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In 2021 and 2022, research was initiated to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sulfentrazone in transplanted cabbage and broccoli. Treatments included oxyfluorfen at 560 g ha-1 pre-transplant (PRE-T), sulfentrazone at 116 or 233 g ha-1 PRE-T, and S-metolachlor at 715 g ha-1 immediately applied after transplanting (POST-T) followed by (fb) oxyfluorfen at 210 g ha-1 postemergence (POST) 14 d after planting (DAP). Concerning weed cover, the weedy non-treated plots averaged between 6% (14 DAP) and 72% (42 DAP); all herbicide-treated plots averaged less than 30% cover at 42 DAP. At 14 and 28 DAP, oxyfluorfen, S–metolachlor fb oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone high rate reduced total monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed densities 62 and 100% relative to the non-treated control. Hairy galinsoga (NJ) and combined ladysthumb and prostrate knotweed (NY) density was reduced 71 to 99%. Except for the low rate of sulfentrazone, all herbicide treatments reduced weed biomass at harvest ≥ 88%. Crop injury varied in response to herbicide treatments or weed competition but was also affected by crop and location. Between 14 and 28 DAP, the greatest amount of stunting (22%) was noted in the S-metolachlor fb oxyfluorfen treatments for both locations. Averaged over treatments, greater stunting was observed in broccoli as compared to cabbage in NY, whereas stunting estimates were higher for cabbage in NJ. All NJ treatments significantly increased cabbage yield and broccoli and cabbage head sizes relative to the non-treated control. No yield difference was noted between herbicide treatments and the non-treated check in NY. Data derived from these studies will be used to enhance crop safety recommendations in Northeast production environments for sulfentrazone used PRE in transplanted cabbage and support a potential label for broccoli.
No-till planting organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] into roller-crimped cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) can have several advantages over traditional tillage-based organic production. However, suboptimal cereal rye growth in fields with large populations of weeds may result in reduced weed suppression, weed–crop competition, and soybean yield loss. Ecological weed management theory suggests that integrating multiple management practices that may be weakly effective on their own can collectively provide high levels of weed suppression. In 2021 and 2022, a field experiment was conducted in central New York to evaluate the performance of three weed management tactics implemented alone and in combination in organic no-till soybean planted into both cereal rye mulch and no mulch: (1) increasing crop seeding rate, (2) interrow mowing, and (3) weed electrocution. A nontreated control treatment that did not receive any weed management and a weed-free control treatment were also included. Cereal rye was absent from two of the five fields where the experiment was repeated; however, the presence of cereal rye did not differentially affect results, and thus data were pooled across fields. All treatments that included interrow mowing reduced weed biomass by at least 60% and increased soybean yield by 14% compared with the nontreated control. The use of a high seeding rate or weed electrocution, alone or in combination, did not improve weed suppression or soybean yield relative to the nontreated control. Soybean yield across all treatments was at least 22% lower than in the weed-free control plot. Future research should explore the effects of the tactics tested on weed population and community dynamics over an extended period. Indirect effects from interrow mowing and weed electrocution should also be studied, such as the potential for improved harvestability, decreased weed seed production and viability, and the impacts on soil organisms and agroecosystem biodiversity.
Weed management in cantaloupe and other melon crops is important to maximize fruit yield; however, there are few registered herbicides available in California. Several independent herbicide trials were conducted at University of California field stations in Davis (Yolo County), Five Points (Fresno County), and Holtville (Imperial County) from 2013 to 2019 to evaluate both registered and unregistered herbicides and incorporation methods (sprinklers, cultivation, or none) for crop safety and weed control in melons. Although specific treatments varied among locations depending on local practice and research objectives, ethalfluralin and halosulfuron were used in all experiments, and bensulide and S-metolachlor were evaluated in 4 of 6 site-years. Additional herbicides included clethodim, clomazone, DCPA, napropamide, pendimethalin, sethoxydim, and sulfentrazone. Among registered herbicides, halosulfuron, halosulfuron + ethalfluralin, and ethalfluralin + bensulide combinations provided consistently beneficial weed control across all site-years compared to the nontreated control. S-metolachlor performed as well as the best of the registered herbicides tested at each site-year; although moderate injury was noted at the Davis location, this did not reduce melon yield. The method used to incorporate preplant herbicides had a significant impact on weed control efficacy but varied by location. Mechanical incorporation of preplant herbicides resulted in improved weed control and yield compared to sprinklers. Early-season weed control, whether by herbicides or hand weeding, resulted in significant yield increase in most site-years.
