To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The present study aimed to identify the factors that affect immediate (within 24 h after farrowing onset) postnatal piglet mortality in litters with hyperprolific sows, and investigate their associations with behaviour of postpartum sows in two different farrowing housing systems. A total of 30 sows were housed in: (1) CRATE (n=15): the farrowing crate closed (0.80×2.20 m) within a pen (2.50×1.70 m), and (2) OPEN (n=15): the farrowing crate open (0.80×2.20×1.80 m) within a pen (2.50×2.40 m) with a provision of 20 ls of hay in a rack. A total of 518 live born piglets, produced from the 30 sows, were used for data analyses during the first 24 h after the onset of parturition (T24). Behavioural observations of the sows were assessed via video analyses during T24. Total and crushed piglet mortality rates were higher in OPEN compared with CRATE (P<0.01, for both). During T24, the OPEN sows tended to show higher frequency of postural changes (P=0.07) and duration of standing (P=0.10), and showed higher frequencies of bar-biting (P<0.05) and piglet trapping (P<0.01), when compared with the CRATE sows. During T24, the mortality rates caused by crushing were correlated with the piglet trapping event (r=0.93, P<0.0001), postural changes (r=0.37, P<0.01), duration of standing (r=0.32, P<0.01) and frequency of bar-biting behaviour (r=0.51, P<0.01) of the sows (n=30). In conclusion, immediate postnatal piglet mortality, mainly due to crushing, may be associated with potential increases in frequency of postural changes, duration of standing and incidence of piglet trapping in postpartum sows in the open crate system with large litters.
Compensatory gain describes an accelerated growth seen in animals following a period of nutrient restriction. Methionine (Met) is the second limiting amino acid in typical swine diets and is essential for muscle growth. This study was conducted to determine (1) if a Met-deficient diet can cause growth retardation in growing pigs, (2) if returning to a normal feeding can yield compensatory gain in the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet, and (3) if this Met-deficiency followed by the normal feeding program affects carcass characteristics. Twenty individually-penned crossbred young barrows were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments (n = 10). One Met-deficient (D1) and one Met-adequate (D2) diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and fed to respective pigs for 31 days. After that, all pigs were fed the same commercial grower-finisher diet until market weight (around 125 kg), then slaughtered, and carcass characteristics measured. The D1 and D2 pigs began with similar body weights (23.5 vs. 23.6 kg; P = 0.935), but after 31-days on the dietary treatments, D1 pigs were lighter than D2 pigs (51.6 vs. 55.0 kg; P = 0.102). After feeding the normal diet for 55 days, D1 and D2 pigs had similar body weights (122.7 vs. 122.6 kg; P = 0.989). In terms of carcass characteristics, however, D1 pigs had thicker back-fat (at 10th rib; 2.95 vs. 2.51 cm; P = 0.015), heavier belly weight (11.0 vs. 9.6 kg; P = 0.005), lighter ham weights (untrimmed: 20.8 vs. 21.6 kg; P = 0.043; trimmed: 19.6 vs. 20.6 kg; P = 0.016), lighter picnic shoulder weight (8.72 vs. 9.80 kg; P = 0.041), lighter total lean cut weight (51.8 vs. 53.8 kg; P = 0.055), and lower lean cut percentage (56.4 vs. 59.0%; P = 0.012). These results indicate that the Met-deficient diet produced growth-retarded pigs, which showed compensatory gain after the normal feeding. At slaughter, the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet had more fat and less lean tissue than their non-deficient counterparts.
Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister is a potential biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). This study was carried out to understand the effect of abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) on the induction and termination of diapause in Z. bicolorata. We also evaluated the effect of diapause on longevity and fecundity of Z. bicolorata. In Z. bicolorata the induction of diapause occurred between the months of July and December. No diapause was observed in May and June, which coincided with the commencement of the monsoon rains. The percentage of diapause induction in Z. bicolorata was found to increase from one generation to another as well as with the age of adults. Diapause significantly increased the fecundity of females as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapause conditions. Soil moisture (80% RH) played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. Similarly, 18.4 and 12.5% of diapause adults resumed their activity in 6 and 5 days when exposed to temperatures of 40° and 45° C for 2 h every day, respectively. Exposure of adults to low temperatures, i.e. 5° and 10° C induced 94.3 and 92.5% diapause, respectively, with no adult mortality. Thus, our findings reveal suitable conditions for preventing and inducing diapause in Z. bicolorata, which is of great importance in the suppression of P. hysterophorus. We discuss the implications of these findings in the control of P. hysterophorus.
Introduction: Over the last few decades, health care facility design has been studied to look at its effect on many patient-centred outcomes. However, limited data exists on the impact that specific physical features of a clinical space may have on learning and the educational experience. The aim of this study is to develop a set of characteristics which clinicians, clinical teachers and residents believe should be present in a clinical space to maximize trainees learning, using an emergency department (ED) as a context. Methods: A qualitative methodology used semi- structured interviews with a purposive sample of twelve attending physicians and residents who work in EDs of varying age and design at several sites of a quaternary university hospital. We explored their perceptions of the physical features in the clinical and learning environment that supported or impeded teaching and learning. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Results: Preliminary results show that many physical characteristics of the clinical space are perceived to have an impact on trainees learning experience. A design with separation between clinician-learner dyads and the patients, with a visual access; shared clinical space among different health care professionals within a reasonable distance; availability of enough clinical space for specific emergency presentations; features such as adequate size, appropriate light, and control of sound were all perceived to enhance and augment clinical learning. Not surprisingly, non-design factors such as the presence of a functioning team and the availability of adequate equipment and technology was considered as important as the characteristics of physical space to optimize learning. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance and the impact of physical space design on trainees learning in a dynamic clinical environment. It provides teachers and policy-makers with a basis for developing criteria of the physical characteristics of a healthcare facility to maximize learning.
To examine changes in the spatial clustering of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (under-5s) for the period 1999 to 2011 in Bangladesh.
We used data from four nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 1999–2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving a total of 24 211 under-5s located in 1661 primary sampling units (PSU; geographical unit of analysis) throughout Bangladesh. The prevalence of stunting (height/length-for-age Z-score <−2), underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <−2) and wasting (weight-for-height/length Z-score <−2) at each PSU site and for each survey year were estimated based on the WHO child growth standard. The extent of spatial clustering was quantified using semivariograms.
Whole of Bangladesh.
Children under 5 years of age.
Our results demonstrate that in 1999–2000 most PSU throughout Bangladesh experienced stunting, underweight and wasting prevalence which exceeded the WHO thresholds. By 2011, this situation improved, although in two of the six divisions (Barisal and Sylhet) PSU still exhibited higher levels of malnutrition compared with other divisions of the country. The pattern of spatial clustering for stunting, underweight and wasting also changed between 1999 and 2011 both at national and sub-national (division) levels.
We identified divisions where malnutrition indicators (stunting, underweight and wasting) remain highly clustered and other divisions where they are more widely spread in Bangladesh. This has important implications on how interventions for malnutrition need to be delivered (geographically targeted interventions v. random interventions) within each division of the country.
Dendritic cells (DC) are central regulators of immune responses and professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique ability to induce both innate immune responses and a highly specific acquired immunity. DC communicates through chemical and mechanical signals in the initiation and maintenance of immune responses. DC forms immunological synapses with T-cells thus pulling T-cells strings and leading to activation of T-cells. Owing to their properties, DC are often called ‘nature's adjuvants’ and thus have become an important component of any vaccination strategy. Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease caused by Eimeria spp., affecting economically valuable livestock animals such as chickens and turkeys. Economic losses are associated with decreased productivity in afflicted poultry. Vaccination strategies involving DC have been developed owing to the special properties of these cells in coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from DC containing parasite antigens (Ags) represents a promising alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis. In recent years, emergence of new chicken DC has opened a new horizon for the development of new vaccines and DC derived vaccine could be a possible strategy to control coccidiosis in field. This review summarises the current state of knowledge of DC and their specific functions in immunity against avian coccidiosis.
In this paper the space variable-order fractional Schrödinger equation (VOFSE) is studied numerically, where the variable-order fractional derivative is described here in the sense of the quantum Riesz-Feller definition. The proposed numerical method is the weighted average non-standard finite difference method (WANSFDM). Special attention is given to study the stability analysis and the convergence of the proposed method. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show that this method is reliable and computationally efficient.
Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an important vegetable crop grown throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fab.), is one of the most important insect pests of okra. The effects of insecticides (cypermethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl and neem oil) were studied on the fitness of the F1 generation of E. vittella by a demographic method. Life table was constructed from the eggs obtained by the surviving individuals that had ingested insecticides. Survivorship and expectancy was highest with the commencement of age and gradually decreased with the progression of age in the treatment groups and control. However, it was reduced in the treatment groups in comparison to control groups. Highest numbers of unhatched eggs (17%) were recorded with imidacloprid and cypermethrin treatments, whereas all the eggs hatched in control groups. Larval mortality was high in the initial instars as compared to late instars. Potential fecundity was significantly reduced to 94 females/female/generation treated with cypermethrin as compared to 256 in the untreated females. Developmental time of pre-pupa and pupa was significantly decreased with cypermethrin treatment. The intrinsic rate of increase was reduced to 0.0201 females/female/day in cypermethrin groups as compared to 0.046 in the control groups. The generation time was 33.27 days in the control, which was reduced to 26.78 days with carbaryl treatment and was increased to 37.5 days with neem oil. Insecticides cause adverse effect on the surviving generation of E. vittella, and may be incorporated as a valuable component in the integrated management of E. vittella on okra.
Determination of critical threshold for induction and termination of diapause (hibernation) are important for better understanding the bio-ecology and population dynamics of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under varying climatic conditions. We studied initiation and termination of hibernation under five temperature and photoperiod regimes viz., 27°C + 12L:12D, 22°C + 11.5L:12.5D, 18°C + 11L:13D, 14°C + 10.5L:13.5D and 10°C + 10L:14D under fixed and ramping treatments, and the observations were recorded on various phenological and developmental characteristics at weekly intervals. Present studies revealed that the induction of hibernation in C. partellus larvae takes from 46 to 56 days depending upon temperature and photoperiod conditions. Induction of hibernation varied from 7.9 to 18.3% across treatment conditions, indicating that not all C. partellus larvae undergo diapause under prevailing environmental conditions. Weight, length and head capsule width of diapausing larvae were found significantly lower than the non-diapausing larvae. The non-diapausing C. partellus larvae required a thermal threshold of 1068 degree-days under ambient conditions, while in case of hibernating larvae it varied significantly across treatment conditions. Diapausing larvae underwent up to five supernumerary moults, wherein highest percentage of diapausing larvae (35.7%) exhibited two supernumerary moults. The developmental time of diapausing larvae varied from 94.9 to 160.4 days across treatments. A population loss of 17.2–28.3% was recorded in C. partellus due to hibernation, which has implications for population buildup of post-hibernation first brood and management strategies.
Colostrum is an essential source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for neonate piglets. However, colostrum IgG content and nutritional composition can vary considerably among sows due to age, parity, feeding regime and immunological background. Currently, there is no practical way to obtain information about colostrum IgG concentration at herd level. We evaluated sows’ colostrum IgG content on-farm using a Brix refractometer and its performance was compared with that of an IgG ELISA. In addition, nutritional compositions of the colostrum samples were analyzed using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Colostrum samples (5 to 6 ml) (n=153) were obtained within 0 to 3 h of farrowing. However, to obtain a 24 h IgG profile for 11 sows, colostrum samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 24 h after farrowing. A 0.3 ml of freshly drawn colostrum sample was used for the on-farm measurement of Brix percentages using a digital refractometer shortly after collection. The remaining fractions of the samples were frozen and submitted to laboratory analysis for total IgG, using a commercially available pig IgG ELISA kit. For nutritional composition analysis, a 35 ml colostrum sample (n=34) was obtained immediately after birth of first piglet from the first three pairs of frontal teats. Colostrum concentrations of IgG averaged 52.03±30.70 mg/ml (mean±SEM) at 0 to 3 h after farrowing. Concentration of IgG decreased on average by 50% during the 1st day of lactation (P<0.01). Sow parity did not influence colostrum concentrations of IgG. Differences in colostrum composition were recorded between two herds and among the parity groups (P<0.05). The Brix refractometer measurement of colostrum and the corresponding log transformed IgG measurements from the ELISA were moderately correlated (r=0.63, P<0.001, n=153). Based on the classification we suggest here, low levels of IgG (14.5±1.8 mg/ml) were recorded for colostrum samples with Brix readings below 20%. Borderline colostrum IgG content (43.8±2.3 mg/ml) had Brix readings of 20% to 24%, adequate colostrum IgG content (50.7±2.1 mg/ml) had Brix % readings of 25% to 29% and very good IgG colostrum content (78.6±8.4 mg/ml) had Brix readings >30%. Colostrum IgG concentration is highly variable among sows, Brix measurement of a sows’ fresh colostrum is an inexpensive, rapid and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration, providing indication of differentiation between good and poor IgG content of colostrum.
