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The Galileo and Ulysses dust detectors can detect electric charges of dust particles. Dust particles entering the sensor (see, e.g., Grün et al. 1992) may be detected by the charge Qp that they induce to the charge grid. All suitably massive dust particles - charged or uncharged - are then detected by the cloud of ions and electrons they produce during the impact on the hemispherical target after the time of flight between the charge grid and the target. After separation in the electric field, ions and electrons are collected by separate electrodes and produce two pulses of opposite polarity. From the two pulse heights and the rise times, the mass and impact speed of the dust particle are derived.
Recent studies have highlighted the threat that climate change poses to species, as areas of climatic suitability contract or shift across the landscape. North American Neotropical long-distant migrant bird species present a unique problem compared to sedentary species because climate change may differ significantly across their breeding and wintering grounds. Studying the potential future distributions of these birds is challenging on many levels, including the fact that our understanding of the wintering grounds of these species is quite poor. To address this issue, we analyse available eBird data during the winter season in the Western Hemisphere in an effort to further promote and direct citizen science efforts to focus on areas that are climatically undersampled. We used Mobility-Oriented Parity (MOP) to understand the areas where climates are most dissimilar from climates sampled by existing eBird checklists, creating a map that ranks the western hemisphere at a 10 km resolution for climatic sampling during the winter season. We found that parts of Mexico and Central America, areas of Colombia, almost the entire Amazon Basin, coastal Peru and Chile, and northern Argentina are climatically undersampled. As a test case, we then used the map of survey priorities to simulate additional sampling in Colombia and recalculated the rankings. Guiding additional sampling with the priorities reduced climate dissimilarities between sampled and unsampled grid cells more than when additional sampling expanded in proportion to current sampling efforts or based on geographic undersampling. Analyses of sampling coverage in environmental space, such as this, will be a useful tool for targeting monitoring effort for bird species.
We demonstrate a novel technique for fabricating monolithically series connected solar modules from surface structured thin monocrystalline Si films that we prepare by layer transfer using porous Si (PSI process). The novel series connection technique bases on reactive ion etching of the silicon film in a microwave plasma prior and after layer transfer. The module has an area of 25 cm2 and consists of 5 unit cells that have a film thickness of 16 µm. We measure an open-circuit voltage of 3028 mV and a confirmed efficiency of 9.9%. The Si film has a randomly textured surface for light trapping.
Atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO) readily attacks and oxidizes exposed spacecraft polymeric materials such as polyimide Kapton photovoltaic array blankets. The application of thin film silicon dioxide protective coatings can greatly extend the useful life of such materials in LEO. A Monte Carlo computational model has been developed which simulates atomic oxygen interaction with polymeric and protective coating materials for both ground laboratory and in-space experiments, allowing the determination of the geometrical shape of atomic oxygen attack of protected polymeric materials at defect sites in protective coatings. Modeling of attack of unprotected carbon-carbon composite materials predicts textured surfaces suitable for high emittance radiators. Results for fiberglass composites indicate loss of the matrix polymer leading to friable fibers. The computational modeling to project in-space performance based on ground laboratory testing predicts mass loss per fluence in space to be approximately one third that observed in plasma ashers.
Diagnostic considerations for juvenile onset Parkinsonism (onset at <21 years of age) include juvenile Huntington disease, Wilson disease, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), storage diseases, and mitochondrial cytopathies. Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease (NIID) must also be considered.
We present a case of juvenile onset NIID with a predominantly Parkinsonian presentation, followed later by corticospinal, cerebellar, and lower motor neuron symptoms.
Diagnosis of NIID can be made antemortem through rectal biopsy, however it was missed in this case. Rectal biopsy should be performed in all suspected cases, reviewed by an experienced neuropathologist and repeated if the suspicion for NIID is high. Pathologically, SUMO-1 immunohistochemistry appears to reliably label the neuronal inclusions and abnormal SUMOylation may play a part in the pathogenesis.
A complete genetic map has been established for the P22 clear plaque forming mutations cir4-l, cir5-l and cir6-l. These are located within or closely linked to the immI region of P22 and represent a new class of clear plaque forming mutants located outside and rather distant from the immC region. They were mapped with respect to the markers mnt, vy and ant of the immI region and to genes 16 and 9 which span it. The three cir mutations complement each other and – with one possible exception – the cl, c2 and c3 mutations of the immC region. P22 cir6-l – like P22 cir5-l (Harvey et al. 1981) – is suppressed by the ant−am19 allele, whereas P22 cir4-l is not. The results are discussed in terms of the regulation of early ant expression.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD; Finkel et al., 1998) are receiving increased attention in the medical and scientific literature. These symptoms are a principal cause of distress and disability among patients with dementia and their caregivers. Numerous therapeutic studies examining the treatment of these symptoms are being conducted.
Background: General relationships between dotage and infancy and childhood have been acknowledged for more than two millennia. Recent findings indicate precise relationships between functional, praxic, and feeding changes in the course of the degenerative dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and inverse corresponding developmental sequences. Similar inverse relationships between AD and human development can be described for cognition and language skills; for physiologic measures of electroencephalographic activity, brain glucose metabolism, and developmental neurologic reflex changes; and for the neuropathologic and neuroanatomic progression of these processes. In AD, these processes may be termed “retrogenesis.” The relevance of the retrogenesis model for AD management is explored. Method: The functional stages of AD can be translated into developmental age equivalents that can be utilized to explicate observed changes in the disease. Results: The retrogenesis-based developmental age model can usefully inform an understanding of the general care needs, emotional and behavioral changes, and activity needs of the AD patient. This model must be amended by necessary caveats regarding physical differences, variations in age-associated pathology, differences in social and societal reactions, and differences in background between AD patients and their developmental age “peers.” Conclusions: Knowledge of retrogenesis and the developmental age of the AD patients can form a nidus for the development of a nascent science of disease management. Such a science must ultimately incorporate not only appropriate caveats but also relevant universal human needs, such as those for dignity, love, and movement.
Before the development of the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale in 1987 by Reisberg and colleagues and its predecessor scale, the Symptoms of Psychosis in Alzheimer's Disease (SPAD) rating scale, in 1985 by Reisberg and Ferris, other scales were available for measuring behavioral disturbances and psychiatric disorders in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, these scales generally mixed together cognitive disturbances with behavioral symptoms and sometimes included functional impairments as well. These predecessor scales also were not specifically designed to assess the types of behavioral problems seen in Alzheimer's disease. If a scale did address behavioral disturbances of dementia, it tended to be seriously underspecified in terms of the nature of behavioral disturbances.
Behavioral symptoms of dementia are stressful not only for patients but also for their caregivers. These symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, activity disturbances, aggressiveness, sleep disturbances, affective disturbances, and anxieties and phobias. Despite the burden of coping with behavioral problems, little information is available about effective treatments for behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and related dementing disorders.