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We assess the validity of criteria based on size mismatch and thermodynamics in predicting the stability of the rare class of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) that form in the hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. We focus on nanocrystalline HEA particles composed predominantly of Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, and Pd along with Ag, Cd, and Te, which are produced in uranium dioxide fuel under the extreme conditions of nuclear reactor operation. The constituent elements are fission products that aggregate under the combined effects of irradiation and elevated temperature as high as 1200 °C. We present the recent results on alloy nanoparticle formation in irradiated ceria, which was selected as a surrogate for uranium dioxide, to show that radiation-enhanced diffusion plays an important role in the process. This work sheds light on the initial stages of alloy nanoparticle formation from a uniform dispersion of individual metals. The remarkable chemical durability of such multiple principal element alloys presents a solution, namely, an alloy waste form, to the challenge of immobilizing Tc.
Field-based research allows the domain of organizational research to remain true to its applied roots and conduct research on topics that are timely and relevant within actual organizations. However, anyone who has conducted field research knows that conducting such work is challenging and can be viewed as more of a dance between the scholar and the practitioner, requiring well-timed and coordinated moves. As Lapierre et al. (2018) allude to in the focal article, such projects can turn into a balancing act for researchers as they attempt to conduct publishable research with robust practices and designs while also appeasing the needs and expectations of organizational members and leaders.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
The initial assessment of epistaxis patients commonly includes: first aid measures, observations, focused history taking, and clinical examinations and investigations. This systematic review aimed to identify evidence that informs how the initial assessment of these patients should be conducted.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised methodology and search strategy.
Seventeen articles were included. Factors identified were: co-morbidity, intrinsic patient factors, coagulation screening and ice pack use. Hypertension and anticoagulant use were demonstrated to adversely affect outcomes. Coagulation screening is useful in patients on anticoagulant medication. Four studies could not be accessed. Retrospective methodology and insufficient statistical analysis limit several studies.
Sustained ambulatory hypertension, anticoagulant therapy and posterior bleeding may be associated with recurrent epistaxis, and should be recorded. Oral ice pack use may decrease severity and can be considered as first aid. Coagulation studies are appropriate for patients with a history of anticoagulant use or bleeding diatheses.
Research has shown that maternal mental illness can affect mother–infant interactions with implications for infant outcomes. Severe and chronic mental illness (SMI), particularly schizophrenia, is associated with the greatest risk. Schizophrenia is also associated with impairments in attribution of mental states, ‘theory of mind’ (ToM). Recent attachment research has suggested that maternal mentalizing skills are strongly associated with attachment outcome in infants. To date, no research has explored the relationship between ToM and maternal sensitivity in mothers with SMI using standard tests of ToM. The present study was designed as an exploratory study in order to investigate this.
A total of 40 women with SMI in the postpartum period were administered a battery of ToM tasks and general neuropsychological tasks. The women were also filmed in an unstructured play session with their infants, which was coded for maternal sensitivity using the Crittenden CARE-Index.
One ToM task, the Frith–Happé Animations, predicted maternal sensitivity across all diagnoses. There was also an effect of diagnosis, with lower sensitivity observed in women with schizophrenia. ToM impairments did not fully explain the effect of diagnosis on sensitivity. Mothers of girls were rated as being more sensitive than mothers of boys.
The results suggest that ToM is a significant predictor of maternal sensitivity across all mental health diagnoses, extending the results of studies focusing on healthy populations. Clinical interventions emphasizing the importance of understanding the perspective of the infant may enhance maternal sensitivity.
The relationship between ethnic density and psychiatric disorder in
postnatal women in the UK is unclear.
To examine the effect of own and overall ethnic density on postnatal
depression (PND) and personality dysfunction.
Multilevel analysis of ethnically mixed community-level data gathered
from a sample of 2262 mothers screened at 6 weeks postpartum for PND and
Living in areas of higher own ethnic density was protective against
screening positive for PND in White women (z =–3.18,
P = 0.001), even after adjusting for area level
deprivation, maternal age, relationship status, screening positive for
personality dysfunction, parity and geographical clustering (odds ratio
(OR) 0.98 (95% CI 0.96–0.99); P = 0.002), whereas the
effect on personality dysfunction (z =–2.42,
P = 0.016) was no longer present once the effect of
PND was taken into account (OR = 0.99 (95% CI 0.90–1.0);
P = 0.13). No overall ethnic density effect was found
for women screening positive for PND or personality dysfunction.
In White women, living in areas of higher own ethnic density was
protective against developing PND.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has consistently been linked with adverse outcomes including substance use disorders and adult sexual revictimization. Adult sexual victimization itself has been linked with psychopathology but has predominately been studied in women. The current investigation examines the impact of CM and co-occurring psychopathology on adult sexual victimization in men and women, replicating findings in three distinct samples.
We investigated the association between continuous CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization in the Childhood Trauma Study (CTS) sample (N = 2564). We also examined the unique relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization while adjusting for co-occurring substance dependence and psychopathology. We replicated these analyses in two additional samples: the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (CATS; N = 1981) and the Australian Twin-Family Study of Alcohol Use Disorders (OZ-ALC; N = 1537).
Analyses revealed a significant association with CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization for both men and women across all three samples. The CSA factor score was strongly associated with adult sexual victimization after adjusting for substance dependence and psychopathology; higher odds ratios were observed in men (than women) consistently across the three samples.
