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Pd is widely used in producing electrodes to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). However up to now its ability to form ohmic contacts to SWNTs was not employed in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Here we present a study of SWNTs with Pd electrodes by SPM using Pd-coated tips. SWNTs were selectively grown on oxidized silicon substrates by low pressure CVD method. Pd electrodes were prepared to SWNTs to fabricate two terminal structures for SWNTs resistance measurements. It is shown that SPM Kelvin mode is a reliable technique for SWNT detection on insulating substrate. Contact potential difference between Pd electrode and SWNT is measured using the Kelvin mode.
Comparative tests on SGN and Radon simulated ILW vitrification with a cold crucible based experimental plant were performed. The batch was fed as paste with 20 wt.% moisture. An operation conditions, the ability of the cold crucible to maintain the differential pressure during the operation, process variables, product properties, off-gas and condensate compositions, the effect of melt agitation on melter capacity and cesium loss have been determined. Melt viscosity and resistivity have been measured. Material structures were studied using infra-red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Leach rates of sodium and potassium cations as well as Cs-137 have been measured. The behavior of sulfate and chloride ions in the vitrification process as well as their solubility in SGN and “Radon” glasses have been investigated.
Experimental results are presented on the focusing of an intense microsecond relativistic electron beam. The beam is generated in a high-voltage quasi-planar diode (E = 600–800 keV, τ = 3–5 μsec). It is then magnetically – focused by longitudinal injection into a magnetic mirror. The total energy of the beam is about 50 kJ. The focusing chamber is filled with argon under a pressure varying from 3 × 10−5 to 1 torr. The results include investigations of beam focusing under various conditions, the dynamics of the return current in the plasma as well as the influence of the reflected beam electrons on the operation of the accelerator diode. A 20-fold focused beam with a 4 cm diameter, 46 kJ energy content, and current density up to 3 kA/cm2 was obtained.
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