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Seed dispersal is an important ecological process that structures plant communities and influences ecosystem functioning. Loss of animal dispersers therefore poses a serious threat to forest ecosystems, particularly in the tropics where zoochory predominates. A prominent example is the near-total extinction of seed dispersers on the tropical island of Guam following the accidental introduction of the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), negatively impacting seedling recruitment and forest regeneration. We investigated frugivory by a remnant population of Såli (Micronesian starling – Aplonis opaca) on Guam and two other island populations (Rota, Saipan) to evaluate their ecological role as a seed disperser in the Mariana archipelago. Using a combination of behavioural observations, nest contents and fecal samples, we documented frugivory of 37 plant species. Native plants comprised the majority (66%) of all species and 90% of all seeds identified in fecal and nest contents. Diet was highly similar across age classes and sampling years. In addition, plant species consumed by Såli comprised 88% of bird-dispersed adult trees and 54% of all adult trees in long-term forest monitoring plots, demonstrating the Såli’s broad diet and potential for restoring native forests. Overall, we provide the most comprehensive assessment to date of frugivory by the Såli and confirm its importance as a seed disperser on Guam and throughout the Marianas.
We first published on the subject of pregnancy management via fetal reduction (FR) 30 years ago . Dramatic changes have occurred in medical technology, outcomes, and patient choices – large demographic and cultural shifts that have driven the pace and direction of progress and research [2, 3].
Propagating inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be excited by free-space beams on corrugated conducting surfaces at resonance angles determined by corrugation period, permittivity, and optical frequency. SPPs are coupled to and co-propagate with surface charge displacements. Complete electrical isolation of individual conducting corrugations prevents the charge displacement necessary to sustain an SPP, such that excitation resonances of traveling SPPs are absent. However, SPPs can be excited via electric induction if a smooth conducting surface exists below and nearby the isolated conducting corrugations. The dependence of SPP excitation resonances on that separation is experimentally investigated here at long-wave infrared wavelengths. We find that excitation resonances for traveling SPPs broaden and disappear as the dielectric’s physical thickness is increased beyond ∼1% of the free-space wavelength. The resonance line width increases with refractive index and optical thickness of the dielectric.
In this chapter, we review the current state of personality disorder (PD) assessment practices. The review includes both traditional measures that are rooted in categorical conceptualizations of PD and dimensional measures that have emerged in response to mounting evidence that has called into question the validity of traditional PD classification approaches. The scope of this chapter includes prominent and promising models and measures of PD. Moreover, our review is focused on omnibus measures that present a relatively “complete” picture of personality pathology rather than measures that focus on the features of only one or a limited set of PDs. Finally, we address two important topics relevant to PD assessment. First, we discuss the cross-cultural PD assessment literature, which is characterized by a relative lack of strong cross-cultural research on the manifestation and measurement of PD. Second, we address the disconnect between research and applied practice of PD assessment.
Eligibility criteria for participation in mental health jail diversion programs often specify that, to be diverted, a candidate must not pose a level of threat to public safety that cannot be managed in the community. Risk assessment tools were developed to increase consistency and accuracy in estimates of threat to public safety. Consequently, risk assessment tools are being used in many jurisdictions to inform decisions regarding an individual’s appropriateness and eligibility for mental health jail diversion and the strategies that may be successful in mitigating risk in this context. However, their use is not without controversy. Questions have been raised regarding the validity and equity of their estimates, as well as the impact of their use on criminal justice outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the science and practice of risk assessment to inform decisions and case planning in the context of mental health jail diversion programs. Our specific aims include: (1) to describe the process and components of risk assessment, including differentiating between different approaches to risk assessment, and (2) to consider the use of risk assessment tools in mental health jail diversion programs. We anchor this review in relevant theory and extant research, noting current controversies or debates and areas for future research. Overall, there is strong theoretical justification and empirical evidence from other criminal justice contexts; however, the body of research on the use of risk assessment tools in mental health jail diversion programs, although promising, is relatively nascent.
The history of congenital interventional cardiology has seen numerous groundbreaking innovations typically related to the introduction of a new device or a novel treatment technique. Similarly, imaging of cardiac defects has changed dramatically over the past decades, although some of the advancements have seemed to omit the catheterisation laboratories. Rotational angiography, one of the imaging techniques for guidance of cardiac catheterisation currently referred to as “advanced”, in fact was described already in 1960s.1 More recently its improved version, including three-dimensional reconstruction (3DRA), became a valuable intra-procedural imaging tool in interventional cardiology and neuroradiology.2 Dr Evan Zahn was one of the pioneers of 3DRA in the field of congenital cardiology, setting an example for many to follow. With his innovative publication and subsequent lecture at 2011 Pediatric and Adult Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS-AICS) on “The Emerging Use of 3-Dimensional Rotational Angiography in Congenital Heart Disease” he motivated many to explore benefits of this modality to strive for improved procedural outcomes and reduced patients’ burden of cardiac catheterisation3. I was one of those to take Dr Zahn’s thoughts and implement them into routine workflow.4–6 However, almost a decade after Dr Zahn shared his important work, despite tremendous efforts by teams from Utrecht, (Netherlands) and Columbus (Ohio, United States of America) to popularise 3D imaging in catheterisation laboratory during dedicated meetings, two-dimensional (2D) angiography does not seem to be threatened in many, otherwise-progressive, laboratories. During the recent 30th Japanese Pediatric Interventional Cardiology (JPIC) meeting I had the opportunity to ask Dr Zahn why giving up knowledge is almost never a good idea, what is technology’s natural order of things, and why the technology has to be more than just exciting, pretty, and new.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Criminalizing those with mental illness is a controversial topic with a long and complex history in the United States. The problem has traditionally been dichotomized between criminals (i.e., “bad”) in need of placement in jails and prisons and the mentally ill (i.e., “mad”) who are need of treatment in psychiatric facilities. Recent trends demonstrate significant increases in the rates of mental illness in jails and prisons, as well as increased rates of violence within psychiatric hospitals. This would suggest that there are a group of justice involved individuals who are “indistinguishable” within the traditional dichotomous categories of dangerousness and mental illness. The authors argue for a more nuanced model that dimensionally conceptualizes dangerousness and mental illness; increased attention to situational factors that create facilities appropriate for those who are dangerous and mentally ill and more diversion programs for those inappropriate for incarceration or hospitalization.
Small mountain glaciers are an important part of the cryosphere and tend to respond rapidly to climate warming. Historically, mapping very small glaciers (generally considered to be <0.5 km2) using satellite imagery has often been subjective due to the difficulty in differentiating them from perennial snowpatches. For this reason, most scientists implement minimum size-thresholds (typically 0.01–0.05 km2). Here, we compare the ability of different remote-sensing approaches to identify and map very small glaciers on imagery of varying spatial resolutions (30–0.25 m) and investigate how operator subjectivity influences the results. Based on this analysis, we support the use of a minimum size-threshold of 0.01 km2 for imagery with coarse to medium spatial resolution (30–10 m). However, when mapping on high-resolution imagery (<1 m) with minimal seasonal snow cover, glaciers <0.05 km2 and even <0.01 km2 are readily identifiable and using a minimum threshold may be inappropriate. For these cases, we develop a set of criteria to enable the identification of very small glaciers and classify them as certain, probable or possible. This should facilitate a more consistent approach to identifying and mapping very small glaciers on high-resolution imagery, helping to produce more comprehensive and accurate glacier inventories.
Phase-change materials (PCMs) have demonstrated a wide range of potential applications ranging from electronic memories to photonic devices. These applications are enabled by the unconventional portfolio of properties that characterizes crystalline PCMs. Here, we address the origin of these unusual properties and how they are related to the application potential of these materials. Evidence will be presented that the properties are related to an unconventional bonding mechanism. Employing a novel map, which separates solids according to the number of electrons transferred and shared between adjacent atoms, it is shown that PCMs occupy a well-defined region. Depicting physical properties such as the optical dielectric constant as the third dimension in the map reveals systematic property trends. Such trends can be utilized to unravel the origins of the unconventional materials properties or alternatively, as a means to optimize them.
