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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
In order to characterize and control the adhesive behaviors of nanometer scaled stimuli-responsible gel particles designed for oral peptide delivery, their interaction with artificial mucin layer in the small intestinal solutions was determined by the colloid probe atomic force microscope method. The prepared nanometer scaled gel particles with a core-shell structure were designed to exhibit behaviors responsive to temperature and pH in solutions, consequently protect the incorporated peptide drug under harsh acidic conditions in the stomach, adhere and penetrate to the mucin layer in the small intestine, and thereafter release the drugs. Spherical agglomerates of the nano-gel particles with several micron meters in diameter were prepared by the spray freeze drying method and adhered on the top of tip of commercial atomic force microscope. The interaction between the artificial mucin layer and nano-gel surface with different molecular structure of shell determined by the colloid probe method depended on pH and counter-ion concentration of the solution. Based on the possible transition of the surface-microstructure of nano-gel particles following the pH change and the measured results from the colloid probe AFM method, the relationship between surface interaction and microstructure of nano-gel was discussed.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
Conspicuous dust lanes define the spiral arm in the south of M31. The integrated HI line emission map shows several large cloudlike structures with sizes ranging from hundreds to thousands of parsecs, forming a spiral arm along the dust lanes (Figure 1). To investigate how such super clouds correlate with star formation phenomena, we present in Figure 2 a compilation of published data on: CO emission, dark clouds, HII regions, OB associations, and thermal infrared radiation from IRAS. The CO emission distribution is similar to that of HI and also forms large cloudlike structures. The large CO clouds P, Q, and R, which are located in the high density HI areas, have bright HII region complexes of several hundred parsecs at their outer edges. Further out large OB associations are found. In contrast, cloud B, which shows weaker CO emission, has a large and diffuse HII region which may be relatively old. This giant HII region is located in a large hole of HI and dark clouds (Brinks 1981). The IRAS maps show strong correlated thermal emission from the dust lanes. The luminosity from the star formation activity heats the dust in the molecular clouds. The local peaks at A, P, and Q in the 25 μm band, extending 200-300 pc, have revealed the existence of massive young stars embedded in the clouds.
We have carried out wide field imaging observations in the near-infrared (J, H and K′ band) with a large format array camera attached to the prime focus of the 105 cm Schmidt telescope at Kiso Observatory. The image resolution, limiting magnitudes and the effect of thermal radiation are discussed.
We present the results of wide-field imaging of nearby galaxies observed in the near-infrared using a large format array. The total magnitudes and mass-to-luminosity ratios of NGC 253, M 82, NGC 891, and some cluster members are discussed.
We have obtained B-band photographic surface photometry of ∼ 2000 galaxies in the Pisces-Perseus region. Combining these photometry data with redshift and HI 21 cm line-width data for spiral galaxies in the region, we have studied the Hubble constant and large-scale peculiar motions. Taking biases into account quantitatively we obtain H0 = 80 ±9+17−22 km/s−1Mpc−1. The prevalent infalling motion in the region is found to be still controversial if the biases are carefully considered.
The accuracy of measurement of the Hubble constant depends not only on the accuracy of distance measurement but also on how small is the effect of local flows: The larger are redshifts of used galaxies, the higher is the accuracy of H0, if the error in distance measurement is comparable. The HI Tully-Fisher relation has been the standard tool for distance measurement up to cz ∼ 10,000 km s–1 (Tully and Fisher 1977), where, however, the local flow is not negligible.
This status report presents details on the project to search for serendipitous time-correlated optical photographic observations of γ-ray bursters. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which have been exposed simultaneously with a γ-ray burst detected by BATSE and contain the burst position. The results for the third year of BATSE operation are presented.
A unified model for outbursts of dwarf novae is proposed based on the disk instability model in cataclysmic variable stars. In this model, two different intrinsic instabilities (i.e., the thermal instability and the tidal instability) within accretion disks are considered in non-magnetic cataclysmic variable stars. It is suggested that all of three sub-classes of dwarf novae (i.e., U Gem-type, Z Cam-type and SU UMa-type dwarf novae) may be explained in terms of two model parameters of the orbital period of the binary and of the mass transfer rate within the framework of the disk instability model.
We explore the relationships between the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature and active galactic nucleus (AGN) properties of a sample of 54 hard X-ray selected bright AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 type objects, using the InfraRed Camera (IRC) on board the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The sample is selected from the 9-month Swift/BAT survey in the 14-195 keV band and all of them have measured X-ray spectra at E ≲ 10 keV. These X-ray spectra provide measurements of the neutral hydrogen column density (NH) towards the AGNs. We use the 3.3 μm PAH luminosity (L3.3μm) as a proxy for star formation activity and hard X-ray luminosity (L14-195keV) as an indicator of the AGN activity. We searched for possible difference of star-formation activity between type 1 (un-absorbed) and type 2 (absorbed) AGNs. Our regression analysis of log L14-195keV versus log L3.3μm shows a positive correlation and the slope seems steeper for type 1/unobscured AGNs than that of type 2/obscured AGNs. The same trend has been found for the log (L14-195keV/MBH) versus log (L3.3μm/MBH) correlation. Our analysis show that the circum-nuclear star-formation is more enhanced in type 2/absorbed AGNs than type 1/un-absorbed AGNs for low X-ray luminosity/low Eddington ratio AGNs.
