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To propose a new classification of inner-ear anomalies that is more clinically oriented and surgically relevant: the SMS (Sawai Man Singh) classification of cochleovestibular malformations.
A retrospective multicentric study was conducted of 436 cochlear implantations carried out in 3 Indian tertiary care institutes. Patients with anomalous anatomy were included and classified, as per the new SMS classification, into cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, based on cochlear morphology, modiolus and lamina cribrosa.
There were 19, 23, 8 and 4 patients with cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, respectively. Two-year post-operative Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores were statistically analysed.
This new classification for inner-ear anomalies is a simpler, more practical, outcome-oriented classification that can be used to better plan the surgery. These merits make it a more uniform classification for recording results.
The study primarily aimed to calculate the orientation of the cochlea pre-operatively, using high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and predict the ease of electrode insertion.
Pre-operatively, high-resolution computed tomography scans were conducted on children scheduled for cochlear implantation, and two angles, α and β, were calculated. The values of α and β were then correlated with intra-operative difficulty in insertion of the electrode array.
Ninety-six children were included in the study. Of the seven patients who had an α angle of less than 50 degrees, the surgeon experienced difficulties in electrode insertion. However, there were four patients with an α angle of more than 50 degrees for whom the surgeon also experienced difficulties in electrode insertion. In all these patients, the β angle was more than 20 degrees.
Calculation of cochlear orientation and its angle with the surgical axis (α and β) can aid the planning of surgery, particularly with regard to the cochleostomy site and preservation of residual hearing.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted clinical and research efforts. We sought to develop a brief method for clinical subtyping in clinical and research settings.
A multi-site database, including motor symptom assessments conducted in 487 patients from palliative care, adult and old age consultation-liaison psychiatry services was used to document motor activity disturbances as per the Delirium Motor Checklist (DMC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify the class structure underpinning DMC data and also items for a brief subtyping scale. The concordance of the abbreviated scale was then compared with the original Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS) in 375 patients having delirium as per the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria.
Latent class analysis identified four classes that corresponded closely with the four recognized motor subtypes of delirium. Further, LCA of items (n = 15) that loaded >60% to the model identified four features that reliably identified the classes/subtypes, and these were combined as a brief motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4). There was good concordance for subtype attribution between the original DMSS and the DMSS-4 (κ = 0.63).
The DMSS-4 allows for rapid assessment of clinical subtypes in delirium and has high concordance with the longer and well-validated DMSS. More consistent clinical subtyping in delirium can facilitate better delirium management and more focused research effort.
Visual perceptual problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often affect activities of daily living (ADLs). PD patients with non-tremor symptoms at disease onset (i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance or postural instability) have more diffuse neurobiological abnormalities and report worse non-motor symptoms and functional changes than patients whose initial symptom is tremor, but the relation of motor symptom subtype to perceptual deficits remains unstudied. We assessed visual ADLs with the Visual Activities Questionnaire in 25 non-demented patients with PD, 13 with tremor as the initial symptom and 12 with an initial symptom other than tremor, as well as in 23 healthy control participants (NC). As expected, the non-tremor patients, but not the tremor patients, reported more impairment in visual ADLs than the NC group, including in light/dark adaptation, acuity/spatial vision, depth perception, peripheral vision and visual processing speed. Non-tremor patients were significantly worse than tremor patients overall and on light/dark adaptation and depth perception. Environmental enhancements especially targeted to patients with the non-tremor PD subtype may help to ameliorate their functional disability. (JINS, 2011, 17, 841–852)
Anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a major burden on families. Carers (e.g. parents or partners) of people with AN are often highly distressed and may inadvertently respond in ways that can contribute to the maintenance of the disorder, e.g. through high levels of over-involvement and criticism [also known as expressed emotion (EE)]. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel web-based systemic cognitive-behavioural (CBT) intervention for carers of people with AN, designed to reduce carer distress and teach skills in how to offer effective support.
Carers of people with AN (n=64) were randomly allocated to either the web-intervention, overcoming anorexia online, with limited clinician supportive guidance (by email or phone), or to ad-hoc usual support from the UK patient and carer organization Beat. Carer outcomes were assessed at post-treatment (4 months) and follow-up (6 months).
Compared with the control intervention, web-based treatment significantly reduced carers' anxiety and depression (primary outcome) at post-treatment, with a similar trend in carers' EE. Other secondary outcomes did not favour the online intervention. Gains were maintained at follow-up.