The exploitation of phase-change materials (PCMs) in diverse technological applications can be greatly aided by a better understanding of the microscopic origins of their functional properties. Over the last decade, simulations based on electronic-structure calculations within density functional theory (DFT) have provided useful insights into the properties of PCMs. However, large simulation cells and long simulation times beyond the reach of DFT simulations are needed to address several key issues of relevance for the performance of devices. One way to overcome the limitations of DFT methods is to use machine learning (ML) techniques to build interatomic potentials for fast molecular dynamics simulations that still retain a quasi-ab initio accuracy. Here, we review the insights gained on the functional properties of the prototypical PCM GeTe by harnessing such interatomic potentials. Applications and future challenges of the ML techniques in the study of PCMs are also outlined.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Cognitive impairment is strongly linked with persistent disability in people with mood disorders, but the factors that explain cognitive impairment in this population are unclear.
To estimate the total effect of (a) bipolar disorder and (b) major depression on cognitive function, and the magnitude of the effect that is explained by potentially modifiable intermediate factors.
Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort. Participants were categorised as having bipolar disorder (n = 2709), major depression (n = 50 975) or no mood disorder (n = 102 931 and n = 105 284). The outcomes were computerised tests of reasoning, reaction time and memory. The potential mediators were cardiometabolic disease and psychotropic medication. Analyses were informed by graphical methods and controlled for confounding using regression, propensity score-based methods and G-computation.
Group differences of small magnitude were found on a visuospatial memory test. Z-score differences for the bipolar disorder group were in the range −0.23 to −0.17 (95% CI −0.39 to −0.03) across different estimation methods, and for the major depression group they were approximately −0.07 (95% CI −0.10 to −0.03). One-quarter of the effect was mediated via psychotropic medication in the bipolar disorder group (−0.05; 95% CI −0.09 to −0.01). No evidence was found for mediation via cardiometabolic disease.
In a large community-based sample in middle to early old age, bipolar disorder and depression were associated with lower visuospatial memory performance, in part potentially due to psychotropic medication use. Mood disorders and their treatments will have increasing importance for population cognitive health as the proportion of older adults continues to grow.
Declaration of interest
I.J.D. is a UK Biobank participant. J.P.P. is a member of the UK Biobank Steering Committee.
Signal detection limit (SDL), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation of a portable Raman spectrometer were measured for smokeless gunpowder stabilizers, diphenylamine (DPA) and ethyl centralite (EC), in acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol. Acetone yielded the lowest LOD for three of four DPA peaks, and acetonitrile yielded the lowest LOD for two of three EC peaks and the remaining DPA peak. When gold nanoparticles were added to the DPA solutions in acetone and acetonitrile, statistically significant changes were observed (DPA peak position, full width at half maximum, and/or total area) and SDL was improved for the majority of all peaks in both solvents.
A study of the parish records of St Peter upon Cornhill in London from 1580 to 1605 revealed that children suffered a greater increase in mortality than adults in the plague years of 1593 and 1603, and servants accounted for the majority of deaths within the 15–24 age group. Some family groups avoided the plague altogether, others suffered a single burial, however in some cases, individuals within the same family household were buried within a short period of each other. The epidemiological pattern is complex and is moderated by social and demographic networks. Comparisons are made with modern epidemics caused by Yersinia pestis.
A survey of hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs was performed to validate core element achievement data from the National Healthcare Safety Network’s (NHSN) Patient Safety Component Annual Survey. In total, 89% of hospitals met all 7 core elements, compared to only 68% according to the NHSN survey.
Experiments were initiated to characterize a waterhemp population (CHR) discovered in a central Illinois corn field after it was not controlled by the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor topramezone. Field experiments conducted during 2014–2015 indicated that acetolactate synthase (ALS)-, protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-, photosystem II (PSII)-, and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides and the synthetic auxin 2,4-D did not control the CHR population. Laboratory experiments confirmed target site–based resistance mechanisms to ALS- and PPO-inhibiting herbicides. Herbicide doses required to reduce dry biomass 50% (GR50) were determined in greenhouse dose–response experiments, and indicated 16-fold resistance to the HPPD inhibitor mesotrione, 9.5-fold resistance to the synthetic auxin 2,4-D, and 252-fold resistance to the PSII inhibitor atrazine. Complementary results from field, laboratory, and greenhouse investigations indicate that the CHR population has evolved resistance to herbicides from five sites of action (SOAs): ALS-, PPO-, PSII-, and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides and 2,4-D. Herbicide use history for the field in which CHR was discovered indicates no previous use of 2,4-D.