Patients with psychosis display the so-called ‘Jumping to Conclusions’ bias (JTC) – a tendency for hasty decision-making in probabilistic reasoning tasks. So far, only a few studies have evaluated the JTC bias in ‘at-risk mental state’ (ARMS) patients, specifically in ARMS samples fulfilling ‘ultra-high risk’ (UHR) criteria, thus not allowing for comparisons between different ARMS subgroups.
In the framework of the PREVENT (secondary prevention of schizophrenia) study, a JTC task was applied to 188 patients either fulfilling UHR criteria or presenting with cognitive basic symptoms (BS). Similar data were available for 30 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, education and premorbid verbal intelligence. ARMS patients were identified by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Adult Version (SPI-A).
The mean number of draws to decision (DTD) significantly differed between ARM -subgroups: UHR patients made significantly less draws to make a decision than ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. Furthermore, UHR patients tended to fulfil behavioural criteria for JTC more often than BS patients. In a secondary analysis, ARMS patients were much hastier in their decision-making than controls. In patients, DTD was moderately associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as disorganization and excitement.
Our data indicate an enhanced JTC bias in the UHR group compared to ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. This underscores the importance of reasoning deficits within cognitive theories of the developing psychosis. Interactions with the liability to psychotic transitions and therapeutic interventions should be unravelled in longitudinal studies.
A highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement system based on MEMS pressure sensors spliced into a fiber optic cable and suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well was designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 60+) point sensor measurements on a single fiber. The interrogator was interfaced with the GE PredixTM industrial internet to demonstrate a remote monitoring system. Sensor packages were fabricated and tested at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2. Environmental and stress testing of the sensor components and package indicated areas in which the design of the package should be further improved.
Religious laws do not usually forbid the use of psychotropic medication, but many do forbid the consumption of animal-based derivatives of bovine and/or porcine origin (e.g. gelatin and stearic acid) such as are found in many medications. Demonstrating awareness of this, combined with a genuine concern about how it affects the patient, may strengthen the doctor—patient relationship and avoid non-adherence. In this article, we outline dietary requirements of key religions and belief systems that may have a bearing when prescribing medication containing animal-based ingredients. We identify common psychotropics that contain animal-based derivatives and suggest alternative prescribing options and approaches to dealing with sensitive ethical issues.
After more than half a century of community support related to the science of “solar activity”, IAU's Commission 10 was formally discontinued in 2015, to be succeeded by C.E2 with the same area of responsibility. On this occasion, we look back at the growth of the scientific disciplines involved around the world over almost a full century. Solar activity and fields of research looking into the related physics of the heliosphere continue to be vibrant and growing, with currently over 2,000 refereed publications appearing per year from over 4,000 unique authors, publishing in dozens of distinct journals and meeting in dozens of workshops and conferences each year. The size of the rapidly growing community and of the observational and computational data volumes, along with the multitude of connections into other branches of astrophysics, pose significant challenges; aspects of these challenges are beginning to be addressed through, among others, the development of new systems of literature reviews, machine-searchable archives for data and publications, and virtual observatories. As customary in these reports, we highlight some of the research topics that have seen particular interest over the most recent triennium, specifically active-region magnetic fields, coronal thermal structure, coronal seismology, flares and eruptions, and the variability of solar activity on long time scales. We close with a collection of developments, discoveries, and surprises that illustrate the range and dynamics of the discipline.
Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic inflammatory response. Steroids suppress this response, although the therapeutic evidence remains controversial. We hypothesised that intravenous steroids in children undergoing open-heart surgery would decrease inflammation leading to better early post-operative outcomes. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the trends in the levels of immunomodulators and their effects on clinical parameters.
To assess the effects of intravenous steroids on early post-operative inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in children undergoing open-heart surgery.
Materials and methods
A randomised controlled trial involving 152 patients, from one month up to 18 years of age, who underwent open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease from April 2010–2012 was carried out. Patients were randomised and administered either three scheduled intravenous pulse doses of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or placebo. Blood samples were drawn at four time intervals and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines – Interleukin-6, 8, 10, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha – were measured. Clinical parameters were also assessed.
Blood cytokine levels were compared between the dexamethasone (n=65) and placebo (n=64) groups. Interleukin-6 levels were lower at 6 and 24 hours post-operatively (p<0.001), and Interleukin-10 levels were higher 6 hours post-operatively (p<0.001) in the steroid group. Interleukin-8, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels did not differ between the groups at any time intervals. The clinical parameters were similar in both the groups.
Dexamethasone caused quantitative suppression of Interleukin-6 and increased Interleukin-10 activation, contributing to reduced immunopathology, but it did not translate into clinical benefit in the short term.
To estimate the average annual rates of reduction of stunting, underweight and wasting for the period 1996 to 2011, and to evaluate whether Bangladesh will be expected to achieve the target of Millennium Development Goal 1C of reducing the prevalence of underweight by half by 2015.
We used five nationwide, cross-sectional, Demographic and Health Survey data sets to estimate prevalence of undernutrition defined by stunting, underweight and wasting among children under 5 years of age using the WHO child growth standards. We then computed the average annual rates of reduction of prevalence of undernutrition using the formula derived by UNICEF. Finally, we projected the prevalence of undernutrition for the year 2015 using the estimated average annual rates of reduction.
Nationwide covering Bangladesh.
Children under 5 years of age (n 28 941).
The prevalence of stunting decreased by 18·8 % (from 60·0 % to 41·2 %), underweight by 16·0 % (from 52·2 % to 36·2 %) and wasting by 5·1 % (from 20·6 % to 15·5 %) during 1996 to 2011. The overall average annual rates of reduction were 2·84 %, 2·69 % and 2·47 %, respectively, for stunting, underweight and wasting. We forecast that in 2015, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting will be 36·7 %, 32·5 % and 14·0 %, respectively, at the national level. The prevalence of undernutrition is likely to remain high in rural areas, in the Sylhet division and in the poorest wealth quintile.
Bangladesh is likely to achieve the Millennium Development Goal 1C target of reducing the prevalence of underweight by half by 2015. However, it is falling behind in reducing stunting and further investment is needed to reduce individual, household and environmental determinants of stunting in Bangladesh.
Cognitive radio (CR), as coined and defined by its first proponent, is the integration of model-based reasoning with software radio techniques . An important aspect of cognitive radio is the efficient use of resources, especially the frequency spectrum, in a typical communication environment. Spectrum management requires spectrum sensing; the subsampling technique has been demonstrated to be an efficient approach for spectrum sensing for CR applications . Cognitive radio technology, in the context of white space, has been discussed in Chapter 1 of this book. Situation awareness and learning capability are some of the features in a CR through which it becomes aware of the location, radio frequency (RF) environment, and updates its knowledge. Environmental information in a CR is typically provided by an in-built or network-enabled radio environment map (REM) through some learning process. A typical CR node consists of the RF front-end and configurable hardware and software platform. The current software-defined radio (SDR) platforms will facilitate the evolution of CR by adding cognitive and intelligent features to it with the help of cognitive engines (CE). Cognitive engines are essentially the software packages that facilitate the cognitive feature to an agile radio platform.
A software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio that can accommodate a significant range of RF bands and air interface modes through software . An ideal SDR receiver will sample and digitize the RF signals as close as possible to the receiver antenna.