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An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that meat products have digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) greater than 100, and that various processing methods will increase standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and DIAAS. Nine ileal-cannulated gilts were randomly allotted to a 9 × 8 Youden square design with 9 diets and eight 7 d periods. Values for SID of AA and DIAAS for 2 reference patterns were calculated for salami, bologna, beef jerky, raw ground beef, cooked ground beef, and ribeye roast heated to 56, 64, or 72oC. The SID for most AA was not different among salami, bologna, beef jerky, and cooked ground beef, but was less (P < 0.05) than values for raw ground beef. The SID of AA for 56oC ribeye roast was not different from values for raw ground beef and 72oC ribeye roast, but greater (P < 0.05) than for 64oC ribeye roast. For older children, adolescents, and adults, the DIAAS for all proteins, except cooked ground beef, were greater than 100, and bologna and 64oC ribeye roast had the greatest (P < 0.05) DIAAS. The limiting AA for this age group were sulfur AA (beef jerky), Leucine (bologna, raw ground beef, and cooked ground beef), and Valine (salami and the 3 ribeye roasts). In conclusion, meat products generally provide high quality protein with DIAAS greater than 100 regardless of processing. However, overcooking meat may reduce AA digestibility and DIAAS.
Foamy, whitish appearance of the pyloric caeca, reflecting elevated lipid content, histologically visible as hypervacuolation, is frequently observed in Atlantic salmon fed high plant diets. Lipid malabsorption syndrome (LMS) is suggested as term for the phenomenon. Earlier studies have shown that insufficient supply of phospholipids may cause similar symptoms. The objective of the present study was to strengthen knowledge on the role of choline, the key component of phosphatidylcholine, in development of LMS as well as finding the dietary required choline level in Atlantic salmon. A regression design was chosen to be able to estimate the dietary requirement level of choline, if found essential for the prevention of LMS. Atlantic salmon (456 g) were fed diets supplemented with 0, 392, 785, 1177, 1569, 1962, 2354, 2746 and 3139 mg/kg choline chloride. Fish fed the lowest choline diet had pyloric caeca with whitish foamy surface, elevated relative weight, and the enterocytes were hypervacuolated. These characteristics diminished with increasing choline level and levelled off at levels of 2850, 3593 and 2310 mg/kg, respectively. The concomitant alterations in expression of genes related to phosphatidylcholine synthesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and storage, confirmed the importance of choline in lipid turnover in the intestine and ability to prevent LMS. Based on the observations of the present study the lowest level of choline which prevents LMS and intestinal lipid hypervacuolation in post smolt Atlantic salmon is 3.4 g/kg. However, the optimal level most likely depends on the feed intake and dietary lipid level.
Piglet birth weight and within-litter birth weight variation are important for piglet survival and growth. Pre-mating diets may improve IGF-1 and follicle development during the weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI) and subsequent piglet birth weight. The objective of this study was to modulate IGF-1 concentration during late lactation and the WEI of young sows by using specific pre-mating diets supplemented with microfibrillated cellulose (MF), l-carnitine (LC) or l-arginine (AR). A further objective was to investigate the relationship between IGF-1 and subsequent follicle development and oestrus and ovulation characteristics. In total, 56 first-parity and 20 second-parity sows in three consecutive batches were used for this experiment. Sows received daily either wheat (CON) or wheat plus MF, LC or AR at one of two supplementation levels (low and high) during last week of lactation and WEI. From weaning onwards, follicle and corpus luteum (CL) diameters were repeatedly measured with ultrasound. Blood samples were collected during the WEI for IGF-1 and on day 21 of pregnancy for progesterone analyses, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration, follicle diameter, oestrus and ovulation characteristics and CL diameter were not affected by pre-mating diets. Low IGF-1 class (≤156 ng/ml, N = 22) sows had smaller follicles at weaning (3.5 v. 3.8 mm, P < 0.05) and a longer weaning-to-ovulation interval (147.2 v. 129.8 h, P < 0.05) than high IGF-1 class sows. In first-parity sows, high loin muscle depth (LM) loss sows (≥8%, N = 28) had lower IGF-1 concentrations at weaning (167 v. 214 ng/ml, P < 0.05) compared to low LM loss sows (<8%, N = 28). However, after weaning, IGF-1 concentrations increased and did not differ between high LM loss and low LM loss sows. In conclusion, the different supplemented compounds in pre-mating diets did not improve IGF-1 concentrations around weaning in young sows. Furthermore, high body condition loss caused lower IGF-1 concentrations at weaning, but these levels rapidly recovered after weaning and were related to follicle development and the interval from weaning to ovulation.
