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The accurate prediction of body composition of dairy cows is important for developing appropriate nutritional and management regimes. The objective of the present study was to develop prediction equations for empty body (EB) composition of lactating dairy cows using body weight and other live animal data.
A number of equations for predicting methane energy output (CH4-E) in ruminants have been published since 1930. However the data used to develop these equations were collected from diets containing mainly dried or high dry matter (DM) forages, rather than low DM heavily fermented grass silages. Since 1992 a number of calorimetric studies have been carried out with growing and lactating cattle offered grass-silage based diets at the Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland. The objective of the present study was to use these data to develop new relationships between CH4-E output and animal and dietary factors.
Holstein-Friesian cattle are the predominant breed of dairy cattle in Northern Ireland. Breeding programmes for the Holstein Friesian have focused on improved milk production with little emphasis on functional traits such as fertility or disease resistance. In contrast Norwegian dairy cattle have been bred via a multi-trait selection procedure and there is evidence that problems associated with disease and fertility have tended to decrease in recent years. It is important, however, to investigate possible differences in efficiency of food use and partitioning of nutrients between the two breeds which may offset the potential advantages of improvements in secondary characteristics. Consequently, the objectives of this experiment were firstly to investigate the effects of breed type on the efficiency of utilization and partitioning of nutrients for milk production and secondly to investigate if there are differences in the energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilization of ME for lactation (kl) between the two breeds.
One of the cornerstones in the development of a new feed rationing system for dairy cows must involve a reappraisal of both the concepts and ‘numbers’ adopted in defining the energy requirements for dairy cows. This is particularly important in the present scenario where increasingly high levels of animal output are being achieved from very different animal genotypes to those used in UK dairying 20 - 30 years ago. One of the tasks within the Feed Into Milk (FIM) project was to develop a new system to predict the energy requirements of todays dairy cow. The objective of the present study was to collate all available energy metabolism data with dairy cows in the UK and to develop relationships for describing metabolisable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) using both existing and new methodologies.
San Pietro and Rittenberg (1953) reported that urea appeared to meet all the requirements of a satisfactory tracer. Urea is non toxic, not foreign to the body and it shows an even and rapid distribution throughout the total body water without any physiological effect. For these reasons in addition to its easy and accurate measurement, urea is an ideal candidate tracer to estimate empty body water in vivo. Total body water volume (urea space) can be estimated by dividing the total amount of urea infused by the increase in plasma urea concentration from prior to infusion until 12 or 30 minutes after mean infusion time. Kock and Preston (1973) reported significant relationships between urea space measurements and percentage of empty body fat and water in cattle. However, Andrew et al. (1995) using 21 Holstein cows showed that prediction of empty body water using the urea space technique only explained 31 % of the variation. The objective of this experiment was to use the urea dilution technique to estimate the body composition of lactating dairy cows and produce relationships between urea space and body fat and protein content.
The current energy (E) feeding standards (AFRC, 1993) have the objective of providing accurate feeding of dairy cows when there is either zero tissue E retention or a given tissue E change. Such approaches are of limited practical value in the real world in which we must be able to predict optimum feeding levels and strategies for animals of differing milk yield potential producing in a range of physical and economic environments. In the latter context the key economic factor is how the animal responds to additional increments of feed. This is primarily driven by how the animal partitions that additional E between milk output and body tissue gain. The objective of this experiment was to use calorimetric techniques to explore the impact of level of metabolisable E (ME) intake (MEI) on milk E output (E1) and tissue E gain (Eg) and hence partitioning of increments of MEI between milk and tissues.
The Feed into Milk (FIM) project in the United Kingdom has developed a Mitscherlich equation from calorimetric data for energy rationing of dairy cattle (Agnew et al., 2004). The objective of the present study was to evaluate this equation using independent data sets obtained in both calorimetric and production studies.