Following the introduction of dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean in 2017, concerns have increased with regard to dicamba off-target movement (OTM) onto sensitive crops, including vegetables. Field trials were conducted in New Jersey, New York, and Delaware to evaluate cucumber (‘Python’), eggplant (‘Santana’), and snap bean (‘Caprice’ and ‘Huntington’) injury and yield response to simulated dicamba drift rates. Crops were exposed to dicamba applied at 0, 0.056, 0.11, 0.56, 1.12, 2.24 g ae ha–1, representing 0, 1/10,000, 1/5,000, 1/1,000, 1/500, and 1/250 of the maximum soybean recommended label rate (560 g ae ha–1), respectively. Dicamba was applied either at the early vegetative (V2) or early reproductive (R1) stages. Minimal to no injury, vine growth reduction, or yield loss was noted for cucumber. Dicamba was more injurious to eggplant with up to 22% to 35% injury 2 wk after treatment (WAT) at rate ≥1.12 g ae ha–1; however, only the highest dicamba rate caused 27% reduction of the commercial yield compared to the nontreated control. Eggplant also showed greater sensitivity when dicamba exposure occurred at the R1 than at theV2 stage. Snap bean was the most sensitive crop investigated in this study. Injury 2 WAT was greater for ‘Caprice’ with dicamba ≥0.56 g ae ha–1 applied at V2 compared to R1 stage, whereas a similar difference occurred as low as 0.056 g ae ha–1 for ‘Huntington’. Compared to the nontreated control, reduction in plant height and biomass accumulation occurred for both cultivars at dicamba rate ≥0.56 g ae ha–1. Dicamba applied at 1.12 g ae ha–1 or greater resulted in 30% yield loss for ‘Caprice’, whereas ‘Huntington’ yield dropped 52% to 93% with dicamba ≥0.56 g ae ha–1. ‘Caprice’ bean yield was not influenced by dicamba timing of application. Conversely, ‘Huntington’ bean yield decreased by 8% following application at R1 compared to V2 stage.
Herbicide resistance has been studied extensively in agronomic crops across North America but is rarely examined in vegetables. It is widely assumed that the limited number of registered herbicides combined with the adoption of diverse weed management strategies in most vegetable crops effectively inhibits the development of resistance. It is difficult to determine whether resistance is truly less common in vegetable crops or whether the lack of reported cases is due to the lack of resources focused on detection. This review highlights incidences of resistance that are thought to have arisen within vegetable crops. It also includes situations in which herbicide-resistant weeds were likely selected for within agronomic crops but became a problem when vegetables were grown in sequence or in adjacent fields. Occurrence of herbicide resistance can have severe consequences for vegetable growers, and resistance management plans should be adopted to limit selection pressure. This review also highlights resistance management techniques that should slow the development and spread of herbicide resistance in vegetable crops.
Sicklepod [Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby], also known as Cassia obtusifolia (L.), is an annual, herbaceous, dicotyledonous plant in the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family, which is commonly known as the bean, legume, and pea family. The Fabaceae consist of herbs, shrubs, vines, or trees; the family has a cosmopolitan distribution with members numbering approximately 751 genera and 19,500 species (Christenhusz and Byng 2016). Characteristics of the Fabaceae include alternate, stipulate, and compound leaves. Leaflets often have pulvini (i.e., cushion-like swellings at the base of leaves that are subject to changes in turgor pressure), which are responsible for growth-independent or “sleep” movements. Another interesting anatomical feature exhibited by many species in the family is the formation of parenchymatous root nodules that are generated in association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Zomlefer 1994). The ovary of the Fabaceae usually develops into a dehiscent legume (e.g., pod). Although some Fabaceae may be weedy pests, others are important food crops [e.g., soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and fodder and forage plants (e.g., alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.). Some members of the Fabaceae produce valuable gums [e.g., gum arabic, Acacia senegal (L.) Britton] and dyes (e.g., indigo, Indigofera tinctoria L.), whereas others are prized as desirable ornamentals (e.g., eastern redbud, Cercis canadensis L.). Many species in the Fabaceae produce alkaloids or cyanogenic glycosides in different plant structures. Rotenone, an isoflavone insecticide, is derived from Derris eclipta (Wall.) Benth.
