting. The presence of local traders facilitated market sales for smallholder cattle owners, and prices through the value chain generally reflected costs for value addition. The geographic distribution of cattle relative to agricultural land influenced the flow of manure, with net outflows from regions with higher animal density to regions with lower density and higher value crop production. Manure trade was an important source of supplementary income for farmers and a primary livelihood activity for traders. Value chain participant net incomes ranged from near US$100 yr−1 for lowland farmers to over US$13,000 yr−1 for traders, and returns to labor were just over US$0.50 h−1 for lowland farmers and US$2 h−1 for traders. The quantitative information generated during our descriptive assessment provides an important first step toward manure value chain improvement, indicates survey methods that can be applied in other areas, and identifies next steps necessary to evaluate chain evolution and resilience.
Recently, Fernández-Menchero et al. (2014) reported effective collision strengths ϒ for transitions among 238 fine-structure levels, belonging to the n ≤ 7 configurations of C III. They adopted the (semi-relativistic) R-matrix code (ICFT), resolved resonances in a fine energy mesh, averaged Ω over a Maxwellian distribution, and reported results over a wide range of electron temperature up to 1.8×107 K.
Electronic health records (EHRs) may contain infomarkers that identify patients near the end of life for whom it would be appropriate to shift care goals to palliative care. Discovery and use of such infomarkers could be used to conduct effectiveness research that ultimately could help to reduce the monumental cost of caring for the dying. The aim of our study was to identify changes in the plans of care that represent infomarkers, which signal a transition of care goals from nonpalliative care ones to those consistent with palliative care.
Using an existing electronic health record database generated during a two-year longitudinal study of nine diverse medical–surgical units from four Midwest hospitals and a known group approach, we evaluated patient care episodes for 901 patients who died (mean age = 74.5 ± 14.6 years). We used ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests to compare patient groups.
We identified 11 diagnoses, including Death Anxiety and Anticipatory Grieving, whose addition to the care plan, some of which also occurred with removal of nonpalliative care diagnoses, represent infomarkers of transition to palliative care goals. There were four categories of patients, those who had: no infomarkers on plans (n = 507), infomarkers added on the admission plan (n = 194), infomarkers added on a post-admission plan (minor transitions, n = 109), and infomarkers added and nonpalliative care diagnoses removed on a post-admission plan (major transition, n = 91). Age, length of stay, and pain outcomes differed significantly for these four categories of patients.
Significance of Results:
EHRs contain pertinent infomarkers that if confirmed in future studies could be used for timely referral to palliative care for improved focus on comfort outcomes and to identify palliative care subjects from data repositories in order to conduct big-data research, comparative effectiveness studies, and health-services research.
In the aftermath of the major earthquake that hit Pakistan in 2005, there appeared to be a paucity of psychometric tools validated in Urdu. It was decided to translate the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) so as to obtain an internationally validated and recognised psychometric tool for use in research into post-traumatic stress disorder. The resulting Urdu and English versions of the IES-R were compared for linguistic, conceptual and scale equivalence. The Urdu version of the IES-R (UIES-R) can be used for clinical, psychological trauma populations in Pakistan with evidence of good reliability and satisfactory validity. In trauma research in Pakistan the UIES-R will be an extremely useful psychometric tool.
We demonstrate for the first time that multivariate statistical analysis techniques can be applied to atom probe tomography data to estimate the chemical composition of a sample at the full spatial resolution of the atom probe in three dimensions. Whereas the raw atom probe data provide the specific identity of an atom at a precise location, the multivariate results can be interpreted in terms of the probabilities that an atom representing a particular chemical phase is situated there. When aggregated to the size scale of a single atom (∼0.2 nm), atom probe spectral-image datasets are huge and extremely sparse. In fact, the average spectrum will have somewhat less than one total count per spectrum due to imperfect detection efficiency. These conditions, under which the variance in the data is completely dominated by counting noise, test the limits of multivariate analysis, and an extensive discussion of how to extract the chemical information is presented. Efficient numerical approaches to performing principal component analysis (PCA) on these datasets, which may number hundreds of millions of individual spectra, are put forward, and it is shown that PCA can be computed in a few seconds on a typical laptop computer.
Sheet resistance mapping has become an indispensable tool in characterizing ion implanters for both integrated circuit manufacturers and equipment manufacturers. The sheet resistance mapping technique is now being extended into additional applications such as the characterization of metal deposition, CVD, and epitaxial silicon growth. This technique has become especially necessary with the advent of 150mm and 200mm wafers, where 5 or 9 site measurements cannot provide sufficient data essential for process control.