A large fraction of the AGN output power is emitted in the X-rays, in a region very close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The most distinctive feature of the X-ray spectra of AGN is the iron Kα line, often observed as the superposition of a broad and a narrow component. While the broad component is found in only ~ 35–45% of bright nearby AGN, the narrow component has been found to be ubiquitous. The narrow Fe Kα line is thought to be produced in the circumnuclear material, likely in the molecular torus. Given its origin, this feature is possibly the most important tracer of neutral matter surrounding the SMBH. One of the most interesting characteristics of the narrow Fe Kα line is the decrease of its equivalent width with the continuum luminosity, the so-called X-ray Baldwin effect (Iwasawa & Taniguchi 1993). This trend has been found by many studies of large samples of type-I AGN, and very recently also in type-II AGN (Ricci et al. 2013c, submitted to ApJ). The slope of the X-ray Baldwin effect in type-II AGN is the same of their unobscured counterparts, which implies that the mechanism at work is the same. Several hypothesis have been put forward in the last decade to explain the X-ray Baldwin effect: i) a luminosity-dependent variation in the ionisation state of the iron-emitting material (Nandra et al. 1997); ii) the decrease of the number of continuum photons in the iron line region with the Eddington ratio, as an effect of the well known correlation between the photon index and the Eddington ratio (Ricci et al. 2013b, submitted to MNRAS); iii) the decrease of the covering factor of the torus with the luminosity (e.g., Page et al. 2004, Ricci et al. 2013a A&A 553, 29) as expected by luminosity-dependent unification models (e.g., Ueda et al. 2003). In my talk I will review the main characteristics of the narrow Fe K? line, and present the results of our recent works aimed at explaining the X-ray Baldwin effect using iron-line emitting physical torus models (Ricci et al. 2013a, b), and at understanding the origin of the Fe K? line (Ricci et al. 2013c). I will focus in particular on the importance of the Fe Kα line as a probe of the evolution of the physical characteristics of the molecular torus with the luminosity.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
Our works have been concentred on the characterization of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composites films in order to obtain a new easy processing anode for organic device. The morphology and charge transport in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (4-styrenesulfonate) / SWCNT thin layers was investigated. PEDOT:PSS polymer acts as host material and an excellent dispersion of metallic single wall carbon nanotube (m-SWCNT) can be achieved enhancing the polymer’s electrical properties. The PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT films are prepared on glass substrates using spin coating method. Raman spectroscopy has been used to observe the surface states of PEDOT: PSS/SWCNT films and to realize Raman mapping that allow determining the homogeneity of the SWCNT dispersion into the films. Optical and electrical characterizations (sheet resistance, conductivity) of the films are also presented.
The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for
schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting
that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We
examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk
factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels (‘carbonyl stress’) and a
frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also
had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene
associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine
deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have
exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.
Hot wire (HW) cell method has been newly developed and successfully applied to grow polycrystalline silicon films at a low temperature with a relatively high growth rate. In the HWcell method, silane is decomposed by reaction with a heated tungsten wire placed near the substrate. It is found that polycrystalline silicon films can be obtained at substrate temperatures of 175-400°C without hydrogen dilution. The film crystallinity is changed from polycrystalline to amorphous with decreasing the total pressure. The X-ray analysis clearly showed that the films grown at the filament temperature of 1700°C have a very strong (220) preferential orientation. The films consist of large grains as well as small grains, and it was found from cross-sectional SEM that the films have columnar structure. These results suggested that the HW-cell method would be a promising candidate to grow device-grade polycrystalline silicon films for photovoltaic application.
A fundamental concept combining a molecular behavior and macro-continuum phenomenon is presented for a multicomponent solute diffusion problem in bentonite clay, which is a key component of the Engineering Barrier System (EBS) of high-level radioactive waste disposal (HLRW). Bentonite is a micro-inhomogeneous material. Properties of the saturated bentonite are characterized by the constituent clay mineral (montmorillonite) and water, namely montmorillonite hydrate. We analyze its molecular behavior by applying a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to inquire into the physicochemical properties such as diffusivity of chemical species. For extending the microscopic characteristics of constituent materials to a macroscopic diffusion behavior of the micro-inhomogeneous material we apply a homogenization analysis (HA).
Corrosion fatigue properties of micro-sized materials are extremely important to design MEMS devices and micro-machines used in corrosive environments. However, there have been few studies that investigate corrosion fatigue properties of micro-sized materials. Thus, it is necessary to develop a corrosion fatigue test method for micro-sized materials. However, there are several difficulties in corrosion fatigue tests on micro-sized specimens. It is also necessary to clarify the problems for the method and to find their solutions. In this investigation, a corrosion fatigue test method for micro-sized specimens has been developed and corrosion fatigue tests for micro-sized Ni-P amorphous alloy specimens have been carried out in a 0.9% NaCl solution. Specimens of cantilever-beam-type with dimensions of 10 × 12 × 50 μm3 were prepared from a Ni-P amorphous thin film by focused ion beam machining. Corrosion fatigue tests on the micro-sized specimens were succeeded, and environmental effects on fatigue properties of micro-sized specimens were clearly observed. Several problems and solutions for the method were described.
Fracture tests have been carried out for an electroless deposited Ni-P amorphous alloy thin film with different crack growth directions. Cantilever beam type specimens with dimensions of 10 × 10 × 50 μm3 were prepared from a Ni-P amorphous thin film and notches with different directions, which are perpendicular and parallel to the deposition growth direction, were introduced by focused ion beam machining. Fatigue pre-cracks were introduced ahead of the notches. Fracture tests were performed using a mechanical testing machine for micro-sized specimens. Fracture behavior is different between the two types of specimens. As KIC values were not obtained because the criteria of plane strain were not satisfied for this size of the specimen, the provisional fracture toughness KQ values were determined. The KQ value of the specimen with crack propagation direction being perpendicular to the deposition growth direction was 4.2 MPam1/2, while that with crack propagation direction being parallel to the deposition growth direction was 7.3 MPam1/2. This result suggests that the electroless deposited Ni-P amorphous alloy thin film has anisotropic fracture properties.