Dicamba is a synthetic auxin herbicide that is prone to off-target movement, including drift and volatilization. Due to the increased acreage of dicamba-resistant soybean to control glyphosate-resistant weeds, dicamba drift injury to neighboring vegetable crops is of concern. A method to quantify leaf deformation (often referred to as leaf cupping) caused by dicamba injury was developed and compared to visual rating techniques to determine its accuracy and suitability. A second objective was to determine the relative dicamba sensitivity of several economically important vegetable crops. Soybean, snap bean, tomato, and cucumber were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to dicamba at 0, 56, 112, 280, 560, 1,120, and 2,240 mg ae ha−1, which is, respectively, 0, 1/10,000, 1/5,000, 1/2,000, 1/1,000, 1/500, and 1/250 of the maximum recommended label rate for soybean application (560 g ae ha−1). Plants were evaluated visually and using an imaging analysis technique that measures the leaf deformation index (LDI) with a leaf area scanner. LDI is calculated by dividing the two-dimensional projection of the area of the leaf in its natural configuration by the area of the flattened leaf. Across all four crops, log-logistic regression analysis indicated the LDI method had lower I50 values with lower standard error, demonstrating that the LDI method gives more precise estimates of sensitivity. This novel method provides an objective, quantitative method for measuring dicamba drift injury and determining relative sensitivities of valuable specialty crops.
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) refers to the transfer of genetic information (alleles) from one plant to another compatible plant. With the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds, PMGF plays an important role in the transfer of resistance alleles from HR to susceptible weeds; however, little attention is given to this topic. The objective of this work was to review reproductive biology, PMGF studies, and interspecific hybridization, as well as potential for herbicide resistance alleles to transfer in the economically important broadleaf weeds including common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, horseweed, kochia, Palmer amaranth, and waterhemp. The PMGF studies involving these species reveal that transfer of herbicide resistance alleles routinely occurs under field conditions and is influenced by several factors, such as reproductive biology, environment, and production practices. Interspecific hybridization studies within Amaranthus and Ambrosia spp. show that herbicide resistance allele transfer is possible between species of the same genus but at relatively low levels. The widespread occurrence of HR weed populations and high genetic diversity is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in dioecious species such as Palmer amaranth and waterhemp compared with monoecious species such as common lambsquarters and horseweed. Prolific pollen production in giant ragweed contributes to PMGF. Kochia, a wind-pollinated species can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via both PMGF and tumbleweed seed dispersal, resulting in widespread occurrence of multiple HR kochia populations. The findings from this review verify that intra- and interspecific gene flow can occur and, even at a low rate, could contribute to the rapid spread of herbicide resistance alleles. More research is needed to determine the role of PMGF in transferring multiple herbicide resistance alleles at the landscape level.
Hophornbeam copperleaf (Acalypha ostryifolia Riddell) is an erect, herbaceous, dicot species in the Euphorbiaceae, or spurge, family that constitutes more than 200 genera and some 6,000 species (Mayfield and Webster 2013). Although the euphorbs have a cosmopolitan distribution, none are found in the Arctic (Mabberley 1997). Members of the Euphorbiaceae may be trees, shrubs, herbs (occasionally aquatic), or vines; sometimes succulent and cactus-like; and often have glands on vegetative plant parts (Mabberley 1997; Zomlefer 1994). Genera in the spurge family include Croton, Euphorbia, Ricinus, and Acalypha. Acalypha consists of 450 species that are native to both the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Zomlefer 1994). Acalypha was the name used by Hippocrates because the leaves resemble those of nettles, whereas ostryifolia alludes to the resemblance of leaves to plants in the genus Ostrya (hophornbeam trees; Burrows and Tyrl 2013; Haddock 2014; Hilty 2018). As plants mature in the fall, the leaves can turn reddish-brown, which may indicate why “copperleaf” is included in the species’ common name (Hilty 2018). Hophornbeam copperleaf is native to North America; it occurs in the United States ranging from Arizona east to Florida, north to Pennsylvania, and west to Nebraska (Anonymous 2019). It occurs in a variety of habitats including agronomic fields, cultivated areas, landscapes, roadsides, river and stream banks, thickets, pastures, and waste sites (Bryson and DeFelice 2010; Haddock 2014; Hilty 2018). This plant’s other common names include copperleaf, pineland three-seed mercury, Virginia copperleaf, hornbeam mercury, hornbeam three-seed mercury, mercury, and rough-pod copperleaf (Bryson and DeFelice 2010; Haddock 2014; Hilty 2018; Steckel 2006).
