To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Consumption of probiotics and/or yogurt could be a solution for restoring the balance of the gut microbiota. This study examined associations of regular intake of probiotic supplements or yogurt with the gut microbiota among a diverse population of older adults (N=1,861; 60–72 years). Faecal microbial composition was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1–V3 region). General linear models were used to estimate the associations of probiotic supplement or yogurt intake with microbiome measures adjusting for covariates. Compared to non-yogurt consumers (N=1,023), regular yogurt consumers (≥once/week, N=818) had greater Streptococcus (β=0.29, P=0.0003) and lower Odoribacter (β=−0.33, P<0.0001) abundance. The directions of the above associations were consistent across the five ethnic groups but stronger among Japanese Americans (Streptococcus: β=0.56, P=0.0009; Odoribacter: β=−0.62, P=0.0005). Regular intake of probiotic supplements (N=175) was not associated with microbial characteristics (i.e., alpha diversity and the abundance of 152 bacteria genera). Streptococcus is one of the predominant bacteria genera in yogurt products, which may explain the positive association between yogurt consumption and Streptococcus abundance. Our analyses suggest that changes in Odoribacter were independent of changes in Streptococcus abundance. Future studies may investigate whether these microbial genera and their sub-level species mediate potential pathways between yogurt consumption and health.
Dietary inflammatory potential assessed by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) has been associated with health outcomes. However, longitudinal changes in the DII in relation to health outcomes rarely have been studied. This study aimed to examine change in the DII score over 10 years and its association with subsequent mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort. The analysis included 56 263 African American, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian and White participants who completed baseline (45–75 years) and 10-year follow-up surveys, including a FFQ. Mean energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) decreased over 10 years in men (from −0·85 to −1·61) and women (from −1·80 to −2·47), reflecting changes towards a more anti-inflammatory diet. During an average follow-up of 13·0 years, 16 363 deaths were identified. In multivariable Cox models, compared with anti-inflammatory stable individuals, risk of all-cause mortality was increased with pro-inflammatory change in men (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·13, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·23) and women (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·32). Per one-point increase in E-DII score over time, HR was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·03) for men and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·07) for women (P for heterogeneity < 0·001). While no heterogeneity by race and ethnicity was observed for men, the increased risk per one-point increase among women was stronger in non-Whites than in Whites (P for heterogeneity = 0·004). Our findings suggest that a change towards a more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with an increased risk of mortality both in men and women, and that the association is stronger in women, especially non-White women, than in men.
As past usual diet quality may affect gut microbiome (GM) composition, we examined the association of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 assessed 21 and 9 years before stool collection with measures of fecal microbial composition in a subset of the Multiethnic Cohort. A total of 5936 participants completed a validated quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) at cohort entry (Q1, 1993–1996), 5280 at follow-up (Q3, 2003–2008) and 1685 also at a second follow-up (Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), 2013–2016). All participants provided a stool sample in 2013–2016. Fecal microbial composition was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1–V3 regions). HEI-2015 scores were computed based on each QFFQ. Using linear regression adjusted for relevant covariates, we calculated associations of HEI-2015 scores with gut microbial diversity and 152 individual genera. The mean HEI-2015 scores increased from Q1 (67 (sd 10)) to Q3 (71 (sd 11)) and APS (72 (sd 10)). Alpha diversity assessed by the Shannon Index was significantly higher with increasing tertiles of HEI-2015. Of the 152 bacterial genera tested, seven (Anaerostipes, Coprococcus_2, Eubacterium eligens, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae_ND3007, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013 and Ruminococcus_1) were positively and five (Collinsella, Parabacteroides, Ruminiclostridium_5, Ruminococcus gnavus and Tyzzerella) were inversely associated with HEI-2015 assessed in Q1, Q3 and APS. The estimates of change per unit of the HEI-2015 score associated with the abundance of these twelve genera were consistent across the three questionnaires. The quality of past diet, assessed as far as ∼20 years before stool collection, is equally predictive of GM composition as concurrently assessed diet, indicative of the long-term consistency of this relation.
High-quality diets have been found to be beneficial in preventing long-term weight gain. However, concurrent changes in diet quality and body weight over time have rarely been reported. We examined the association between 10-year changes in diet quality and body weight in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Analyses included 53 977 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and Whites, who completed both baseline (1993–1996, 45–69 years) and 10-year follow-up (2003–2008) surveys including a FFQ and had no history of heart disease or cancer. Using multivariable regression, weight changes were regressed on changes in four diet quality indexes, Healthy Eating Index-2015, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores. Mean weight change over 10 years was 1·2 (sd 6·8) kg in men and 1·5 (sd 7·2) kg in women. Compared with stable diet quality (< 0·5 sd change), the greatest increase (≥ 1 sd increase) in the diet scores was associated with less weight gain (by 0·55–1·17 kg in men and 0·62–1·31 kg in women). Smaller weight gain with improvement in diet quality was found in most subgroups by race/ethnicity, baseline age and baseline BMI. The inverse association was stronger in younger age and higher BMI groups. Ten-year improvement in diet quality was associated with a smaller weight gain, which varied by race/ethnicity and baseline age and BMI. Our findings suggest that maintaining a high-quality diet and improving diet quality over time may prevent excessive weight gain.
To examine children’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water intakes in relation to implemented intervention activities across the social ecological model (SEM) during a multilevel community trial.
Children’s Healthy Living was a multilevel, multicomponent community trial that reduced young child obesity (2013–2015). Baseline and 24-month cross-sectional data were analysed from nine intervention arm communities. Implemented intervention activities targeting reduced SSB and increased water consumption were coded by SEM level (child, caregiver, organisation, community and policy). Child SSB and water intakes were assessed by caregiver-completed 2-day dietary records. Multilevel linear regression models examined associations of changes in beverage intakes with activity frequencies at each SEM level.
US-Affiliated Pacific region.
Children aged 2–8 years (baseline: n 1343; 24 months: n 1158).
On average (± sd), communities implemented 74 ± 39 SSB and 72 ± 40 water activities. More than 90 % of activities targeted both beverages together. Community-level activities (e.g. social marketing campaign) were most common (61 % of total activities), and child-level activities (e.g. sugar counting game) were least common (4 %). SSB activities across SEM levels were not associated with SSB intake changes. Additional community-level water activities were associated with increased water intake (0·62 ml/d/activity; 95 % CI: 0·09, 1·15) and water-for-SSB substitution (operationalised as SSB minus water: –0·88 ml/d/activity; 95 % CI: –1·72, –0·03). Activities implemented at the organization level (e.g. strengthening preschool wellness guidelines) and policy level (e.g. SSB tax advocacy) also suggested greater water-for-SSB substitution (P < 0·10).
Community-level intervention activities were associated with increased water intake, alone and relative to SSB intake, among young children in the Pacific region.
The alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score is an adaptation of the original Mediterranean diet score. Raw (aMED) and energy-standardised (aMED-e) versions have been used. How the diet scores and their association with health outcomes differ between the two versions is unclear. We examined differences in participants’ total and component scores and compared the association of aMED and aMED-e with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. As part of the Multiethnic Cohort, 193 527 men and women aged 45–75 years from Hawaii and Los Angeles completed a baseline FFQ and were followed up for 13–18 years. The association of aMED and aMED-e with mortality was examined using Cox’s regression, with adjustment for total energy intake. The correlation between aMED and aMED-e total scores was lower among people with higher BMI. Participants who were older, leaner, more educated and consumed less energy scored higher on aMED-e components compared with aMED, except for the red and processed meat and alcohol components. Men reporting more physical activity scored lower on most aMED-e components compared with aMED, whereas the opposite was observed for the meat component. Higher scores of both aMED and aMED-e were associated with lower risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Although individuals may score differently with aMED and aMED-e, both scores show similar reductions in mortality risk for persons scoring high on the index scale. Either version can be used in studies of diet and mortality. Comparisons can be performed across studies using different versions of the score.
Given the high intake levels of soya and low incidence rates of breast cancer in Asian countries, isoflavones, substances with an oestrogen-like structure occurring principally in soyabeans, are postulated to be cancer protective. In the present study, we examined the association of dietary isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in 84 450 women (896 in situ and 3873 invasive cases) who were part of the Multiethnic Cohort (Japanese Americans, whites, Latinos, African Americans and Native Hawaiians) with a wide range of soya intake levels. The absolute levels of dietary isoflavone intake estimated from a baseline FFQ were categorised into quartiles, with the highest quartile being further subdivided to assess high dietary intake. The respective intake values for the quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and lower and upper Q4) were 0– < 3·2, 3·2– < 6·7, 6·7– < 12·9, 12·9– < 20·3, and 20·3–178·7 mg/d. After a mean follow-up period of 13 years, hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression models stratified by age and adjusted for known confounders. Linear trends were tested by modelling continuous variables of interest assigned the median value within the corresponding quartile. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary isoflavone intake and overall breast cancer risk (HR for upper Q4 v. Q1: 0·96 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·08); P trend = 0·40). While the test for interaction was not significant (P= 0·14), stratified analyses suggested possible ethnic/racial differences in risk estimates, indicating that higher isoflavone intakes may be protective in Latina, African American and Japanese American women. These results are in agreement with those of previous meta-analyses showing no protection of isoflavones at low intake levels, but suggesting inverse associations in populations consuming high amounts of soya.
Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186 916 men and women aged 45–75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2–49·6 % to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4–27·8 %) across all ethnic–sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6–6·2 % to saturated fat intake across all ethnic–sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9–19·4 %). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1–22 %) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
To compare the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cancer and other chronic diseases between adult cancer survivors and persons with no history of cancer.
Population-based sample residing in California and Hawaii.
A total of 177 003 men and women aged 45–75 years who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). Logistic regression was used to examine adherence to recommendations regarding modifiable risk factors among cancer survivors (n 16 346) when compared with cohort members with no history of cancer (n 160 657).
Cancer survivors were less likely than cohort members with no history of cancer to meet recommendations specified in the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2007 report (OR = 0·97; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99). No difference between groups was seen for adherence to dietary recommendations alone (OR = 0·99; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·01). Site-specific analyses showed that results for colorectal cancer were similar to those for all cancers combined, but survivors of breast (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·07) and prostate (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07) cancer were more likely to meet dietary recommendations. Latino survivors were less likely to adhere to WCRF/AICR recommendations than Latino controls; however, differences across ethnic groups were not significant (Pinteraction = 0·64).
The modest differences found between adult cancer survivors and persons with no history of cancer suggest that a diagnosis of cancer in itself may not be associated with improvements in health behaviours related to cancer and other chronic diseases.
To assess the validity of a 148-item quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) that was developed for the Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS) to determine dietary intake over 12 months and examine the dietary risk factors.
A cross-sectional validation study of the QFFQ against 4 d food diaries. Spearman’s rank correlations (ρ), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and weighted κ were computed as measures of concordance, adjusting for daily variations in the food diaries. Cross-classification tables and Bland–Altman plots were created for further assessment.
BNCS is a case–control study of environmental risk factors for breast and prostate cancer in a predominantly African-origin population in Barbados.
Fifty-four individuals (21 years and older) were recruited among controls in the BNCS who were frequency-matched on sex and age group to breast and prostate cancer cases.
Similar mean daily energy intake was derived from the food diary (8201 kJ (1960 kcal)) and QFFQ (7774 kJ (1858 kcal)). Rho for energy and macronutrients ranged from 0·66 (energy) to 0·17 (dietary fibre). The percentage of energy from carbohydrates and protein showed the highest and lowest ICC among macronutrients (0·63 and 0·27, respectively). The highest weighted κ was observed for energy (0·45). When the nutrient intake was divided into quartiles, approximately 34 % of the observations were in the same quartile.
This investigation supports the validity of the QFFQ as a method for assessing long-term dietary intake except for dietary fibre, folate, vitamins A, E and B12. The instrument will be a useful tool in the analysis of diet–cancer associations in the BNCS.
Isoflavone (IFL) intake may provide numerous health benefits, but IFL bioavailability differences among soya foods remains uncertain. Urinary IFL excretion (UIE) was shown to provide a reliable surrogate for systemic IFL exposure and therefore can be used as a measure of ‘apparent bioavailability’ (AB). We investigated the AB of IFL in fourteen healthy adults, consuming two liquid and two solid soya foods in a crossover designed study. Volunteers consumed the foods with a self-selected breakfast, which was kept identical for all four soya items (soya nuts, soya milk, soya protein bar and soya protein powder drink in water; average 23·7 mg IFL, 88–96 % glycosides, by HPLC analysis) and collected all urine up to 26 h. Liquid foods showed initially higher UIE values than solid foods, but this difference was considerably reduced or disappeared entirely after 24–26 h. Conclusive AB results were obtained only after 24–26 h; earlier collections were not reliable. At 26 h, adjusted UIE values for daidzein (DE) were 20 μmol in the milk and bar and 17 μmol for the nut and powder; urinary genistein excretion was the highest in the milk group (10 μmol) followed by the nut, bar (both 6 μmol) and powder groups (5 μmol); the UIE for glycitein was the highest for bars (4 μmol), followed by powder and nuts (3 μmol), and milk (2 μmol). DE makes the largest contribution to urinary total IFL. The AB of IFL was found to be variable depending on the analyte and soya food consumed.
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) was approved as an investigational new drug for contraceptive use in the United States between 1967 and 1978. Patterns of contraceptive choice and changing methods were determined among 36,298 women attending a family planning clinic between 1967 and 1976. This population was the largest concentration of US women who had DMPA available as a contraceptive option. By 1974, women in the age group 35–49 were as likely to choose DMPA as either oral contraception or an intrauterine device. Coincidentally, use of the most popular choice, oral contraception, declined in older women and IUD use dropped sharply in all age groups. On average, users of DMPA were more likely to continue their method than were users of IUDs or barrier methods. Among women in the 35–49 age group, DMPA users were the group least likely to change methods.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.