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Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
Potassium and cerium co-doped Bi4Ti2.86W0.14O12 ceramics with a formula of (K0.5Ce0.5)xBi4−xTi2.86W0.14O12 (abbreviated as KC100x-BITW, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effect of (K0.5Ce0.5) complex doping amount on the structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of the KC100x-BITW ceramics was investigated. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the KC100x-BITW ceramics are Aurivillius-type phase with the bismuth layer structure. (K0.5Ce0.5) complex addition first increases and then decreases the grain size which can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. With the increase of (K0.5Ce0.5) complex doping amount, the Curie temperature (TC) was slightly decreased from 632 to 608 oC. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties were optimized in KC100x-BITW ceramics with x = 0.08 as follows: d33 = 24 pC/N, kp = 8.2%, Qm = 6766, εr = 135 (@100 kHz), tanδ = 0.28% (@100 kHz), Tc = 611 oC, and resistivity ρ = 2.9 × 106 Ω cm at 500 oC, indicating that the KC100x-BITW ceramics are suitable for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing applications.
Fat-soluble vitamins during pregnancy are important for fetal growth and development. The present study aimed at exploring the association between vitamin A, E and D status during pregnancy and birth weight. A total of 19 640 women with singleton deliveries from a retrospective study were included. Data were collected by the hospital electronic information system. Maternal serum vitamin A, E and D concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between the vitamin status and low birth weight (LBW) or macrosomia. Women with excessive vitamin E were more likely to have macrosomia (OR 1·30, 95 % CI 1·07, 1·59) compared with adequate concentration. When focusing on Z scores, there was a positive association between vitamin E and macrosomia in the first (OR 1·07, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·14), second (OR 1·27, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·46) and third (OR 1·28, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·54) trimesters; vitamin A was positively associated with LBW in the first (OR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·29), second (OR 1·31, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·63) and third (OR 2·00, 95 % CI 1·45, 2·74) trimesters and negatively associated with macrosomia in the second (OR 0·79, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·89) and third (OR 0·77, 95 % CI 0·62, 0·95) trimesters. The study identified that high concentrations of vitamin E are associated with macrosomia. Maintaining a moderate concentration of vitamin A during pregnancy might be beneficial to achieve optimal birth weight. Further studies to explore the mechanism of above associations are warranted.
Neuroimaging characteristics have demonstrated disrupted functional organization in schizophrenia (SZ), involving large-scale networks within grey matter (GM). However, previous studies have ignored the role of white matter (WM) in supporting brain function.
Using resting-state functional MRI and graph theoretical approaches, we investigated global topological disruptions of large-scale WM and GM networks in 93 SZ patients and 122 controls. Six global properties [clustering coefficient (Cp), shortest path length (Lp), local efficiency (Eloc), small-worldness (σ), hierarchy (β) and synchronization (S) and three nodal metrics [nodal degree (Knodal), nodal efficiency (Enodal) and nodal betweenness (Bnodal)] were utilized to quantify the topological organization in both WM and GM networks.
At the network level, both WM and GM networks exhibited reductions in Eloc, Cp and S in SZ. The SZ group showed reduced σ and β only for the WM network. Furthermore, the Cp, Eloc and S of the WM network were negatively correlated with negative symptoms in SZ. At the nodal level, the SZ showed nodal disturbances in the corpus callosum, optic radiation, posterior corona radiata and tempo-occipital WM tracts. For GM, the SZ manifested increased nodal centralities in frontoparietal regions and decreased nodal centralities in temporal regions.
These findings provide the first evidence for abnormal global topological properties in SZ from the perspective of a substantial whole brain, including GM and WM. Nodal centralities enhance GM areas, along with a reduction in adjacent WM, suggest that WM functional alterations may be compensated for adjacent GM impairments in SZ.
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA levels on growth performance, tissue fatty acid profiles and relative expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). Ten isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain five n-3 LC-PUFA levels at 7 and 12 % dietary lipid levels. The highest weight gain and specific growth rate were observed in crabs fed the diets with 19·8 and 13·2 mg/g n-3 LC-PUFA at 7 and 12 % lipid, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in hepatopancreas and muscle were significantly influenced by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA at the two lipid levels. The DHA, EPA, n-3 LC-PUFA contents and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in hepatopancreas and muscle significantly increased as dietary n-3 LC-PUFA levels increased at both lipid levels. The expression levels of Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase and acyl-CoA oxidase in hepatopancreas increased significantly, and expression levels of fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and hormone-sensitive TAG lipase were down-regulated, with increased dietary n-3 LC-PUFA regardless of lipid level. Based on weight gain, n-3 LC-PUFA requirements of S. paramamosain were estimated to be 20·1 and 12·7 mg/g of diet at 7 and 12 % dietary lipid, respectively. Overall, dietary lipid level influenced lipid metabolism, and purified, high-lipid diets rich in palmitic acid reduced the n-3 LC-PUFA requirement of juvenile mud crab.
Renal fibrosis is common especially in the elderly population. Recently, we found that vitamin D deficiency caused prostatic hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment. All mice except controls were fed with vitamin D-deficient (VDD) diets, beginning from their early life. The absolute and relative kidney weights on postnatal week 20 were decreased in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in female pups. A mild pathological damage was observed in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in females. Further analysis showed that VDD-induced pathological damage was aggravated, accompanied by renal dysfunction in 40-week-old male pups. An obvious collagen deposition was observed in VDD diet-fed 40-week-old male pups. Moreover, renal α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and Tgf-β mRNA were up-regulated. The in vitro experiment showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 alleviated transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and inhibited TGF-β1-evoked up-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin and α-SMA in renal epithelial HK-2 cells. Moreover, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppressed TGF-β1-evoked Smad2/3 phosphorylation in HK-2 cells. These results provide experimental evidence that long-term vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment, at least partially, through aggravating TGF-β/Smad2/3-mediated EMT in middle-aged male mice.
Parabronema skrjabini is one of the most harmful nematodes to camels and is responsible for economic losses in animal husbandry industry. There is an urgent need for in-depth studies of potential vectors of the nematode due to its scant regarding information. As previous studies indicated that flies may be the vectors of P. skrjabini, we captured flies in the main camel-producing areas of Inner Mongolia. After autopsy of the specimens of two species of horn flies, we observed the morphology of the suspected nematode larvae found in them. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal-DNA gene sequences were considered the best candidate to confirm the species of the larvae found. Our results showed that the homology compared with P. skrjabini was 99.5% in GenBank. Subsequently, we preliminarily identified two species of horn flies through morphological observation and then sequenced the mitochondrial-DNA-gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I obtained from two species of horn flies, with 100 and 99.2% similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank, respectively. Thus, we identified Haematobia titillans and Haematobia irritans and provided evidence for their potential role as vectors of parabronemosis. Our study provides reference for future research on the life history of the nematode and the vectors of parabronemosis.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to over 213 countries and territories. We sought to describe the clinical features of fatalities in patients with severe COVID-19.
We conducted an Internet-based retrospective cohort study through retrieving the clinical information of 100 COVID-19 deaths from nonduplicating incidental reports in Chinese provincial and other governmental websites between January 23 and March 10, 2020.
Approximately 6 of 10 COVID-19 deaths were males (64.0%). The average age was 70.7 ± 13.5 y, and 84% of patients were elderly (over age 60 y). The mean duration from admission to diagnosis was 2.2 ± 3.8 d (median: 1 d). The mean duration from diagnosis to death was 9.9 ± 7.0 d (median: 9 d). Approximately 3 of 4 cases (76.0%) were complicated by 1 or more chronic diseases, including hypertension (41.0%), diabetes (29.0%) and coronary heart disease (27.0%), respiratory disorders (23.0%), and cerebrovascular disease (12.0%). Fever (46.0%), cough (33.0%), and shortness of breath (9.0%) were the most common first symptoms. Multiple organ failure (67.9%), circulatory failure (20.2%), and respiratory failure (11.9%) are the top 3 direct causes of death.
COVID-19 deaths are mainly elderly and patients with chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Multiple organ failure is the most common direct cause of death.
TiAl alloys are potential structural high-temperature structural materials at a service temperature of ~900 °C, while poor ductility at room temperature and high creep rate at the elevated temperature limits the applications. To improve the room-temperature and high-temperature mechanical properties of Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr, Mo and B were introduced into this system and Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–xMo–yB alloys were proposed. And then, we, respectively, studied the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–xMo–0B and Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–1Mo–yB to elucidate the role for the addition of Mo and B. It is found that Mo can increase the fraction of B2 phase in the alloys and the microstructures of the alloys are greatly refined by the addition of B. The compression test results indicate that Mo has a positive influence on the high-temperature compressive properties of TiAl-based alloys, whereas B addition can improve their room-temperature compressive properties of Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr–1Mo–yB alloys; the morphology of borides in each sample should be the structural origin for these phenomena.