The commercial release of crops with engineered resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba will alter the spatial and temporal use of these herbicides. This, in turn, has elicited concerns about off-target injury to sensitive crops. In 2014 and 2015, studies were conducted in Tifton, GA, to describe how herbicide (2,4-D and dicamba), herbicide rate (1/75 and 1/250 field use), and application timing (20, 40, and 60 DAP) influence watermelon injury, vine development, yield, and the accumulation of herbicide residues in marketable fruit. In general, greater visual injury and reductions in vine growth, relative to the non-treated check, were observed when herbicide applications were made before watermelon plants had begun to flower. Although the main effects of herbicide and rate were less influential than the timing of applications with respect to plant development, the 1/75 rates were more injurious than the 1/250 rates; dicamba was more injurious than 2,4-D. In 2014, the 1/75 and 1/250 rates of each herbicide reduced marketable fruit numbers 13 to 20%, but only for the 20 DAP application. The 1/75 rate of each herbicide when applied at either 20 or 40 DAP reduced the number of fruit harvested per plot in 2015. Dicamba residues were detected in marketable fruit when the 1/75 rate in 2014 and 2015 and the 1/250 rate in 2015 was applied to plants at 40 or 60 DAP. Residues of 2,4-D were detected in 2015 when the 1/75 and 1/250 rates were applied at 60 DAP. Across both years, the maximum level of residue detected was 0.030 ppm. While early season injury may reduce watermelon yields, herbicide residue detection is more likely in marketable fruit when an off-target contact incident occurs closer to harvest.
In 2005, the existence of glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth was
confirmed at a single 250 ha field site in Macon County, Georgia. Currently,
all cotton producing counties in Georgia are infested, to some degree, with
glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In 2010 and 2011, surveys were
administered to Georgia growers and extension agents to determine how the
development of glyphosate-resistance has affected weed management in cotton.
According to respondents, the numbers of cotton acres that were treated with
paraquat, glufosinate and residual herbicides effective against Palmer
amaranth more than doubled between 2000 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010. Glyphosate
use declined between 2000 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010 although, on average, the
active ingredient was still applied to a majority of cotton acres. Although
grower herbicide input costs have more than doubled following the evolution
and spread of glyphosate resistance, chemically-based control of Palmer
amaranth is still not adequate. As a consequence, Georgia cotton growers
hand weeded 52% of the crop at an average cost of $57 per hand-weeded ha;
this represents a cost increase of at least 475% as compared to the years
prior to resistance. In addition to increased herbicide use and hand
weeding, growers in Georgia are also using mechanical, in-crop cultivation
(44% of acres), tillage for the incorporation of preplant herbicides (20% of
the acres), and post-harvest deep-turning (19% of the acres every three
years) for weed control. Current weed management systems are more diverse,
complex and expensive than those employed only a decade ago, but are
effective at controlling glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in
glyphosate-resistant cotton. The success of these programs may be related to
producers improved knowledge about herbicide resistance, and the biological
attributes that make Palmer amaranth so challenging, as well as their
ability to implement their management programs in a timely manner.