This paper will present a dynamic Variable Rate Irrigation System developed by the University of Georgia. The system consists of the EZZone management zone delineation tool, the UGA Smart Sensor Array (UGA SSA) and an irrigation scheduling decision support tool. An experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016 in two different peanut fields to evaluate the performance of using the UGA SSA to dynamically schedule Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI). For comparison reasons strips were designed within the fields. These strips were irrigated according to either UGA SSA or Irrigator Pro recommendations. The results showed that Irrigator Pro is a conservative irrigation method which results in high yields. On the other hand the UGA SSA recommendations worked very well with the VRI system and in both years it recommended an average of 25% less irrigation water than the Irrigator Pro.
Background: Dysphagia is a common and devastating complication after acute stroke. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are often placed for persistent dysphagia. However, little is known regarding outcomes after PEG tube placement. Methods: We used a 10-year Ontario Stroke Registry to shed light on the clinical outcomes of patients with PEG tube insertion after ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage compared to patients with only NG tubes, including rate of pneumonia, disability, and mortality. Results: Using propensity score matching, 1,793 patients were successfully matched and had similar baseline characteristics. Compared with NG, patients with PEG had a higher rate of pneumonia (32.6% vs. 20.6%; RR 1.59), higher disability at discharge (modified Rankin Scale Score 3-5; 74.0% vs. 65.4%; RR 1.13), and higher rate of long-term care placement (27.1% vs. 9.3%; RR 2.9). >From stroke onset, there was a lower rate of death in patients with PEG compared to NG at 30 days (15.3% vs. 34.3%; RR 0.45) but no difference at 2 years (52.8% vs. 53.5%; RR 0.99, p=0.71). *All significant p <0.0001. Conclusions: In conclusion, PEG tube placement after stroke may prolong survival in patients with poor outcomes. Our study provides a framework for discussions between physicians, patients, and families with regards to expected prognosis after PEG tube placement.
Background: In patients with acute stroke, nasogastric (NG) tubes are commonly inserted for feeding when dysphagia is identified, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are placed for severe or persistent dysphagia. However, little is known regarding predictors of PEG insertion. Methods: We used the Ontario stroke registry from 2003-2013 to identify baseline characteristics of all patients with NG or PEG tube insertion after stroke. We used multiple logistic regression with backwards selection to determine variables that were independent predictors of PEG tube insertion during admission. Results: 4002 patients with NG and 1903 patients with PEG were included in the analysis. Independent predictors of PEG were: Age (80+ vs. <60; odds ratio [OR] 1.70), past history of stroke (OR 1.17), higher stroke severity (severe vs. mild stroke; OR 1.37), stroke unit admission (OR 1.46), and dysphagia screening (OR 1.52). Factors associated with reduced odds of PEG insertion were: Prior history of peptic ulcer disease (OR 0.70), prior independence (OR 0.78), dementia (OR 0.76), palliative status (OR 0.49), and thrombolysis (OR 0.66). *All p<0.01 Conclusions: The strongest predictors of PEG were older age, higher stroke severity, stroke unit admission and dysphagia screening. Patients with dementia had reduced odds of PEG. Thrombolysis also reduced odds of PEG and may be protective.
Introduction: Data regarding adverse events (AEs) (unintended harm to the patient from health care provided) among children seen in the emergency department (ED) are scarce despite the high risk setting and population. The objective of our study was to estimate the risk and type of AEs, and their preventability and severity, among children treated in pediatric EDs. Methods: Our prospective cohort study enrolled children <18 years of age presenting for care during 21 randomized 8 hr-shifts at 9 pediatric EDs from Nov 2014 to October 2015. Exclusion criteria included unavailability for follow-up or insurmountable language barrier. RAs collected demographic, medical history, ED course, and systems level data. At day 7, 14, and 21 a RA administered a structured telephone interview to all patients to identify flagged outcomes (e.g. repeat ED visits, worsening/new symptoms, etc). A validated trigger tool was used to screen admitted patients’ health records. For any patients with a flagged outcome or trigger, 3 ED physicians independently determined if an AE occurred. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an AE related to ED care within 3 weeks of their ED visit. Results: We enrolled 6377 (72.0%) of 8855 eligible patients; 545 (8.5%) were lost to follow-up. Median age was 4.4 years (range 3 months to 17.9 yrs). Eight hundred and seventy seven (13.8%) were triaged as CTAS 1 or 2, 2638 (41.4%) as CTAS 3, and 2839 (44.7%) as CTAS 4 or 5. Top entrance complaints were fever (11.2%) and cough (8.8%). Flagged outcomes/triggers were identified for 2047 (32.1%) patients. While 252 (4.0%) patients suffered at least one AE within 3 weeks of ED visit, 163 (2.6%) suffered an AE related to ED care. In total, patients suffered 286 AEs, most (67.9%) being preventable. The most common AE types were management issues (32.5%) and procedural complications (21.9%). The need for a medical intervention (33.9%) and another ED visit (33.9%) were the most frequent clinical consequences. In univariate analysis, older age, chronic conditions, hospital admission, initial location in high acuity area of the ED, having >1 ED MD or a consultant involved in care, (all p<0.001) and longer length of stay (p<0.01) were associated with AEs. Conclusion: While our multicentre study found a lower risk of AEs among pediatric ED patients than reported among pediatric inpatients and adult ED patients, a high proportion of these AEs were preventable.
