Foraminifera and molluscs from the 90 m deep ENEA borehole (Versilian plain, central Italy) were studied for paleoenvironmental purposes. Palaeontological analyses, integrated with U/Th and radiocarbon data, helped to recognize late Quaternary sea-level changes and supplied results on tectonic mobility of the area. The study highlighted four sedimentary phases. The first phase consists of a shore environment attributed to MIS 7.1. A hiatus corresponding to MIS 6 is hypothesized at the top of this interval. Recognition of the paleo-shoreline of MIS 7.1 at − 72.8 m signifies a vertical displacement due to the extensional tectonics of the Apennine orogenesis. The second phase consists of a transgressive succession with evidence of warm temperatures, which was interpreted as part of the transgression leading to the MIS 5.5 highstand. The third phase includes sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits. Radiocarbon dates and palaeoecological reconstruction led us to attribute this interval to MIS 4, MIS 3 and MIS 2. The fourth phase begins with a lagoon environment attributable to Holocene sea-level rise and ends with marsh episodes, signifying the progradation of the alluvial plain. This reconstruction confirms the hypothesis of tectonic stability for the Versilian area during the Holocene.