Field bindweed is a deep-rooted and drought-tolerant perennial that can be difficult to control once it has become established in specialty crops. Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of currently registered preplant (PP), PPI, PRE, and POST herbicides for field bindweed management in both early and late-planted processing tomatoes. Results show that bindweed cover in PPI/PRE programs (trifluralin, alone or in combination with rimsulfuron; S-metolachlor; or sulfentrazone) was reduced > 50% in early planted tomatoes, relative to the no PPI/PRE herbicide treatment (0 to 31% cover at up to 6 wk after transplanting [WAT]). Similar trends were observed with respect to field bindweed density. PP applications of glyphosate to emerged bindweed in late-planted tomatoes, coupled with PPI/PRE herbicide applications, reduced weed cover (1 to 13% at up to 6 WAT) by more than one-half when compared with plots treated with residual herbicides alone (1 to 43% at up to 6 WAT); perennial vine density was also reduced > 50%. PP herbicide burndown applications and the use of residual products can significantly improve the suppression of field bindweed in processing tomato systems. The emergence and vigor of bindweed vines may differ with respect to the timing of transplant operations and should be considered when developing management strategies
Introduction of glyphosate resistance into crops through genetic modification has revolutionized crop protection. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide with favorable environmental characteristics and effective broad-spectrum weed control that has greatly improved crop protection efficiency. However, in less than a decade, the utility of this technology is threatened by the occurrence of glyphosate-tolerant and glyphosate-resistant weed species. Factors that have contributed to this shift in weed species composition in Georgia cotton production are reviewed, along with the implications of continued overreliance on this technology. Potential scenarios for managing glyphosate-resistant populations, as well as implications on the role of various sectors for dealing with this purported tragedy of the commons, are presented. Benghal dayflower, a glyphosate-tolerant species, continues to spread through Georgia and surrounding states, whereas glyphosate susceptibility in Palmer amaranth is endangered in Georgia and other cotton-producing states in the southern United States. Improved understanding of how glyphosate susceptibility in our weed species spectrum was compromised (either through occurrence of herbicide-tolerant or -resistant weed species) may allow us to avoid repeating these mistakes with the next herbicide-resistant technology.
Cotton genetically engineered to be resistant to topical applications of 2,4-D could provide growers with an additional tool for managing difficult-to-control broadleaf species. However, the successful adoption of this technology will be dependent on the ability of growers to manage off-target herbicide movement. Field experiments were conducted in Moultrie, GA, to evaluate cotton injury resulting from the volatilization of 2,4-D when formulated as an ester, an amine, or a choline salt. Each formulation of 2,4-D (2.24 kg ha−1) was applied in mixture with glyphosate (2.24 kg ha−1) directly to the soil surface (10 to 20% crop residue) in individual square blocks (750 m2). Following herbicide applications, replicate sets of four potted cotton plants (five- to seven-leaf stage) were placed at distances ranging from 1.5 to 48 m from the edge of each treatment. Plants were allowed to remain in-field for up to 48 h before being removed. Cotton exposed to 2,4-D ester for 48 h exhibited maximum injury ratings of 63, 57, 48, 29, 13, and 2% at distances of 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m, respectively. Less than 5% injury was noted for the amine and choline formulations at any distance. Plant height was also affected by formulation and distance; plants that were located closest to the ester-treated block were smaller than their more distantly-positioned counterparts. Exposure to the amine and choline formulations did not affect plant heights. Additionally, two plastic tunnels were placed inside of each treated block to concentrate volatiles and maximize the potential for crop injury. Injury ratings of 76, 13, and 5% were noted for cotton exposed to the ester, amine, and choline formulations, respectively when under tunnels for 48 h. Results indicate that the choline formulation of 2,4-D was less volatile and injurious to cotton than the ester under the field conditions in this study.
A greater understanding of the factors that regulate weed seed return to and
persistence in the soil seedbank is needed for the management of
difficult-to-control herbicide-resistant weeds. Studies were conducted in
Tifton, GA to (1) evaluate whether glyphosate resistance, burial depth, and
burial duration affect the longevity of Palmer amaranth seeds and (2)
estimate the potential postdispersal herbivory of seeds. Palmer amaranth
seeds from glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible populations were
buried in nylon bags at four depths ranging from 1 to 40 cm for intervals
ranging between 0 and 36 mo, after which the bags were exhumed and seeds
evaluated for viability. There were no detectable differences in seed
viability between glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible Palmer
amaranth seeds, but there was a significant burial time by burial depth
interaction. Palmer amaranth seed viability for each of the burial depths
declined over time and was described by exponential decay regression models.
