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Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
A large fraction of the AGN output power is emitted in the X-rays, in a region very close to the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The most distinctive feature of the X-ray spectra of AGN is the iron Kα line, often observed as the superposition of a broad and a narrow component. While the broad component is found in only ~ 35–45% of bright nearby AGN, the narrow component has been found to be ubiquitous. The narrow Fe Kα line is thought to be produced in the circumnuclear material, likely in the molecular torus. Given its origin, this feature is possibly the most important tracer of neutral matter surrounding the SMBH. One of the most interesting characteristics of the narrow Fe Kα line is the decrease of its equivalent width with the continuum luminosity, the so-called X-ray Baldwin effect (Iwasawa & Taniguchi 1993). This trend has been found by many studies of large samples of type-I AGN, and very recently also in type-II AGN (Ricci et al. 2013c, submitted to ApJ). The slope of the X-ray Baldwin effect in type-II AGN is the same of their unobscured counterparts, which implies that the mechanism at work is the same. Several hypothesis have been put forward in the last decade to explain the X-ray Baldwin effect: i) a luminosity-dependent variation in the ionisation state of the iron-emitting material (Nandra et al. 1997); ii) the decrease of the number of continuum photons in the iron line region with the Eddington ratio, as an effect of the well known correlation between the photon index and the Eddington ratio (Ricci et al. 2013b, submitted to MNRAS); iii) the decrease of the covering factor of the torus with the luminosity (e.g., Page et al. 2004, Ricci et al. 2013a A&A 553, 29) as expected by luminosity-dependent unification models (e.g., Ueda et al. 2003). In my talk I will review the main characteristics of the narrow Fe K? line, and present the results of our recent works aimed at explaining the X-ray Baldwin effect using iron-line emitting physical torus models (Ricci et al. 2013a, b), and at understanding the origin of the Fe K? line (Ricci et al. 2013c). I will focus in particular on the importance of the Fe Kα line as a probe of the evolution of the physical characteristics of the molecular torus with the luminosity.
We explore the relationships between the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature and active galactic nucleus (AGN) properties of a sample of 54 hard X-ray selected bright AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 type objects, using the InfraRed Camera (IRC) on board the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The sample is selected from the 9-month Swift/BAT survey in the 14-195 keV band and all of them have measured X-ray spectra at E ≲ 10 keV. These X-ray spectra provide measurements of the neutral hydrogen column density (NH) towards the AGNs. We use the 3.3 μm PAH luminosity (L3.3μm) as a proxy for star formation activity and hard X-ray luminosity (L14-195keV) as an indicator of the AGN activity. We searched for possible difference of star-formation activity between type 1 (un-absorbed) and type 2 (absorbed) AGNs. Our regression analysis of log L14-195keV versus log L3.3μm shows a positive correlation and the slope seems steeper for type 1/unobscured AGNs than that of type 2/obscured AGNs. The same trend has been found for the log (L14-195keV/MBH) versus log (L3.3μm/MBH) correlation. Our analysis show that the circum-nuclear star-formation is more enhanced in type 2/absorbed AGNs than type 1/un-absorbed AGNs for low X-ray luminosity/low Eddington ratio AGNs.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
Our works have been concentred on the characterization of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composites films in order to obtain a new easy processing anode for organic device. The morphology and charge transport in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (4-styrenesulfonate) / SWCNT thin layers was investigated. PEDOT:PSS polymer acts as host material and an excellent dispersion of metallic single wall carbon nanotube (m-SWCNT) can be achieved enhancing the polymer’s electrical properties. The PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT films are prepared on glass substrates using spin coating method. Raman spectroscopy has been used to observe the surface states of PEDOT: PSS/SWCNT films and to realize Raman mapping that allow determining the homogeneity of the SWCNT dispersion into the films. Optical and electrical characterizations (sheet resistance, conductivity) of the films are also presented.
The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for
schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting
that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We
examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk
factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels (‘carbonyl stress’) and a
frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also
had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene
associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine
deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have
exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.
For a formation of metal hydride of MgH2 or AlH3 under room temperature and ambient pressure, the cathode electrodes of metal and lithium hydride are electrochemically charged with Li anode electrodes in the system of Li-ion extraction. For MgH2 formation, the VC (Voltage-Composition) curve of Mg + 2LiH during charge shows a plateau voltage at 0.6 V until the final composition of 1.05 Li extraction. After charge MgH2 phase is observed by the XRD measurement. Therefore MgH2 is produced by the electrochemical charge from Mg and LiH. For AlH3 formation, Al + 3LiH is charged until the final composition of 0.6 Li at a plateau voltage of 0.8 V which corresponds to the reaction between Al and LiH for the formation of AlH3. In the XRD profile after charge AlH3 phase is not detected although the intensities of Al and LiH decrease compared with these before charge, which suggests the reaction leading to the formation of AlH3.
In-situ observation of the reaction between light weight hydride LiH and NH3 gas was performed by means of TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) with an environmental cell. This environmental cell was designed for the observation of the gas-solid reaction under 0 ∼ 0.2 MPa gas atmosphere at 20 ∼ 150 °C. It has been confirmed a volume expansion and generation of LiNH2, that is the reaction between LiH and NH3. Moreover, it was revealed that LiNH2 was generated at the surface of LiH particle at first process of the reactions.
