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Early laryngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy or surgery has a high cure rate. This study evaluated the patterns of treatment failure and long-term results of early laryngeal cancers treated with definitive radiotherapy.
From January 2002 to December 2014, a total of 242 patients with early-stage laryngeal cancers were treated with radical radiotherapy.
All patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (92 per cent male and 8 per cent female). Median follow-up was 4.5 years. The majority of patients were smokers (57.4 per cent). Local failure was seen in 12.5 per cent of stage I patients and 22.8 per cent of stage II patients. The 5-year overall survival and disease specific survival were 84 per cent and 91 per cent, respectively.
In summary, radiotherapy is a suitable treatment modality for patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer, with an overall locoregional control rate of 84 per cent. Patients who fail radiotherapy may still undergo salvage laryngectomy.
Imprinting is a well-established technique to induce recognition features in both organic and inorganic materials for a variety of target analytes. In this study, ion imprinted polysiloxanes with varying percentage of coupling agent i.e. 3-chloro propyl trimethoxy silane (CPTM) were synthesized by sol-gel method for imprinting of Cr3+. The imprinting of Cr3+ in cross-linked siloxane network was investigated by FT-IR which indicates the metal ion is coordinated with oxygen atoms of polysiloxanes. SEM images revealed that imprinted polysiloxanes possess uniform particles of submicron size. It was experienced that by increasing the concentration of CPTM up to 10% (v/v) substantially improves the binding capacity of polysiloxanes which allows us to recognized Cr3+ down to 50µg/L. Furthermore, the selectivity of Cr3+-imprinted polysiloxanes was evaluated by treating them with other competing metal ions of same concentration i.e. Cr6+, Pb2+ and Ni2+. In this regard, polysiloxanes showed much higher binding for imprint ion i.e. Cr3+ in comparison to above mentioned metal ions. Finally, the regenerated polysiloxanes were studied in order to reuse them thus, developing cost effective biomimetic sensor coatings.
Long distance intercellular communication between astrocytes on nanofibrillar and planar surfaces was investigated by epi-fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that astrocytes on nanofibrillar surfaces and astrocytes on planar surfaces diverged in apparent cell-cell contact structures. Astrocytes on nanofibrillar surfaces exhibited a “single cellular process” response, while astrocytes on planar surfaces exhibited a filopodial network response. The possibility that astrocytes can sense their geometrical environment and form different cell-to-cell contacts on nanofibrillar versus planar surfaces, with activation of different signaling pathways, is discussed.
Recent research indicates that nanophysical properties as well as biochemical cues can influence cellular re-colonization of a tissue scaffold. It has also been shown nanoscale elasticity can strongly influence cellular responses. In the present work, quantitative investigations of the elasticity of a nanofibrillar matrix scaffold that has demonstrated promise for spinal cord injury repair are compared with complementary transmission electron microscopy investigations, performed to assess nanofiber internal structures. Interpretive model improvements are identified and discussed.
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