Seed viability at the initiation of the study was ≥ 96%; after 6 mo of
burial, viability declined to 65 to 78%. As burial depth increased, so did
Palmer amaranth seed viability. By 36 mo, seed viability ranged from 9%
(1-cm depth) to 22% (40-cm depth). To evaluate potential herbivory, seed
traps with three levels of exclusion were constructed: (1) no exclusion, (2)
rodent exclusion, and (3) rodent and large arthropod exclusion. Each seed
trap contained 100 Palmer amaranth seeds and were deployed for 7 d at
irregular intervals throughout the year, totaling 27 sample times. There
were seasonal differences in seed recovery and differences among type of
seed trap exclusion, but no interactions. Seed recovery was lower in the
summer and early autumn and higher in the late winter and early spring,
which may reflect the seasonal fluctuations in herbivore populations or the
availability of other food sources. Seed recovery was greatest (44%) from
the most restrictive traps, which only allowed access by small arthropods,
such as fire ants. Traps that excluded rodents, but allowed access by small
and large arthropods, had 34% seed recovery. In the nonexclusion traps, only
25% of seed were recovered, with evidence of rodent activity around these
traps. Despite the physically small seed size, Palmer amaranth is targeted
for removal from seed traps by seed herbivores, which could signify a
reduction in the overall seed density. To be successful, Palmer amaranth
management programs will need to reduce soil seedbank population densities.
Future studies need to address factors that enhance the depletion of the
soil seedbank and evaluate how these interact with other weed control
Field experiments were conducted in Georgia in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of S-metolachlor on summer squash fruit yield. Main treatment effects included summer squash cultivar (yellow or zucchini), planting method (seeded or transplanted) and herbicide program (nontreated control, S-metolachlor applied at planting and prior to transplanting [PRE] at 0.5 and 1.0 kg ai/ha, S-metolachlor applied postemergence [POST] 3 wk after planting [WAP] at 0.5 and 1.0 kg/ha, and S-metolachlor applied PRE at 0.5 kg/ha followed by POST at 0.5 kg/ha [PRE fb POST]). Fruit number and weight were measured 12 times during each growing season and the harvests combined into early (harvests 1 to 4), middle (harvests 5 to 8), late (harvests 9 to 12), and cumulative (harvests 1 to 12) yield categories. Mixed-models analyses were used to evaluate the effects of herbicide rate and timing, squash cultivar, and planting method on squash yield for each harvest period. Summer squash cultivar and planting method did not affect squash response to S-metolachlor. Averaged over squash cultivar and planting method, S-metolachlor applied PRE and PRE fb POST reduced fruit number and weight at the early harvest between 35 and 60%, middle harvest between 14 and 30%, and cumulative harvest between 14 and 22%. S-metolachlor applied POST at 0.5 kg/ha did not impact squash yield compared to the nontreated control at any harvest period, whereas 1.0 kg/ha reduced fruit number and weight at the middle harvest 14 and 20%, respectively. We propose that POST applications of S-metolachlor at 0.5 kg/ha or lower can be adopted for use in summer squash production in Georgia.
Mesosulfuron is often applied to wheat at a time of year when top-dress nitrogen is also applied. Current labeling for mesosulfuron cautions against applying nitrogen within 14 d of herbicide application. Soft red winter wheat response to mesosulfuron and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) applied sequentially and in mixtures was determined at three locations in North Carolina and Georgia during 2005 and 2006. Mesosulfuron at 0, 15, and 30 g ai/ha was applied in water to wheat at Feekes growth stage (GS) 3 followed by UAN at 280 L/ha 2 h, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after mesosulfuron. Mesosulfuron applied in UAN was also evaluated in 2006. Mesosulfuron injured wheat 6 to 9% in 2005 and 12 to 23% in 2006 when UAN was applied 2 h or 7 d after the herbicide. Wheat injury did not exceed 8% when UAN was applied 14 or 21 d after the herbicide. Greatest injury, 35 to 40%, was noted when mesosulfuron and UAN were combined. Wheat yield was unaffected by mesosulfuron or time of UAN application in 2005. In 2006, yield was affected by the timing of UAN application relative to mesosulfuron; wheat yield increased as the interval, in days, between UAN and herbicide applications increased. To avoid crop injury and possible yield reduction, mesosulfuron and UAN applications should be separated by at least 7 to 14 d. These findings are consistent with precautions on the mesosulfuron label.