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This work presents the synthesis and characterization of a pearylated polysiloxane material (PAP) from a polycondensation reaction, followed by functionalization with HClSO3 by an electrophilic substitution reaction. According to the characterization techniques applied, a sulfonated pearylated polysiloxane was also obtained, (SPAP). The purpose of this sulfonated material is to obtain an ionomer able to be applied in hydrogen fuel cells of the proton exchange membrane kind (PEMFC). The reaction to produce the polysiloxane precursor was carried out with the commercial reagents: PhSiCl3, Ph2SiCl2 and Ph3SiCl in anhydrous THF at 75 °C and the SPAP material was obtained by sulfonation of the precursor with chlorosulfonic acid. PAP and SPAP were characterized by 1H, NMR for liquids, 29Si NMR for solids, IR-ATR, SEM, and cyclic voltammetry. The NMR 29Si spectra show that PAP and PAPS contain crosslinking regions due to PhSiCl3, growing chain zones due to Ph2SiCl2 and polymer termination zones due to Ph3SiCl, obtaining a mixture of siloxanes. The analysis by cyclic voltammetry indicates that by integrating the area under the curve of the adsorption peaks of H2, a value of 0.062 mC/cm2 is obtained, a value close to the commercial ionomer of Nafion®.
Different nanostructures such as: CuOH nanorods, CuO nanosheets and Cu2O nanograins were obtained by anodization approach at room temperature during times from 10 to 40 minutes. By scanning electron microscopy technique, it was found that Cu2O nanograins were formed at 10 minutes, CuO nanosheets vertically oriented on nanograins were observed at 20 and 30 minutes, and from 20 minutes CuOH nanorods with low vertical orientation on nanosheets were formed, coexisting the three types of nanostructures at the same system. In samples without thermal treatment were observed that Raman spectra of nanograins have a typical signal at 218 cm-1 associated to Cu2O, Raman spectra of nanosheets have signals at 287 and 630 cm-1 associated to CuO and Raman spectra of nanorods, it was observed that Raman spectrum is dominated by an intense signal associated to CuOH located around 488cm-1. In addition, after 3 hours of thermal treatment at 300 °C, the morphology was conserved, and the hydrogen-related compound decreased. Raman spectra of nanorods only presented a signal at 287 cm-1 associated to CuO whereas in nanosheets three peaks at 150, 218, 304 cm-1 associated to the Cu2O were observed.
The present work aims to explore the tribological behavior of the laser texturing process with different patterns on a Co based alloy using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Different parameters such as peak power, speed and spot diameter of the laser were explored for the experimental setting. The microstructural analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nanoindentation tests. The influence of the different textured patterns of the tribological performance tested with a pin-on-disc tribometer under lubricated sliding condition was evaluated. The results showed that typical interdendritic structures in the as-cast CoCr alloy condition were refined due to the heat input and fast cooling rate during the laser treatment. The refined microstructure showed less volumetric loss resulting in a increment of wear resistance and a better tribological performance than as-cast alloy. The correlation among laser parameters, microstructural effect and their influence in wear resistance is discussed.
Biodiversity conservation in forest fragments surrounded by a low-quality matrix requires an understanding of how ecological conditions prevailing in the matrix enter the fragments and interact with local habitat conditions. We assessed the regeneration of oak species along edge–interior gradients in forest fragments at the periphery of Mexico City. The abundance of oak saplings was sampled along transects to the forest, while the edge effect was analysed using segmented zero-inflated Poisson models for abundance data. Three oak species were dominant in terms of their relative abundances: Quercus laeta, Quercus castanea and Quercus obtusata. Regeneration of nine oak species responded nonlinearly to the edge distance, with greater sapling abundance from the edge up to 10 m into the fragment. Canopy cover and tree height decreased from edge to fragment interior, while saplings increased in open areas within the fragments (i.e., independent of edge distance). A posterior analysis indicated that Q. obtusata reacted positively to edges. These results indicate that oak regeneration is promoted by suitable habitat conditions near the boundaries. Therefore, we suggest that forest management should focus on promoting seed production and oak establishment in forest interior habitats.
