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Forgetting names is a common memory concern for people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is related to explicit memory deficits and pathological changes in the medial temporal lobes at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the current experiment, we tested a unique method to improve memory for face–name associations in people with aMCI involving incidental rehearsal of face–name pairs.
Older adults with aMCI and age- and education-matched controls learned 24 face–name pairs and were tested via immediate cued recall with faces as cues for associated names. During a 25- to 30-min retention interval, 10 of the face–name pairs reappeared as a quarter of the items on a seemingly unrelated 1-back task on faces, with the superimposed names irrelevant to the task. After the delay, surprise delayed cued recall and forced-choice associative recognition tests were administered for the face–name pairs.
Both groups showed reduced forgetting of the names that repeated as distraction and enhanced recollection of these pairs.
The results demonstrate that passive methods to prompt automatic retrieval of associations may hold promise as interventions for people with early signs of AD.
This paper presents a scoping review of the literature on child participatory research in Australia published in academic journals between 2000 and 2018. The review focused on research designed to engage with children and young people in the development, implementation and evaluation of services. A total of 207 papers were identified and distributed across eight service sectors: child protection and family law, community, disability, education, health, housing and homelessness, juvenile justice and mental health. The papers were reviewed against Shier’s participation matrix, demonstrating that almost all of the identified papers included children only as participants who contributed data to adult researchers. Only a small number of papers involved children and young people in the other phases of research, such as designing research questions, analysis and dissemination. There is a clear interest in the engagement of children and young people in service design and decision-making in Australia. This paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for discussion on where there are gaps and where further Australian research is needed.
The patient portal may be an effective method for administering surveys regarding participant research experiences but has not been systematically studied.
We evaluated 4 methods of delivering a research participant perception survey: mailing, phone, email, and patient portal. Participants of research studies were identified (n=4013) and 800 were randomly selected to receive a survey, 200 for each method. Outcomes included response rate, survey completeness, and cost.
Among those aged <65 years, response rates did not differ between mail, phone, and patient portal (22%, 29%, 30%, p>0.07). Among these methods, the patient portal was the lowest-cost option. Response rates were significantly lower using email (10%, p<0.01), the lowest-cost option. In contrast, among those aged 65+ years, mail was superior to the electronic methods (p<0.02).
The patient portal was among the most effective ways to reach research participants, and was less expensive than surveys administered by mail or telephone.
Bar associations continue to be a critical resource for engaging lawyers in pro bono work to help people who cannot afford to hire a lawyer. Lynn Kelly, the executive director of the New York City Bar's Justice Center, describes in this chapter how the Center has expanded its pro bono initiatives to help moderate-income Americans.
With 24,000 members, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York (“City Bar”) is a large and prestigious voluntary local bar whose members include lawyers at many of the country's leading law firms as well as in-house counsel and the full range of the legal profession. Members may apply to serve on 160 committees, organized by subject area, that make legislative and policy recommendations. The City Bar Justice Center has a staff of 30 employees and a handful of full-time volunteers and matches 1,000 cases a year with pro bono attorneys it recruits, trains, and mentors as needed. The City Bar Justice Center leverages more than $20 million worth of donated legal time annually and helps 20,000 New Yorkers through staff and pro bono efforts. One of the distinctive features of the City Bar Justice Center is its rapid response to emerging areas of legal needs because it can recruit and quickly train hundreds of pro bono attorney volunteers and host the trainings and legal clinics in the large main meeting hall at the City Bar Association located in midtown Manhattan.
FROM THE POOR TO PEOPLE OF AVERAGE MEANS: AN EVOLVING ROLE FOR PRO BONO WORK
Starting in the 1960s, the City Bar was a forum for major discussions about the obligation of lawyers to assist the poor and was an early supporter of government-funded neighborhood legal services. This thrust was part of the growing attention to poverty within the legal field and society as a whole. It would take some twenty-five years after the City Bar began creating pro bono programs for the poor, for the bar to begin a program targeted to moderate-income clients who could not afford lawyers – now known as “Monday Night Law.”
Volunteer spinoffs from the bar
In the 1960s and 1970s, the City Bar underwent a shift away from its historical position as an elite professional association and toward the view that the profession should respond to unmet legal needs.
In this book, Lynne Kelly explores the role of formal knowledge systems in small-scale oral cultures in both historic and archaeological contexts. In the first part, she examines knowledge systems within historically recorded oral cultures, showing how the link between power and the control of knowledge is established. Analyzing the material mnemonic devices used by documented oral cultures, she demonstrates how early societies maintained a vast corpus of pragmatic information concerning animal behavior, plant properties, navigation, astronomy, genealogies, laws and trade agreements, among other matters. In the second part Kelly turns to the archaeological record of three sites, Chaco Canyon, Poverty Point and Stonehenge, offering new insights into the purpose of the monuments and associated decorated objects. This book demonstrates how an understanding of rational intellect, pragmatic knowledge and mnemonic technologies in prehistoric societies offers a new tool for analysis of monumental structures built by non-literate cultures.