Materials with crystal structures containing tetrahedral motifs are preferable for optoelectronic applications because they often have direct band gaps and low electron effective masses. However, crystal structures of manganese chalcogenides typically contain octahedral motifs, such as in rock salt (RS) MnS and MnSe materials. Here, we experimentally show that MnS1−xSex alloys with tetrahedrally bonded wurtzite (WZ) structure can form between MnSe and MnS parent compounds with octahedral RS structures, at S-rich compositions (x < 0.4) and low synthesis temperatures (∼300 °C). The calculated mixing enthalpies of MnS1−xSex alloys in RS and WZ structures cannot explain this experimental observation, so we hypothesize that WZ stabilization may be related to smaller structure density and lower surface energy compared with RS. The resulting WZ MnS1−xSex alloys have 3.0–3.2 eV optical absorption onset and lower electrical conductivity (<0.0001 S/cm) than the parent RS compounds. These experimental measurement results are consistent with computationally predicted band gaps and effective masses.
Indicators are necessary to monitor national progress toward commitments made to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), but countries often struggle to mobilize quantitative indicators for many biodiversity targets. Assessing the extent to which countries are using measurable indicators from global and national sources by surveying 5th National Reports to the CBD, we found that nationally generated indicators were used 11 times more frequently than global indicators and only one-fifth of indicators matched those recommended by the CBD, suggesting that countries and indicator experts should work more closely to agree upon measurable, scalable, fit-for-purpose indicators for the next generation of CBD targets.
Soil alkalinity imposes important limitations to lupin productivity; however, little attention has been paid to investigate the effects of soil alkalinity on plant growth and development. Many lupins are sensitive to alkaline soils, but Lupinus albus material from Egypt was found to have tolerance to limed soils. The aim of this study was to compare the growth response of two cultivars of L.albus L. – an Egyptian cultivar, P27734, and an Australian cultivar, Kiev Mutant, to different soil pH levels and to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying agronomic alkalinity tolerance of P27734. Plants were grown under three pH levels (5.1, 6.7, and 7.8) in a temperature-controlled glasshouse. For both cultivars, the greatest dry mass production and carboxylate exudation from roots were observed at alkaline pH. The better performance of the Egyptian cultivar at high pH was entirely accounted for by its greater seed weight. From a physiological perspective, the Australian cultivar was as alkaline-tolerant as the Egyptian cultivar. These findings highlight the agronomic importance of seed weight for sowing, and both cultivars can be used in alkaline soils.
The effect of hot streaks from a gas turbine combustor on the thermodynamic load of internally air-cooled nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and shrouds has been numerically investigated under flight conditions. The study follows two steps: one for the high-fidelity 60° combustor sector with simplified ten NGVs and three thermocouples attached; and the other for the NGV sectors where each sector consists of one high-fidelity NGV (probe NGV) and nine dummy NGVs. The first step identifies which NGV has the highest thermal load and provides the inlet flow boundary conditions for the second step. In the second step, the flow fields and thermal loads of the probe NGVs are resolved in detail.
