To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This experimental study presents a comparison of differently tensile stressed silicon nitride (SiN) layers and their response to irradiation in a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) curing system. Therefore, three types of silicon nitride with initial stress levels of 450 MPa, 700 MPa and 980 MPa were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). In contrast to industrial standard VUV curing with broadband lamps ≥ 220 nm radiation wavelengths, we analyzed the effects of curing with single wavelengths at 172 nm and 222 nm. The samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and wafer bow measurement. It could be shown that high energy photons are able to dehydrogenize SiN films more than lower energetic photons compared with lower Si-N-Si crosslinking effects. Furthermore, we could show that a dual combined 172 nm and 222 nm VUV curing procedure can produce films with very low hydrogen concentration and high percentage of structural units consisting of Si-N-Si bonds. In conclusion of this study, an up to +900 MPa stress increasing process could be established.
In this paper the differences of properties of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric IVBand VB-Group carbides will be discussed. On the base of newer investigations of their physical and chemical properties it seems to be possible to improve material properties by using them instead of stoichiometric ones in some applications.
Part of nuclear fuel cycle waste is highly dangerous, and must be safely isolated from people. Although the site of the final waste disposal must be the main safety barrier, the form of the waste and its properties are also important considerations.
An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400 ± 350 yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial–marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000 yr between the MIS 5e ‘peak’ in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region.
The normal field instability in magnetic liquids is investigated experimentally by means of a radioscopic technique which allows a precise measurement of the surface topography. The dependence of the topography on the magnetic field is compared to results obtained by numerical simulations via the finite-element method. Quantitative agreement has been found for the critical field of the instability, the scaling of the pattern amplitude and the detailed shape of the magnetic spikes. The fundamental Fourier mode approximates the shape to within 10% accuracy for a range of up to 40% of the bifurcation parameter of this subcritical bifurcation. The measured control parameter dependence of the wavenumber differs qualitatively from analytical predictions obtained by minimization of the free energy.
The Aurora programme is the European Space Agency programme of planetary exploration focused primarily on Mars. Although the long-term goals of Aurora are uncertain, the early phases of the Aurora programme are based on a number of robotic explorer missions – the first of these is the ExoMars rover mission currently scheduled for launch in 2013 (originally 2011). The ExoMars rover – developed during a Phase A study – is a 240 kg Mars rover supporting a 40 kg payload (called Pasteur) of scientific instruments specifically designed for astrobiological prospecting to search for evidence of extant or extinct life. In other words, ExoMars represents a new approach to experimental astrobiology in which scientific instruments are robotically deployed at extraterrestrial environments of astrobiological interest. Presented is an outline of the design of the rover, its robotic technology, its instrument complement and aspects of the design decisions made. ExoMars represents a highly challenging mission, both programmatically and technologically. Some comparisons are made with the highly successful Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity.