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This chapter focuses on the principles of advanced neuroimaging and their current clinical applications and limitations. Xenon enhanced computed tomography imaging (Xe-CT) is used for the quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques enhance the evaluation of brain structure and/or function. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for assessment of the integrity of arteries and veins in the human body. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy data are used to evaluate the composition and metabolic activity of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a special form of diffusion-weighted MRI that allows the assessment and visualization of white matter and its constituents on a millimeter-level scale. Arterial spin labeling allows for the characterization and direct visualization of blood low within brain tissue. Information derived from positron emission tomography (PET) data may prove useful in correlating functional and structural abnormalities, and identifying pathophysiological disturbances despite apparently normal brain structure.