A 30-year study of the estuarine population of yellow eel, Anguilla anguilla, abundance in Bridgwater Bay, Somerset, UK, shows that the population number has collapsed. Since 1980, the decline has averaged 15% per year. The abundance of eel in 2009 is estimated at only 1% of that in 1980. This is one of the greatest systematically quantified crashes of a fish population ever reported. Collections of eels impinged on cooling water filter screens were made monthly at Hinkley Point power station between 1980 and 2010 and from Oldbury power station between 1996 and 1998. Eels are always present in the Severn Estuary, although there are large seasonal variations in abundance. At Oldbury, in the upper estuary, eels are least abundant in January. In contrast, in the outer estuary in Bridgwater Bay, eels are most abundant between November and March. The size-distribution of yellow eels ranged from <200 to >700 mm indicating an age-range since the glass eel stage of 2 to >25 years. The mean size-range has not changed since the 1980s indicating that the population collapse is not caused by a sudden recruitment failure. It is suggested that there has been a continual long-term failure of recruitment to compensate for losses. The reason for this is unidentified, but is unlikely to be changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation or other natural environmental variability. A major effort to improve eel survival to adulthood is required if this species is not to gently fade to extinction. This would likely involve a cessation of elver fishing, a reduction in the volume of estuarine water extracted for power station cooling and other purposes during which eels are entrained and killed, and the removal of obstructions which increase mortality during migration.