Dome Fuji is potentially one of the best astronomical sites in Antarctic plateau. We have a plan to build a 2-m class infrared telescope at Dome Fuji, and have been evaluating the site since the 2006/2007 Antarctic summer. We present the outline of a 2-m class telescope project and some results of our SODAR measurements.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
In order to characterize and control the adhesive behaviors of nanometer scaled stimuli-responsible gel particles designed for oral peptide delivery, their interaction with artificial mucin layer in the small intestinal solutions was determined by the colloid probe atomic force microscope method. The prepared nanometer scaled gel particles with a core-shell structure were designed to exhibit behaviors responsive to temperature and pH in solutions, consequently protect the incorporated peptide drug under harsh acidic conditions in the stomach, adhere and penetrate to the mucin layer in the small intestine, and thereafter release the drugs. Spherical agglomerates of the nano-gel particles with several micron meters in diameter were prepared by the spray freeze drying method and adhered on the top of tip of commercial atomic force microscope. The interaction between the artificial mucin layer and nano-gel surface with different molecular structure of shell determined by the colloid probe method depended on pH and counter-ion concentration of the solution. Based on the possible transition of the surface-microstructure of nano-gel particles following the pH change and the measured results from the colloid probe AFM method, the relationship between surface interaction and microstructure of nano-gel was discussed.
In this paper we present a novel approach to fabricate single-electron devices utilizing different self-organization and self-alignment effects. Silicon quantum dots (QDs) are obtained employing reactive ion etching (RIE) into a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with a self-assembled etch mask. Electrodes with nanometer separation are fabricated and aligned to the QDs by means of a controlled electromigration process. The tunneling rates of the devices are defined by the native oxide covering the silicon QDs and can be adjusted by self-limiting thermal oxidation. The devices show clear Coulomb blockade behavior as well as Coulomb staircase features. In some samples also a gate influence is present giving rise to Coulomb diamonds in the differential conductance diagram.
We have examined how the morphology of the trench sidewall evolves in the early phase of hydrogen annealing under the two conditions of hydrogen pressures. A distinguished result was obtained concerning the sidewall surface morphology after 30 s annealing at 1000 °C under 760 Torr hydrogen ambient. The evanescence of chemical Si dioxide formed by RCA cleaning process was clearly observed to initiate in various places on the surface. And in the area without chemical oxide, the appearance of atomic steps was also observed. In contrast under 40 Torr hydrogen ambient, the chemical oxide was completely removed even after 30 s annealing. Our observation shows that not only the rate of trench shape transformation but also the rate of removal of oxide films decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure.
The strain in the strained Si layer on a blanket strained Si/SiGe structure could not be determined with only convergent beam electron diffraction to high order Laue zone (HOLZ) line splitting. Combined with CBED and finite element calculations, we quantified the deformation field from HOLZ line splitting and demonstrated a procedure to determine the initial strain in the strained Si layer. Our results also gave us insights in strain relaxation in a TEM sample. The CBED technique combined with FE modeling has the potential for initial strain measurements on new generation short channel CMOS technology nodes.
We first present an analysis of the band line-up in the case of SiGe/Si quantum wells and in the case of SiGe/Si self-assembled islands. The conduction and valence band diagrams are obtained from a 30 band k.p Hamiltonian which allows to describe simultaneously conduction and valence band states. The strain field is obtained from a microscopic valence force field theory. The band edge alignment is strongly dependent on the input parameters for this heterosystem. We determine the average valence band offset from photoluminescence measurements of heterostructures grown on relaxed SiGe buffer layers. A type II band line-up is calculated for all Ge compositions in the case of two-dimensional quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands. The 30-band formalism allows the determination of the near-infrared interband recombination energy as a function of the self-assembled island structural parameters. We then present recent results obtained by embedding SiGe/Si self-assembled islands in two-dimensional photonic crystals. The photoluminescence of GeSi islands acts as an internal probe to characterize the optical properties of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystals designed for the near-infrared spectral range. Cavities, defect-free photonic crystals operated at the second Bragg order and two-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated on top of one-dimensional Bragg mirrors (2D + 1D) are described. We show that, in the case of 2D +1D structures, we can control the quality factor of optical modes at the second Bragg order by matching the resonance conditions and controlling the thickness of the layers. Photonic crystals with pure Ge layers are finally described.
Si and Ge nanocrystals were formed in alumina matrix by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The phase separation of the Si nanocrystals was observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy by monitoring Si 2p electrons. During nanocrystal formation with a high temperature annealing Si0 signals corresponding to Si nanoclusters increases while Si4+ signals related to a-SiO2 disappears from the spectrum. The transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline phase for both Si and Ge nanoclusters and the compressive stress exerted on the formed nanocrystals were also studied by Raman spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of the Al2O3 containing nanocrystals were discussed by means of Ti and Cr impurities, as well as F centers. The existence of the amorphous Ge nanoclusters in alumina matrix significantly enhances the light emission of Ti3+ impurities.
The contribution of oxide-related emission in Photoluminescence (PL) spectra from Ge and Si nanocrystals mixture embedded in silicon oxide (Ge/Si-SiO2) and Si nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide (Si-SiO2) thin film prepared by RF-magnetron co-sputtering method is investigated. All as-deposited thin films were annealed for 1 hour in the temperature range from 300 to 1100 °C in an Ar atmosphere. The samples were evaluated by using PL, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. All the measurements were performed at room temperature. The maximum PL intensity of Ge+Si-SiO2 mixture thin film has increased more than the Si-SiO2 thin film by approximately 10 times. From the results of Raman scattering and XPS measurements, it is consider that the oxygen defect centers in the host material SiO2 increased by the diffusion of Ge. An increase in the PL intensity of Ge+Si-SiO2 mixture thin film is systematically discussed.