The Bay of Málaga is located in a high biodiversity and productivity area that harbours a wide variety of commercial species exploited by different fishing fleets. Benthic and demersal fauna from circalittoral soft bottoms have been studied using a benthic dredge (BD) (8 sampling stations) and an otter trawl (OT) (8 sampling stations on a seasonal basis). Some sediment and water column variables, as well as the trawling activity, have also been studied and used for analysing their linkage with the fauna. A total of 287 species have been found in these bottoms and fish, molluscs and crustaceans represented the most diverse and abundant faunistic groups. A new record of the decapod Hippolyte leptometrae for Spanish waters is also included in this study. Some multivariate analyses using BD samples indicated the presence of three assemblages, but these seem to represent different facies of a single benthic community due to the absence of acute sediment changes and significant differences in the fauna. OT samples only displayed differences related to seasons but not to sediment types or depth. These seasonal differences seem to be linked to biological and ecological features of both dominant and/or commercial species. Mud and organic matter contents (%OM) in sediment, as well as the temperature, were the main variables linked to the spatial distribution of the benthic community identified with BD, whereas medium and coarse sand as well as gravel contents were the main variables linked to the changes of the epibenthic and demersal assemblage resulting from OT samples. The information of this study is of importance for improving the knowledge on the biodiversity of circalittoral soft bottoms of the Mediterranean and Alboran Sea as well as for the potential creation of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in the Bay of Málaga.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing essential fatty acids (FA), during late gestation and the preweaning and early weaning periods on passive immunity, growth, health, rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, and behavior of dairy calves. During the last 3 weeks of pregnancy, cattle (n = 120), within parity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets (DD) with different fat supplements, no supplemental fat (CON), supplement rich in C18:2n-6 (CSO), or supplement rich in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (CFO). Eighty-four newborn Holstein calves were randomly assigned, within the prepartum diets, to one of 2 calf starter (CS) diets: no fat supplement (FC-0) or 2% Ca-Salt of unsaturated FA (FC-2). Overall, the interaction between DD and CS did not affect calf performance and other measured parameters. Plasma concentrations of IgG and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption were improved (P < 0.01) in calves born from dams fed fat (n-6 or n-3) compared with those not fed fat. Calves born from cattle fed fat prepartum had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with calves born from cattle fed no fat supplement prepartum (597 vs. 558 g/d, P = 0.02). Calves fed the FC-2 CS had greater (P < 0.01) ADG, feed efficiency, and weaning weight compared with those fed the FC-0 CS. Prepartum supplementation with fat reduced rectal temperature (RT) during pre-weaning time, but calves fed FC-2 CS had lower (P ≤ 0.04) RT during pre- and postweaning periods. Calves in the FC-2 CS groups had fewer (P < 0.001) days with diarrhea. Time spent on eating, ruminating, standing, lying, and nonnutritive oral behavior exhibited no differences across treatments. Similarly, DD and CS did not affect ruminal fermentation parameters. Calves fed FC-2 CS had greater hip and wither heights (P = 0.01) during both pre- and postweaning periods. At 28 and 77 d of life, concentrations of plasma albumin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.02) were increased but, urea N decreased at the same time and alkaline phosphatase was greater only at the end of the study for calves fed FC-2. The findings suggest that moderate feeding of long-chain polyunsaturated FA during the last weeks of uterine life or during the preweaning time improve growth performance, health indices, and some blood components of calves.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
Fermented feeds are being considered as practical alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) supplemented in nursery pig diets. This study aimed to investigate health-promoting effects of fermented barley in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88 +. A total of 37 piglets were weaned at 21 ± 1 day of age (6.41 ± 0.47 kg of BW) and assigned to either of the following five treatment groups: (1) unchallenged control (UCC; n = 7), (2) challenged control (CC; n = 7), (3) AGP (CC + 0.1% AGP; n = 7), (4) Ferm1 (challenged and fed homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum (Homo)-fermented barley; n = 8) and (5) Ferm2 (challenged and fed heterofermentative L. buchneri (Hetero)-fermented barley; n = 8). The control diet included unfermented barley. Barley was fermented with either Homo or Hetero for 90 days under anaerobic conditions. On day 10, all pigs except those in UCC group were orally inoculated with E. coli K88 + (6 × 109 colony forming units/ml). The pre-planned orthogonal test was performed to compare (1) UCC and CC, (2) CC and AGP, (3) CC and Ferm1 + Ferm2, as well as (4) Ferm1 and Ferm2. Challenged control pigs showed shorter (P < 0.05) villus height (VH) in the duodenum and deeper (P < 0.05) crypt depth (CD) in the jejunum than UCC pigs. The AGP group had higher (P < 0.05) VH and lower (P < 0.05) IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum compared with CC group. Compared to CC, Ferm1 and Ferm2 had decreased (P < 0.05) CD in the duodenum, IL-6 gene expression in the jejunum and rectal temperature at 24 h post-challenge. Pigs fed fermented barley diets showed greater (P < 0.05) faecal abundance of Clostridium Cluster IV and Lactobacilli than those fed UCC diet. Ferm2-fed pigs showed lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of band cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes at 6, 24 and 48 h after challenge, respectively, and lower (P < 0.05) faecal abundance of Enterobacteriaceae 24 h after challenge than the Ferm1-fed pigs. In conclusion, the substitution of unfermented barley with fermented barley in a nursery diet showed similar results as those shown by AGP supplementation in terms of enhancing the intestinal morphology and modulating faecal microbiota composition, as well as down-regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines; therefore, fermented barley can be a possible nutritional strategy for managing nursery pigs fed diets without in-feed AGP.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.