In order to optimize the performance of an epi reactor it is necessary to control and characterize the gas flows and temperature distributions inside the reactor. The control of these variables is essential for thickness and resistivity uniformity in epi layers. This paper describes the use of sheet resistance profiles and contour maps to study the resistivity and thickness uniformity variations in an epi reactor. The sheet resistance maps allow for control of the epi process without requiring data from other test sources.This ensures real time process control for production, as well as very rapid feedback for maintenance while doing equipment repair.
Thin film interaction in the material systems of titanium and tantalum-layered Al- 1% Si films has been studied using advanced material characterization techniques. Compound phase formation was analyzed based on results from X-ray diffraction analysis. Al3Ti was identified in the titanium-layered film after 450° C sintering. TaSi2 and unreacted Ta. however, were identified after the sintering. Silicon participated in the phase formation process by incorporating itself as a solute in the Al3Ti while transforming Ta into its silicide. This behavior is to be interpreted based on available ternary phase diagrams. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy results indicate that well defined layered films and columnar grains of aluminum were obtained which are believed to be the primary reasons for the observed electromigration improvement over the base metal.
Sputtered A1N films developed for piezoelectric resonators are extremely chemically reactive. As-sputtered films react with boiling water resulting in a complete loss of the AIN bond structure. Experiments to determine the effect on chemical stability of annealing the sputtered films at 1000 °C, indicate annealing in an oxidizing gas leads to partial oxidation of AlN. Annealing in an inert gas prevents oxidation but does not protect the films from attack by boiling water. Annealing in a reducing gas followed by annealing in an inert gas renders A1N films stable in boiling water. A1N film structure and composition have been studied via Refractive Index, XRD, SIMS, SEM, AES, XPS and FTIR evaluations.
Reactively-sputtered, polycrystalline thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) is an attractive material for use in acoustic wave devices, for which it requires a strong preferred orientation, similar to that found in epitaxial films. This investigation evaluated the grain structure including preferred orientation, grain size, and surface morphology of sputtered A1N films. The characterization techniques utilized included x-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed two types of grain structure: 1) a single-grain columnar structure that is perfectly oriented in the  direction throughout the entire film thickness and 2) a multiple-grain columnar structure that possesses a strong  orientation at the bottom of the film and a tilted  combined with other orientations at the top of the film. Strong correlations between orientation and surface morphology, oxygen content, and grain size were observed, namely higher degrees of c-axis orientation correlated with lower mean surface roughness values, reduced oxygen concentration, and narrower grains.
Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging has been performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on a metal/ceramic braze to characterize the elemental distribution near the interface. Statistical methods were utilized to extract the relevant information (i.e., chemical phases and their distributions) from the spectrum image data set in a robust and unbiased way. The raw spectrum image was over 15 Mbytes (7500 spectra) while the statistical analysis resulted in five spectra and five images which describe the phases resolved above the noise level and their distribution in the microstructure
A new method for automated coronal loop tracking, in both spatial and temporal domains, is presented. The reliability of this technique was tested with TRACE 171 Å observations. The application of this technique to a flare-induced kink-mode oscillation, revealed a 3500 km spatial periodicity which occur along the loop edge. We establish a reduction in oscillatory power, for these spatial periodicities, of 45% over a 322 s interval. We relate the reduction in oscillatory power to the physical damping of these loop-top oscillations.
High frequency acoustic waves have been suggested as a source of mechanical heating in the quiet solar chromosphere. To investigate this, we have observed intensity oscillations of several lines in the frequency interval 1.64-70mHz using data from the VTT Tenerife and the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory. Our analysis of Fe i 543.45 nm, Fe i 543.29 nm and the G-band, indicate that the majority of oscillations are connected with the magnetic fields and do not provide sufficient mechanical flux for the heating of the chromosphere. This correlation is also observed in quiet Sun areas.
High-cadence optical observations of an H-α blue-wing bright point near solar AR NOAA 10794 are presented. The data were obtained with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak using a newly developed camera system, the rapid dual imager. Wavelet analysis is undertaken to search for intensity-related oscillatory signatures, and periodicities ranging from 15 to 370 s are found with significance levels exceeding 95%. During two separate microflaring events, oscillation sites surrounding the bright point are observed to twist. We relate the twisting of the oscillation sites to the twisting of physical flux tubes, thus giving rise to reconnection phenomena. We derive an average twist velocity of 8.1 km/s and detect a peak in the emitted flux between twist angles of 180° and 230°.