A continuous measure of CSA is independently associated with adult sexual trauma risk across samples in models that included commonly associated substance dependence and psychopathology as covariates. The strength of the association between this CSA measure and adult sexual victimization is higher in magnitude for men than women, pointing to the need for further investigation of sexual victimization in male community samples.
The influence of both major and minor mergers is expected to significantly affect gradients of stellar ages and metallicities in the outskirts of galaxies. Measurements of observed gradients are beginning to reach large radii in galaxies, but a theoretical framework for connecting the findings to a picture of galactic build-up is still in its infancy. We analyze stellar populations of a statistically representative sample of quiescent galaxies over a wide mass range from the Illustris simulation. We measure metallicity and age profiles in the stellar halos of quiescent Illustris galaxies ranging in stellar mass from 1010 to 1012M⊙, accounting for observational projection and luminosity-weighting effects. We find wide variance in stellar population gradients between galaxies of similar mass, with typical gradients agreeing with observed galaxies. We show that, at fixed mass, the fraction of stars born in-situ within galaxies is correlated with the metallicity gradient in the halo, confirming that stellar halos contain unique information about the build-up and merger histories of galaxies.
Conceptually integrating Selfish Goal Theory with modern evolutionary psychology amplifies theoretical power. Inconsistency, a key principle of Selfish Goal Theory, illustrates this insight. Conflicting goals of seeking sexual variety and successful mate retention furnish one example. Siblings have evolved goals to cooperate and compete, a second example. Integrating Selfish Goal Theory with evolutionary theory can explain much inconsistent goal-directed behavior.
This paper presents the design and science goals for the SkyMapper telescope. SkyMapper is a 1.3-m telescope featuring a 5.7-square-degree field-of-view Cassegrain imager commissioned for the Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It is located at Siding Spring Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia and will see first light in late 2007.
The imager possesses 16 384 × 16 384 0.5-arcsec pixels. The primary scientific goal of the facility is to perform the Southern Sky Survey, a six-colour and multi-epoch (four-hour, one-day, one-week, one-month and one-year sampling) photometric survey of the southerly 2π sr to g ∼23 mag. The survey will provide photometry to better than 3% global accuracy and astrometry to better than 50 milliarcsec. Data will be supplied to the community as part of the Virtual Observatory effort. The survey will take five years to complete.
Cardiovascular prevention, including emphasising healthy diet and physical activity patterns for weight loss and diabetes prevention, is an important focus of primary care medicine, yet provision of intensive lifestyle counselling in the primary care setting remains uncommon. Online approaches for providing lifestyle counselling are emerging as a new avenue for bringing support to outpatient patient populations. Features of successful programmes include the use of a structured behavioural programme, electronic counselling support and feedback, and uncomplicated user interfaces. Online tools may be used independently or to complement in-person approaches. Limited data also suggest that the internet can be used to support the maintenance of weight loss. In addition, the internet may help overcome various clinical barriers to lifestyle support, including significant time limitations, a need to prioritise acute care and maintain clinical workflow, and the high cost of counselling. Furthermore, the continuity of the primary care patient–provider(s) relationship provides an established source of long-term support which has been difficult to create in other community settings. As the field of online lifestyle counselling matures, nutrition and physical activity experts will face new challenges in providing asynchronous counselling without the assistance of traditional non-verbal communication cues. However, the potential for reaching a wider population in a convenient and accessible manner also creates unique opportunities for providing lifestyle support.
Over a decade of intense research in the field of obesity has led to the knowledge that chronic, excessive adipose tissue expansion leads to an increase in the risk for CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. This is primarily thought to stem from the low-grade, systemic inflammatory response syndrome that characterises adipose tissue in obesity, and this itself is thought to arise from the complex interplay of factors including metabolic endotoxaemia, increased plasma NEFA, hypertrophic adipocytes and localised hypoxia. Plasma concentrations of vitamins and antioxidants are lower in obese individuals than in the non-obese, which is hypothesised to negatively affect the development of inflammation and disease in obesity. This paper provides a review of the current literature investigating the potential of nutraceuticals to ameliorate the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity, thereby limiting the onset of obesity complications. Research has found nutraceuticals able to positively modulate the activity of adipocyte cell lines and further positive effects have been found in other aspects of pathogenic obesity. While their ability to affect weight loss is still controversial, it is clear that they have a great potential to reverse the development of overweight and obesity-related comorbidities; this, however, still requires much research especially that utilising well-structured randomised controlled trials.
Objectives: Depression and vital exhaustion are associated with poor cardiovascular prognosis, but there is substantial overlap between these constructs. Factor analytic studies have been inconclusive, and may not be the optimal analytic strategy to assess dimensionality. We assessed whether exhaustion and depression formed a single, hierarchical dimension using a form of nonparametric item response theory.
Methods: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (n = 430) completed questionnaires assessing depression and vital exhaustion. Mokken scaling was used to assess dimensionality.
Results: Mokken scaling formed a strong unidimensional scale, ordered in a hierarchy reflecting prevalence: fatigue (common), depression (less common) and hopelessness (rare).
Conclusions: Depressive symptoms form a clear hierarchy in cardiac patients, from fatigue to hopelessness. Vital exhaustion may be considered a less severe form of depression. Use of hierarchical scales may allow clinicians to better determine clinical significance and target interventions.