With the systematically validated physical models, the two-phase flowfield of the combustor-NGVs sector has been successfully simulated. The predicted mean and maximum temperature at the combustor sector exit are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which provides a solid basis for the hot-streak effect investigation. The results indicate that the second NGV, looking upstream from left, has the highest thermal load. Its maximum surface temperature is 8.4% higher than that for the same NGV but with the mean inlet boundary conditions, and 14.1% higher than the ninth NGV. The finding is consistent with the field-observed NGV damage pattern. To extend the service life of these vulnerable NGVs, some protection methods should be considered.
To assess the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods in two Southern low-income communities targeted by the Balance Calories Initiative, a campaign by the top-three American beverage companies intended to reduce the consumption of sugary beverages by 20 % over 10 years.
We conducted self-administered intercept surveys in front of food retail outlets between August and November 2016. We recruited adults with children <18 years living at home and adolescents aged 10–17 years with parental consent.
Retail food outlets in Mississippi and Alabama, USA.
Adults (n 11 311) and adolescents (n 3460).
The percentage of high SSB consumers (≥4 servings/d) was 40·9 % among adult males, 32·3 % among adult females, 43·0 % among adolescent males and 34·4 % among adolescent females (male – female difference, P < 0·0001). In aggregate, respondents also reported consuming a mean of 3 servings of salty snacks, cookies and/or candy in the past 24 h, with adolescent males reporting 4 servings.
SSB should be a primary target of future interventions to improve dietary intake, but EDNP foods likely contribute as many daily kilojoules as SSB among this population. Future campaigns should aim to limit the consumption of all EDNP foods.
Most research on the causes of women's underrepresentation examines one of two stages of the political pipeline: the development of nascent political ambition or specific aspects of the campaign and election process. In this article, we make a different kind of contribution. We build on the growing literature on gender, psychology, and representation to provide an analysis of what kinds of men and women make it through the political pipeline at each stage. This allows us to draw some conclusions about the ways in which the overall process is similar and different for women and men. Using surveys of the general U.S. population (N = 1,939) and elected municipal officials such as mayors and city councilors (N = 2,354) that measure the distribution of Big Five personality traits, we find that roughly the same types of men and women have nascent political ambition; there is just an intercept shift for sex. In contrast, male and female elected officials have different personality profiles. These differences do not reflect underlying distributions in the general population or the population of political aspirants. In short, our data suggest that socialization into political ambition is similar for men and women, but campaign and election processes are not.
We used a survey to characterize contemporary infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship program practices across 64 healthcare facilities, and we compared these findings to those of a similar 2013 survey. Notable findings include decreased frequency of active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, frequent active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and increased support for antibiotic stewardship programs.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Antenna-pattern measurements obtained from a double-metal supra-terahertz-frequency (supra-THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) are presented. The QCL is mounted within a mechanically micro-machined waveguide cavity containing dual diagonal feedhorns. Operating in continuous-wave mode at 3.5 THz, and at an ambient temperature of ~60 K, QCL emission has been directed via the feedhorns to a supra-THz detector mounted on a multi-axis linear scanner. Comparison of simulated and measured far-field antenna patterns shows an excellent degree of correlation between beamwidth (full-width-half-maximum) and sidelobe content and a very substantial improvement when compared with unmounted devices. Additionally, a single output has been used to successfully illuminate and demonstrate an optical breadboard arrangement associated with a future supra-THz Earth observation space-borne payload. Our novel device has therefore provided a valuable demonstration of the effectiveness of supra-THz diagonal feedhorns and QCL devices for future space-borne ultra-high-frequency Earth-observing heterodyne radiometers.
We prove a conditional theorem on the positivity of the Lyapunov exponent for a Schrödinger cocycle over a skew-shift base with a cosine potential and the golden ratio as frequency. For coupling below
, which is the threshold for Herman’s subharmonicity trick, we formulate three conditions on the Lyapunov exponent in a finite but large volume and on the associated large-deviation estimates at that scale. Our main results demonstrate that these finite-size conditions imply the positivity of the infinite-volume Lyapunov exponent. This paper shows that it is possible to make the techniques developed for the study of Schrödinger operators with deterministic potentials, based on large-deviation estimates and the avalanche principle, effective.