Introduction: Multiples barriers to appropriate analgesia are reported in the paediatric emergency department (PED), including limited accessibility to effective strategies. Our objective: was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of pain and anxiety management strategies in Canadian PEDs, after the creation of a national pediatric pain Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC), through Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC). Methods: In 2013, the TRAPPED 1 survey was administered to Canadian PEDs, in order to evaluate what resources were in place for pain and anxiety management. A pain QIC was then created to stimulate the implementation of new strategies, through information sharing between PEDs. In 2015, the TRAPPED 2 cross sectional survey was administered. Its focus was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of specific strategies reported by each centre, after participating in this QIC, and working to implement change within their own PEDs. Results: All 15/15 Canadian PEDs responded to the TRAPPED 1 survey in 2013 and 11 agreed to participate in the national pain QIC. In-person, phone meetings, follow up surveys and email communications were employed for information sharing. Strategies identified by the QIC to be newly introduced in individual centres were educational initiatives, distraction options, nurse-initiated protocols and intranasal (IN) medications. All 15 PEDs completed the TRAPPED 2 survey. Compared to 2013, an increased number of PEDs used face-based pain scales (14/15 vs 6/15) and behavioural scales (5/15 vs 1/15) for pain assessment in 2015. Use of reminder posters on pain management at triage increased from 4/15 to 6/15 PEDs. Availability of tablets for distraction increased from 4/15 to 10/15 PEDs. Nurse-initiated protocols for topical anesthetic and oral sucrose (for needle procedures) increased from 10/15 to 12/15 sites and from 12/15 to 14/15 sites respectively. Availability of IN medications increased; fentanyl from 9/15 to 14/15 sites and midazolam from 8/15 to 10/15 sites. Ten of the 11 PEDs involved in the QIC strategy reported the implementation of at least one of their own identified strategies. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of a QIC may improve the introduction of new strategies to reduce pain and anxiety in EDs. QICs may also be helpful to other centres when introducing new strategies.
A multi-faceted, multi-institutional laboratory astrophysics program is carried out at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility, which is a mature spectroscopic source with unsurpassed controls and capabilities, and an unparalleled assortment of spectroscopic equipment, including a full complement of grating and crystal spectrometers and a 6x6 micro-calorimeter array. Recent results range from the calibration of x-ray diagnostics, including the Fe XVII and Fe XXV emission lines, extensive lists of L-shell ions, the first laboratory simulation and fit of a cometary x-ray emission spectrum, and the discovery of new spectral diagnostics for measuring magnetic field strengths.
The behavior of AgReO4 under pressure has been studied in a diamond anvil cell. The equation of state determined by synchrotron radiation shows considerable change in compressibility with increasing pressure. X-ray and Raman scattering show a first-order phase transition from the scheelite to an as yet undetermined structure at 13 GPa. Changes in both the internal and external Raman active modes suggest a change in Re coordination. Optical transmission experiments demonstrate that the energy gap in the scheelitephase decreases at the rate of 75 meV/GPa. There is a small jump in the energy gap at 13 GPa, probably related to the structural transition. AgReO4 remains aninsulator to at least 47 GPa.