Accumulating studies have found structural and functional abnormalities of the striatum in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, changes in intrinsic brain functional connectivity dynamics of striato-cortical circuitry have not been investigated in BD and MDD. This study aimed to investigate the shared and specific patterns of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) variability of striato-cortical circuitry in BD and MDD.
Brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 128 patients with unmedicated BD II (current episode depressed), 140 patients with unmedicated MDD, and 132 healthy controls (HCs). Six pairs of striatum seed regions were selected: the ventral striatum inferior (VSi) and the ventral striatum superior (VSs), the dorsal-caudal putamen (DCP), the dorsal-rostral putamen (DRP), and the dorsal caudate and the ventral-rostral putamen (VRP). The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate dFC for each seed.
Both BD II and MDD exhibited increased dFC variability between the left DRP and the left supplementary motor area, and between the right VRP and the right inferior parietal lobule. The BD II had specific increased dFC variability between the right DCP and the left precentral gyrus compared with MDD and HCs. The MDD had increased dFC variability between the left VSi and the left medial prefrontal cortex compared with BD II and HCs.
The patients with BD and MDD shared common dFC alteration in the dorsal striatal-sensorimotor and ventral striatal-cognitive circuitries. The patients with MDD had specific dFC alteration in the ventral striatal-affective circuitry.
The ferroelectric material of BaTiO3 was introduced in the electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells to improve the photogenerated electron transport. The sintered BaTiO3 thin films were polarized at different applied electric fields, and then TiO2 thin films were further deposited to be used as the ETL. The electric field was positively applied across the BaTiO3 thin film, and the photocurrent density of solar cell can be increased obviously. The results of electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectra indicate that the ordered polarization dipole moment inside the BaTiO3 thin film can accelerate the transport of photogenerated electrons from the ETL to the conducting glass substrate. The short-circuit photocurrent of perovskite solar cell is increased and thus the light-to-electric conversion efficiency is effectively improved to 13%. It is increased by 14% compared with that without the application of the positive electric field across the BaTiO3 thin film.
A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 years in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41–60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study 2011–2013 and 2014–2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e. percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3 years of follow-up (β 0·322 (se 0·157), 0·309 (se 0·142) and 0·303 (se 0·145), respectively; P < 0·05). The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all Ptrend < 0·05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
To investigate homocysteine (Hcy) and folate levels, prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) and folate deficiency, which are affected by lifestyles in urban, agricultural and stock-raising populations.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Urban, agricultural and stock-raising regions in Emin, China.
Totally 1926 subjects – 885 (45·9 %) from urban, 861 (44·7 %) from agricultural and 180 (9·4 %) from stock-raising regions – were obtained using multistage stratified random sampling. Inclusion criteria encompassed inhabitants aged ≥15 years who resided at the current address for ≥6 months and agreed to participate in the study. Surveys on health behaviour questionnaires and physical examinations were conducted and blood samples collected.
The folate level of subjects from the stock-raising region was the lowest, followed by those from the agricultural region, and the highest in those from the urban region (3·48 v. 6·50 v. 7·12 ng/ml, P < 0·001), whereas mean Hcy showed no significant difference across regions. The OR for HHcy in stock-raising regions was 1·90 (95 % CI 1·11, 3·27) compared with the urban region after adjusting for all possible covariates. The OR for folate deficiency in stock-raising and agriculture regions was 11·51 (95 % CI 7·09, 18·67) and 1·91 (95 % CI 1·30, 2·82), respectively, compared with the urban region after adjusting for all possible covariates.
HHcy and folate deficiency are highly prevalent in stock-raisers, which is of important reference for HHcy control in Xinjiang, with a possibility of extension to others with approximate lifestyles.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, Zn bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity and innate immunity in juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain). Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain dietary Zn levels of 44·5, 56·9, 68·5, 97·3, 155·6 or 254·7 mg/kg. Dietary Zn level significantly influenced percentage weight gain (PWG), with the highest observed in crabs fed the diet containing 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Tissue Zn concentrations significantly increased as dietary Zn levels increased from 44·5 to 254·7 mg/kg. Retention of Zn in hepatopancreas increased with dietary Zn levels up to 68·5 mg/kg and then significantly decreased. Moreover, inadequate dietary Zn (44·5 and 56·9 mg/kg) reduced antioxidation markers including total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and total antioxidant level. Crabs fed the diet with 44·5 mg/kg Zn also showed significantly lower expression of genes involved in antioxidant status, such as Cu/Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and thioredoxin than those fed diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. The highest activities of phenoloxidase and alkaline phosphatase were recorded in crabs fed the diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Expression levels of prophenoloxidase and toll-like receptor 2 were higher in crabs fed the 97·3 mg/kg Zn diet compared with crabs fed the other diets. Based on PWG alone, the optimal dietary Zn level was estimated to be 82·9 mg/kg, with 68·5 to 97·3 mg/kg recommended for maintaining optimal Zn bioaccumulation, oxidation resistance and innate immune response of juvenile mud crabs.
Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive as well as mood disturbances.
To evaluate cognitive function and white matter structure, resting-state brain function in first-episode, treatmentnaive patients with MDD.
To explore brain structure and function mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 Han Chinese MDD patients aged 18–45 year and 46 controls were assessed by a series of validated test procedures.Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.White matter abnormalities evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and resting-state brain function was evaluated using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis.
Cognitive impairment in patients with MDD was demonstrated by reduced accuracy in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WSCT) and to a lesser extent the Continuous Performance test (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT). White matter abnormalities found in the left cerebellum, and resting-state abnormalities present in the left inferior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate nucleus and left hippocampal gyrus were associated with impaired performance in the WSCT and CPT tests. We also showed that poor WSCT performance was associated with increased interconnectivity between the left ventral anterior cingulate nucleus and the medial frontal lobe areas.
The present study indicates cognitive disturbances in patients with MDD are associated with white matter and resting-state changes and altered interconnections in specific brain areas.
Post-cardiac surgery patients exhibit a higher incidence of postoperative delirium (PD) compared to non-cardiac surgery patients. Patients with various cardiac diseases suffer from preoperative sleep disorder (SPD) induced by anxiety, depression, breathing disorder, or other factors.
To examine the effect of sleep disorder on delirium in post-cardiac surgery patients.
We prospectively selected 186 patients undergoing selective cardiac valve surgery. Preoperative sleep quality and cognitive function of all eligible participants were assessed through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, respectively. The Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit was used to assess PD from the first to seventh day postoperatively. Patients were divided into two groups according to the PD diagnosis: (1) No PD group and (2) the PD group.
Of 186 eligible patients, 29 (15.6%) were diagnosed with PD. A univariate analysis showed that gender (p = 0.040), age (p = 0.009), SPD (p = 0.008), intraoperative infusion volume (p = 0.034), postoperative intubation time (p = 0.001), and intensive care unit stay time (p = 0.009) were associated with PD. A multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age (odds ratio (OR): 1.106; p = 0.001) and SPD (OR: 3.223; p = 0.047) were independently associated with PD. A receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that preoperative PSQI was predictive of PD (area under curve: 0.706; 95% confidence interval: 0.595–0.816). A binomial logistic regression analysis showed that there was a significant association between preoperative 6 and 21 PSQI scores and PD incidence (p = 0.009).
Preoperative SPD was significantly associated with PD and a main predictor of PD.
Here, we explored the influences of dietary inulin (INU) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal health in a porcine model. Thirty-two male weaned pigs (with an average body weight of 7·10 (sd 0·20) kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments and fed with a basal diet (BD) or BD containing 2·5, 5·0 and 10·0 g/kg INU. After a 21-d trial, pigs were killed for collection of serum and intestinal tissues. We show that INU supplementation had no significant influence on the growth performance in weaned pigs. INU significantly elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration but decreased diamine oxidase concentration (P < 0·05). Interestingly, 2·5 and 5·0 g/kg INU supplementation significantly elevated the villus height in jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05). Moreover, 2·5 and 5·0 g/kg INU supplementation also elevated the villus height to crypt depth (V:C) in the duodenum and ileum and improved the distribution and abundance of tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 in duodenum and ileum epithelium. INU supplementation at 10·0 g/kg significantly elevated the sucrase activity in the ileum mucosa (P < 0·05). INU supplementation decreased the expression level of TNF-α but elevated the expression level of GLUT 2 and divalent metal transporter 1 in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0·05). Moreover, INU increased acetic and butyric acid concentrations in caecum (P < 0·05). Importantly, INU elevated the Lactobacillus population but decreased the Escherichia coli population in the caecum (P < 0·05). These results not only indicate a beneficial effect of INU on growth performance and intestinal barrier functions but also offer potential mechanisms behind the dietary fibre-regulated intestinal health.