This is the first ever study to use an online CBT program to successfully reduce carer distress and improve carers' ability to support the person with AN.
Cognitive–behavioural self-care is advocated as a first step in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.
To examine the effectiveness of a CD–ROM-based cognitive–behavioural intervention in bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) (bulimic type) in a routine setting.
Ninety-seven people with bulimia nervosa or eating disorder NOS were randomised to either CD–ROM without support for 3 months followed by a flexible number of therapist sessions or to a 3-month waiting list followed by 15 sessions of therapist cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) (ISRCTN51564819). Clinical symptoms were assessed at pre-treatment 3 months and 7 months.
Only two-thirds of participants started treatment. Although there were significant group × time interactions for bingeing and vomiting, favouring the CD–ROM group at 3 months and the waiting-list group at 7 months, post hoc group comparisons at 3 and 7 months found no significant differences for bingeing or vomiting. CD–ROM-based delivery of this intervention, without support from a clinician, may not be the best way of exploiting its benefits.
Fourteen strains of S. Typhi (n=13) and S. Paratyphi A (n=1) resistant to ciprofloxacin were compared with 30 ciprofloxacin decreased-susceptibility strains on the basis of qnr plasmid analysis, and nucleotide substitutions at gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. In ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, five S. Typhi and a single S. Paratyphi A showed triple mutations in gyrA (Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Asn, Glu133→Gly) and a novel mutation outside the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) (Met52→Leu). Novel mutations were also discovered in an isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration 8 μg/ml) in gyrA gene Asp76→Asn and outside the QRDR Leu44→Ile. Out of 30 isolates with reduced susceptibility, single mutation was found in 12 strains only. Genes encoding qnr plasmid (qnr A, qnr B, AAC1-F) were not detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant or decreased-susceptibility strains. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns of resistance, which is quintessential for reappraisal of enteric fever therapeutics.
High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while protecting the cathode from the accelerator.
The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.
Sildenafil citrate has been shown to enhance neurogenesis, angiogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neurological outcome by augmentation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in animal models of ischemic stroke. Whether sildenafil citrate may be helpful for recovery in human stroke is unknown at this time.
A 41-year-old woman with locked-in syndrome due to pontine infarction began receiving 150 mg of oral sildenafil citrate daily on a compassionate use basis in August 2003 and continues treatment at this time. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was performed at 12 and 17 months after stroke.
No serious adverse events have occurred. Significant milestone recoveries including standing, use of both arms, talking, and full return of swallowing have occurred, particularly after nine months of treatment. The MEG showed a significantly increased amplitude in the somatosensory cortex.
Daily use of high dose sildenafil citrate appears to be safe in this patient with stroke resulting in locked-in syndrome. Further studies will be required to establish safety and efficacy.
Background and objective: Auditory impairment is among the lesser known complications of spinal analgesia. The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of vestibulocochlear dysfunction in patients undergoing spinal analgesia for lower abdominal surgery.
Methods: Eighty patients who had received spinal analgesia for lower abdominal surgery were studied. Males were undergoing inguinal herniorraphy and the females tubectomy. Audiograms were performed before operation and on the second and seventh postoperative days. Hearing levels were measured from 250 Hz-8 kHz. In Group 1 (n = 40) a 22-gauge, cutting type of spinal needle (Howard Jones) was used. In Group 2 (n = 40) a 25-gauge, non-cutting spinal needle (Whitacre) was used.
Results: Hearing loss ' 10 dB was noticed in three patients in Group 1 and none in Group 2. The mean hearing level was more reduced in Group 1 patients.
Conclusions: Use of cutting type spinal needle is associated with a greater decrease in mean hearing levels compared to the non-cutting type.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism has been associated with high altitude (HA) disorders as well as physical performance. We, however, envisage that the polymorphism may be associated with adaptation to the hypobaric hypoxia of altitude, thus facilitating physical performance. For this purpose, three unrelated adult male groups, namely (1) the Ladakhis (HLs), who reside at and above a height of 3600 m, (2) lowlanders, who migrated to Ladakh (MLLs), and (3) resident lowlanders (LLs), have been investigated. The HLs had significantly (p < 0.001) greater numbers of the II homozygotes and the ID heterozygotes than the DD homozygotes, the genotype distribution being 0.46, 0.43 and 0.11 for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. The MLLs comprised 60% II homozygotes, which was higher (p < 0.001) than the HLs (46%). In the LLs, the heterozygotes were greater (p < 0.001) in number than the II and DD homozygotes. The I allele frequency was 0.72 in the MLLs, 0.67 in the HLs and 0.55 in the LLs. Polymorphism study suggested that the II genotype could be associated with altitude adaptation, which might influence physical efficiency.
The role of viruses in the aetiology of both chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and depressive illness is uncertain.
A prospective cohort study of 250 primary care patients, presenting with glandular fever or an ordinary upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).
The incidence of an acute fatigue syndrome was 47% at onset, after glandular fever, compared with 20% with an ordinary URTI (relative risk 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1). The acute fatigue syndrome lasted a median (interquartile range) of eight weeks (4–16) after glandular fever, but only three weeks (2–4) after an URTI. The prevalence of CFS was 9–22% six months after glandular fever, compared with 0–6% following an ordinary URTI, with relative risks of 2.7–5.1. The most conservative measure of the incidence of CFS was 9% after glandular fever, compared with no cases after an URTI. A conservative estimate is that glandular fever accounts for 3113 (95% C11698–4528) new cases of CFS per annum in England and Wales. New episodes of major depressive disorder were triggered by infection, especially the Epstein – Barr virus, but lasted a median of only three weeks. No psychiatric disorder was significantly more prevalent six months after onset than before.
Glandular fever is a significant risk factor for both acute and chronic fatigue syndromes. Transient new major depressive disorders occur close to onset, but are not related to any particular infection if they last more than a month.
The validity and reliability of an empirically defined fatigue syndrome were tested in a prospective cohort study of 245 primary care patients, with glandular fever or an upper respiratory tract infection. Subjects were interviewed three times in the 6 months after onset. Subjects with the empirically defined fatigue syndrome were compared with those who were well and those who had a psychiatric disorder.
The validity of the fatigue syndrome was supported, separate from psychiatric disorders in general and depressive disorders in particular. Only 16% of subjects with the principal component derived fatigue factor also met criteria for a psychiatric disorder (excluding pre-morbid phobias). Compared with subjects with psychiatric disorders, subjects with the operationally defined fatigue syndrome reported more severe physical fatigue, especially after exertion, were just as socially incapacitated, had fewer mental state abnormalities, and showed little overlap on independent questionnaires. A more mild fatigue state also existed. Both the fatigue syndrome and state were more reliable diagnoses over time than depressive disorders. The empirically defined fatigue syndrome probably is a valid and reliable condition in the 6 months following glandular fever.
This prospective cohort study was designed to test whether a distinct fatigue syndrome existed after the onset of glandular fever. Two hundred and fifty primary care patients, with either glandular fever or an ordinary upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were interviewed three times in the 6 months after the clinical onset of their infection. At each interview a standardized psychiatric interview was given and physical symptoms were assessed.
There were 108 subjects with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection; 83 subjects had glandular fever not caused by EBV and 54 subjects had an ordinary URTI. Five subjects were excluded because they had no evidence of an infection. Principal components analyses of symptoms supported the existence of a fatigue syndrome, particularly in the two glandular fever groups. The addition of symptoms not elicited by the standard interviews gave the full syndrome. This included physical and mental fatigue, excessive sleep, psychomotor retardation, poor concentration, anhedonia, irritability, social withdrawal, emotional lability, and transient sore throat and neck gland swelling with pain. A fatigue syndrome probably exists after glandular fever.
Factors influencing potato virus X (PVX)-induced resistance to Alternaria solani in potato leaves are reported. The inhibition of fungal infection was dependent on the time interval between viral and fungal inoculations, fungal inoculum load, age of the host, virus strain and host cultivar. The maximum reduction in fungal infection was observed when a gap of 120 h occurred between PVX and A. solani inoculations. The clearest interactive effect in terms of reduced susceptibility to A. solani infection was seen at a fungal spore concentration of 1000 spores/ml in 20-day-old plants. This effect was gradually reduced following an increase in inoculum load and age of the host.
The extent of pathogen interaction was also affected by different virus strains and host cultivars. Maximum inhibition of fungal disease occurred with the PVX-ring spot strain. Of five potato cultivar tested, the maximum inhibition occurred in Kufri Chandramukhi and Kufri Sindhuri, the cultivars most susceptible to A. solani.